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11. DIFFERENTIATION
Synopsis :
Let f be a function defined in a neighbourhood of a real number a. Then f is said to be differentiable or f ( x ) − f (a ) exists. The limit is called the derivative or differential coefficient of f at a. It is derivable at a if Lt x →a x−a denoted by fI(a). f ( a + h) − f ( a ) . 2. If f is differentiable at a, then fI(a) = Lt h →0 h 3. Let f be a function defined on a neighbourhood of a real number a. Then f is said to be right differentiable at f ( x ) − f (a ) exists. The limit is called the right derivative of f at a. It is denoted by fI(a + ). a if Lt + x−a x →a f ( x ) − f (a ) 4. Similarly the left derivative of a function f at a is defined as fI(a−) = Lt − . x−a x →a 5. Let f be a function defined on [a, b]. Then f is said to be differentiable on [a, b] if i) f is differentiable at c where c ∈ (a, b) ii) f is right differentiable at a iii) f is left differentiable at b. 6. If a function f is differentiable at a, then f is continuous at a. d 7. If c is a constant then {c } = 0. dx d 8. {x} = 1. dx d n 9. { x } = nx n −1 . dx 1 d 10. { x} = . dx 2 x 1.

f(x) c∈R x x n; n ∈ N x n; n ∈ R ex a x, a ∈ R + logx |x| log|x| xx sinx cosx tanx cotx secx 0 1 nxn−1 nxn−1 ex axloga 1/x

fI(x)

|x|/x, x≠0 1/x xx(1 + logx) cosx −sinx sec2x −cosec2x secxtanx 1

Derivatives cosecx Sin x Cos–1 x Tan–1 x Cot–1 x Sec–1 x Cosec–1 x Sinhx Coshx Tanhx Cothx Sechx Cosechx Sinh x Cosh–1 x Tanh–1 x Coth–1 x Sech–1 x Cosech–1 x
–1 –1

−cosecxcotx
1 1 − x2
−1 1− x 2

1 1+ x 2 −1 1+ x 2

1 | x | x2 − 1 −1 | x | x2 −1

coshx sinhx sech2x −cosech2x −sechxtanhx −cosechxcothx
1 1+ x 2

1 x2 −1 1 1− x 2
1 1− x 2

(|x|<1) (|x|>1)

−1 | x | 1− x 2
−1 | x | x2 + 1

11. 12.

⎤ ⎡ d f I (x) f ( x ) g( x ) = f ( x ) g( x ) ⎢g( x ) + gI ( x ) log f ( x )⎥ dx f (x) ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ d f ( x ) f ( x ) = f ( x ) f ( x ) [1 + log f ( x )]f I ( x ) dx
dy y 2 f I (x) y 2 f I ( x) = = dx f ( x )[1 − y log f ( x )] f ( x )[1 − log y ]

{

}

{

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y 13. If y = f(x) , then

2

Derivatives
14. If y =
f ( x ) + y , then
dy f I (x) . = dx 2y − 1

15. If y = f(x) +

dy y 2 f I ( x ) 1 , then = 2 y dx y +1 dy ∂f ∂f =− / . dx ∂x ∂y

16. If f(x, y) = c is an implicit function, then

17. If f(x + y) = f(x)f(y), ∀ x,y ∈ R and f(x) ≠ 0, f(a) = k, fI(0) exists, then fI(a) = kfI(0). dy 18. If y = f ( x ) f ( x ) f ( x ).... , then = f I (x) . dx dy y m n m+n , then 19. If x y = (x + y) = . dx x

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