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16. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
Synopsis :
1. The partial derivative of f(x,y) with respect to x is the derivative of f(x, y) with respect to x by treating y as constant. Also the partial derivative of f(x, y) with respect to y is the derivative of f(x, y) with respect to y by treating x as constant. 2. If v = g(u), u = f(x, y) then (i)
∂v dv ∂u ∂v dv ∂u = ⋅ . (ii) = ⋅ . ∂x du ∂x ∂y du ∂y
∂f ∂f dx + dy is called ∂x ∂y

3. If u = f(x, y) then

total differential of u = f(x, y). It is denoted by du or df. is called total differential coefficient of

4. If u = f(x, y), x = g1(t), y = g2(t) then u = f(x, y) with respect to t.

∂f ∂f dx ∂f dy = ⋅ + ⋅ dt ∂x dt ∂y dt

5. If f(x, y) = c, where c is a constant then 6. If the partial derivatives
∂u ∂u of u , ∂x ∂y

df ∂f ∂f . =− / dx ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂u are , ∂x ∂y

= f(x, y) exist then

also functions of two variables. If

the partial derivatives of

∂u ∂u exists , ∂x ∂y

then they are called second order partial derivatives of

u = f(x, y) and these are denoted by (i) (ii) (iii)
∂ ⎧ ∂u ⎫ ∂ 2u = fx, x = fxx ⎨ ⎬= ∂x ⎩ ∂x ⎭ ∂x 2 ∂ ∂y ∂ 2u ⎧ ∂u ⎫ = fy, x = fyx ⎨ ⎬= ⎩ ∂x ⎭ ∂y ∂x

∂ ∂x ∂ ∂y

⎧ ∂u ⎫ ∂ 2u = fx, y = fxy ⎨ ⎬= ⎩ ∂y ⎭ ∂x∂y ⎧ ∂u ⎫ ∂ 2u ⎨ ⎬ = 2 = fy, y = fyy ⎩ ∂y ⎭ ∂y

(iv)

7. If u = f(x, y) is continuous on its domain then fxy = fyx. 8. If f(x, y) = c where c is a constant then
2 2 ⎛ fxy fy − 2fxy fx fy + 2fxy fx ⎞ ⎟ = −⎜ 3 ⎜ ⎟ dx 2 fy ⎝ ⎠

d2 y

9. A function u = f(x, y) is said to be a homogeneous function of degree or order n in x, y if f(kx, ky) = knf(x, y). 1

Partial Differentiation
y 10. If u = f(x, y) is a homogeneous function of degree n then u = xng ⎛ ⎞ , where g is a function of y/x. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝x⎠

x 11. If u = f(x, y) is a homogeneous function of degree n then u = ynh ⎜ ⎟ , where h is a function of x/y. ⎜ ⎟

⎛ ⎞ ⎝y⎠

12. Euler’s Theorem: If u = f(x, y) is homogeneous function of degree n in x, y then x 13. If u = f(x, y, z) is a homogeneous function of degree n then x

∂u ∂u +y = nu. ∂x ∂y

∂u ∂u ∂u = nu. +y +z ∂x ∂y ∂z

14. If u = f(x1, x2, ...., xr) is a homogeneous function of degree n then x1 15. If u = f(x, y) is a homogeneous function of degree n then i) x
∂ 2u ∂x 2 +y ∂ 2u ∂u = (n − 1) ∂x ∂y ∂x

∂u ∂u ∂u + x2 + .......xr = nu. ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂xr

ii) x

∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂u + y 2 = (n − 1) ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y
∂ 2u ∂x 2 + 2xy ∂ 2u ∂ 2u + y 2 2 = n(n − 1)u. ∂x ∂y ∂y

iii) x 2

2