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1. Let O be a fixed point in a plane and OX be a fixed ray in the plane. The fixed point O is called pole and the fixed ray OX is called initial line or polar axis. Let P be a point in the plane such that OP= r, If ∠Pox = θ then r, θ are called polar coordinates of P. The point P is denoted by (r, θ). The nonnegative real number r is called radial distance, the vector r = OP is called radius vector and the angle θ is called vectorial angle of the point P. Let P(x, y) be a point in the cartesian coordinate plane. Take the origin O as pole and the positive direction of x-axis as polar axis (initial line). Let (r, θ) be the polar coordinates of P. Then r = OP = x 2 + y 2 , cosθ = 3. 4. 5.

x r

2.

, sin θ =

y . r

**Thus x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ.
**

x r

Conversion of Cartesian coordinates into polar coordinates is r = x 2 + y 2 , cosθ =

, sin θ =

y . r

Conversion of polar coordinates into Cartesian coordinates is x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ. Let r, θ ∈ R and r > 0, 0 ≤ θ < 2π. Then i) (r, θ) = (r, 2nπ + θ) ii) (–r, θ) = (r, π + θ).

6. 7. 8. 9.

**The polar coordinates of the origin are (0, θ) where θ ∈ R.
**

2 The distance between the points (r1, θ1), (r2, θ2) is r12 + r2 − 2r1r2 cos(θ1 − θ 2 ) .

The area of the triangle formed by the points (r1, θ1), (r2, θ2) (r3, θ3) is The points (r1, θ1), (r2, θ2) (r3, θ3) are collinear ⇔ Σr1r2 sin(θ1 − θ 2 ) = 0.

1 | Σr1r2 sin(θ1 − θ 2 ) | . 2

10. If f(x, y) = 0 is the Cartesian equation of a locus S then f(r cos θ, r sin θ) = 0 is the polar equation of S. 11. The polar equation of a line passing through pole and making an angle α with the initial line is θ = α. 12. The polar equation of a line passing through the points (r1, θ1), (r2, θ2) is r[r1 sin (θ – θ1) – r2 sin(θ – θ2) = r1r2 sin (θ2 – θ1). 13. The polar equation of a line passing through the pole and the point (r1, θ1) is θ = θ1. 14. The polar equation of a line which is at a distance of p from the pole and whose normal makes an angle α with the initial line is r cos (θ – α) = p. 15. The polar equation of a line parallel to the initial line is r sin θ = p.

Polar Coordinates 16. The polar equation of a line perpendicular to the initial line is r cos θ = P. 17. r cos (θ – α) = P ⇒ x cos α + y sin α = p (perpendicular form in Cartesian system) 18. The polar form of the line ax + by + c = 0 is a cos θ + b sin θ = k/r where k = –c. 19. The equation a cos θ + b sinθ = k/r of a line is called general polar equation of a line. 20. The polar equation of a line parallel to the line a cos θ + b sinθ = k/r is a cos θ + b sinθ = k1/r. 21. The polar equation of a line perpendicular to the line a cos θ + b sinθ = k/r is

⎞ k ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π a cos⎜ + θ ⎟ + b sin⎜ + θ ⎟ = 1 . r ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2

22. The polar equation of a line perpendicular to the line r cos (θ – α) = p is r sin (θ – α) = p1. 23. The polar equation of the circle of radius a and having centre at the pole is r = a. 24. The polar equation of the circle of radius a and the centre at (c, α) is r2 – 2cr cos (θ – α) = a2 – c2. 25. The polar equation of the circle of radius ‘a’ and passing through the pole is r = 2a cos (θ – α), where α is vertical angle of centre. 26. The polar equation of the circle of radius ‘a’ and touching the initial line at the pole is r = 2a sin θ. 27. The polar equation of a conic in the standard form is 28. The polar equation of a parabola is

l = 1 + e cos θ . r

l l θ = 1 + cos θ ⇒ = 2 cos 2 . r r 2

θ 2

29. The polar equation of a parabola having latus rectum 4a is a = r cos 2

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