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1. Let f(x) be a function defined on [a, b]. If

∫ f ( x) dx = F(x), then F(b) – F(a) is called the definite integral of f(x) over [a, b]. It is denoted by ∫ f ( x )dx . The real number a is called the lower limit

b a

and the real number b is called the upper limit. 2.

∫

f ( x ) dx =

F(x) + c ⇒ ∫ f ( x ) dx = F(x)]b =F(b) – F(a) a

a

b

3. 4.

∫

a

b

b

f ( x ) dx = f ( t ) dt .

a

∫

b

If f(x) is an integrable function on [a, b] and g(x) is derivable on [a, b] then

∫ (fog)( x) g' ( x)dx = ∫ f ( x)dx .

a g( a )

g(b )

5.

∫

a

b

f ( x ) dx = − f ( x ) dx .

b b c b

∫

a

6.

If a < c < b, then ∫ f ( x ) dx = ∫ f ( x ) dx + ∫ f ( x ) dx .

a a c

7.

∫

0

a

f ( x ) dx = f (a − x ) dx .

0 b

∫ ∫

a

a

8.

∫

a a

b

f ( x ) dx = f (a + b − x ) dx .

a

9.

−a

∫

f ( x ) dx = 2 f ( x ) dx,

0

∫

a

if f(x) is an even function;

= 0, if f(x) is an odd function.

2a

10.

∫

0

f ( x ) dx = 2 f ( x ) dx ,

0 a/2

∫

if f(2a – x) = f(x).= 0 if f(2a – x) = –f(x)

11.

∫

0

a

f ( x ) dx = 2

∫ f ( x) dx

0

, if f(a – x) = f(x)= 0, if f(a – x) = –f(x)

na

**12. If f(x) is a periodic function with period ‘a’ then
**

π/2

∫

0

f ( x ) dx = n f ( x ) dx .

0

∫

a

13.

∫

0

f (sin x ) dx = f (sin x ) + f (cos x ) f (tan x ) dx = f (tan x ) + f (cot x )

π/2

∫

0

f (cos x ) π dx = f (sin x ) + f (cos x ) 4

.

π/2

14.

∫

0

π/2

∫

0

π f (cot x ) dx = . f (tan x ) + f (cot x ) 4

Definite Integration

π/2

15.

∫

0

**f (sec x ) dx = f (sec x ) + f (cos ecx )
**

π/2

π/2

∫

0

π f (cos ecx ) dx = f (sec x ) + f (cos ecx ) 4

.

16. If In =

π/2

∫ sin

0

n

x dx

then In =

n −1 In–2. n

∴ ∫ sinn x dx =

0

n −1 n − 3 n − 5 1 π .... ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ n n−2 n−4 2 2 n −1 In–2. n

if n is even =

n −1 n − 3 n − 5 2 .... .1 if n is odd . . n n−2 n−4 3

**17. If In = ∫ cos n x dx then In =
**

0

π/2

π/2

18.

∫

0

π/2

sinn x dx =

π/4

∫ cos

0

n

x dx

19. If In =

∫ tan

0

n

x dx

then In + In–2 =

1 1 1 1 1 and hence In = − − + ...... I0 n −1 n −1 n − 3 n − 5 n − 7

or I1

**according as n is even or odd. Here I0 =
**

π/4

π , I1 4

=

1 log 2 . 2

20. If In =

∫

0

sec n x dx then In

=

( 2 )n − 2 n − 2 In–2. + n −1 n −1

π/2

21. If Im,n = ∴Ιm, n= =

∫ sin

0

m

x cos n x dx then Im,n

=

m −1 Im–2,n. m+n

(m − n) (m − 3) (m − 5) 1 . . .... . , if n is odd (m + n) (m + n − 2) (m + n − 4) n + 1

1/ 2

(m − n) (m − 3) (m − 5) . . .... cos n x. , if n is even (m + n) (m + n − 2) (m + n − 4)

∫

0

π/2

22. If Im,n =

∫ sin

0

m

x cos n x dx then Im,n

∞

=

n −1 Im,n–2. m+n

23. i)

∫

0

a

1 a2 − x2

π dx = ; ii) 2

∫

0

π iii) dx = 2 2 2a x +a

1

∫

0

a

a 2 − x 2 dx =

πa 2 4

24.

⎧0, if m, n are different i) sin mx sin nx dx = ⎪ positive integers ⎨ ⎪π/2, if m = n 0 ⎩

∫

π

⎧0, if m, n are different ii) cos mx cos nx dx = ⎪ positive integers ⎨ ⎪π/2, if m = n 0 ⎩

∫

π

**iii) ∫ sin mx cos nx dx = ⎪ 2m ⎨
**

0

π

⎧0, if m ≠ n and m + n is odd , if m = n ⎪ 2 ⎩m + n2

**Definite Integration 25. i) ∫ e −ax cos bx dx =
**

0

π/2 π/2 ∞

a a +b

2 2

ii) ∫ e − ax sin bx dx =

0

∞

b a2 + b2

26.

**∫ log sin x dx = ∫ log cos x dx = − 2 log 2 .
**

0 0

π/2

π

27. In =

∫ sin

0

π/2

π/2

n

x dx =

∫ cos

0

n

x dx If n is even then In =

n −1 n − 3 n − 5 1 π . . .... . n n−2 n−4 2 2

If n is odd, then In = 28. Im,n =

n −1 n − 3 n − 5 2 . . .... .1 n n−2 n−4 3

m −1 m − 3 2 1 . ... . m +n m +n − 2 n + 3 n +1

∫ sin

0

m

x cosn x dx , If m is odd, then Im,n=

If n is odd, then Im,n=

n −1 n−3 2 1 . ... . m +n m + n − 2 m + 3 m +1

m −1 m − 3 1 n −1 1 π . ... . ... . m+n m+n−2 n+2 n 2 2

**If m is even and n is even then Im,n =
**

π/4

.

29.

∫ [tan

0

n

x + tann − 2 x ] dx =

1 n −1 1 n −1 2 a −b

2 2

π/2

30.

π/4

∫ [cot

n

x + cot n − 2 x ] dx =

π/2

31. If a > b > 0, then

∫

0 0

dx = a + b cos x dx = a + b cos x dx = a + b sin x dx = a + b sin x

tan −1

a−b a+b b+a + b−a b+a − b−a a−b a+b b+a + b−a b+a − b−a

π/2

32. If 0 < a < b, then

∫

1 b −a

2 2

log

π/2

33. If a > b > 0, then

∫

0

2 a −b

2 2

tan −1

π/2

34. If 0 < a < b, then

∫

0

1 b2 − a2

log

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