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CENTRE OF MASS

Synopsis :

1.

Every particle is attracted towards the centre of the earth by the force of gravity and the centre of gravity of a body is the point where the resultant force of attraction of the weight of the body acts.

2.

Centre of mass : If a system of parallel forces proportional to the masses of the various particles of a body are assumed to act on it, their resultant passes through a fixed point, irrespective of the direction of the parallel forces and that point is called centre of mass.

3.

In a uniform gravitational field, the centre of mass of the body and the centre of gravity coincide with each other.

4.

For small bodies (compared to the size of the earth) the centre of gravity and the centre of mass coincide.

5.

If two particles of masses m1 and m2 are at distances x1 and x2 from the origin and xcm is the position of the centre of mass of the system, then

x cm = m 1x 1 + m 2 x 2 m1 + m 2

6.

For a system of two bodies of masses m1 and m2 separated by a distance d. a) Centre of mass lies on the line joining the centers of mass of two bodies. b) Distances of center of mass from first body r1 =

m 2r m1 + m 2

. .

**c) Distances of center of mass from second body r2 = d) Centre of mass lies nearer to heavy mass.
**

7.

m1r m1 + m 2

If the position coordinates of particles of masses m1, m1, m1... are (x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3,y3)...The mass of the system is M. The position coordinates of the centre of mass are (x,y).

x= m1x 1 + m 2 x 2 + m 3 x 3 ... m1 + m 2 + m 3 + .... m1y 1 + m 2 y 2 + m 3 y 3 ... m1 + m 2 + m 3 + ...

= =

m1x 1 + m 2 x 2 + ... M m1y 1 + m 2 y 2 + ... M

y=

8.

2 2 The distance of centre of mass from the origin is x + y .

9.

If the two masses are equal, the centre of mass lies midway between the particles.

10. When a large number of particles are distributed in space, the centre of mass of the system is

given by the coordinates. 94 Powered by www.myengg.com

**Powered by www.myengg.com Centre of mass
**

∑ mi x i

n

x cm = i =1 n ∑ mi

i =1

; y cm = i =1 n ∑ mi

i =1

∑ mi y i

n

; z cm = i =1 n ∑ mi

i =1

∑ mi z i

n

11. a) The position of center of mass depends on the shape of the body and distribution of mass

b) In symmetrical bodies in which distribution of mass is homogeneous. Centre of mass coincides with geometrical center. c) Centre of mass of regular bodies. 1) Uniform rod : middle point of the rod 2) Cubical box: Point of intersection of diagonals 3) Circular ring : centre of the ring 4) circular disc : centre of the disc 5) Sphere : centre of the sphere

12. In vector notation, each particle of the system can be described by a position vector r and the

**centre of mass can be located by the position vector rcm .
**

rcm = ∑ m i ri ˆ where ri = ˆx i + ˆ y i + kz i i j ∑ mi

ˆ rcm = ˆx cm + ˆ y cm + kz cm i j

( v cm ) = ∑ mV Total momentum = Total mass ∑m

13. Velocity of the centre of mass

14. If two particles masses m1 and m2 are moving with velocities v1 and v 2 at right angles to each

**other, then the velocity of their centre of mass is given by
**

2 2 m1 v 1 + m 2 v 2 2 2

Vcm =

(m1 + m 2 )

15. The velocity of centre of mass of an isolated system remains constant as long as no external

**force acts on the system. Its acceleration is zero.
**

16. The momentum of centre of mass of the system is equal to the sum of individual momenta of n

**particles of the system.
**

17. If an external force is acting on the system of particles, centre of mass behaves as if total force

**is acting only at that point.
**

18. The centre of mass of the system is static under the action of internal forces. 19. When a body rotates, vibrates or moves linearly, the centre of mass moves in the same way as a

single particle subjected to the same force. 95 Powered by www.myengg.com

**Powered by www.myengg.com Centre of mass
**

∑ Fext 20. Acceleration of the centre of mass = ∑ m . 21. Characteristics of centre of mass : i. The position of centre of mass depends upon the shape of the body and the distribution of mass.

ii. If the origin is at the centre of mass, then sum of moments of mass (Σmixi) of the system about the centre of mass is zero. iii. Centre of mass may be within the body or on or outside the material of the body. iv. It is not necessary that mass should be present at centre of mass. In the case of uniform ring, centre of mass is outside the material where no mass is present. v. The location of the centre of mass is independent of the reference frame used to locate it. vi. The centre of mass of a system of particles depends only on the masses of the particles and their relative positions.

22. Laws of motion of the centre of mass :

i. The centre of mass of a system of particles moves as though total mass of the system is concentrated at a point and external forces were applied at that point. ii. The motion of the centre of mass of the body is called the translational motion of the body. iii. The internal forces will not effect the motion of the centre of mass. iv. If no external force acts on a system, the acceleration of centre of mass is zero, the velocity and momentum of the centre of mass remains constant, though velocity and momentum of individual particles vary. v. The motion of the centre of mass can be studied using Newton's laws of motion.

96 Powered by www.myengg.com

Powered by www.myengg.com Centre of mass

23. When two solid spheres of same materials but with radii r1 and r2 are

m1 r1 C1 x C r1+r2

m2 r2 C2

kept in contact, the center of mass of the system is at a distance of x from the center of bigger sphere, where

r2 3 (r1 + r2 )

3 3 x = r1 + r2 .

24. When a portion of m2 is removed from a body of mass m1 then shift in the position of center of

mass =

⎡ distance between cm of the ⎤ ⎢ body and removed part ⎥ × mass of removed part ⎣ ⎦ mass of remaining part

25. When two circular discs of same material and thickness and radii r1 and r2 are kept in contact,

**then the center of mass of the system is at a distance of x from the center of first (large) disc of
**

r2 2 (r1 + r2 )

2 2 mass m1 where x= r1 + r2 .

m1 x C1 C m2 C2

26. A circular portion of radius r2 is removed from a circular disc of radius r1

**from one edge. Then the shift in the center of mass of the disc is x
**

r2 2 r1 + r2

=

.

27. From a circular disc of radius r, a circle of diameter r is removed. The shift in the center of mass

**of the remainder is x=r/6.
**

28. When as sphere of radius r2 is removed from a solid sphere of radius r1 from its edge, then the

r2 3 (r1 − r2 )

3 3 shift in its centre of mass is x = (r1 − r2 ) .

29. When a person walks on a boat in still water, centre of mass of person, boat system is not

displaced.

a)

If the man walks a distance L on the boat, the boat is displaced in the opposite direction relative to shore or water by a distance x =

mL M+m

.

b)

Distance walked by the mass relative to shore or water is (L – x).

30. Two masses starting from rest move under mutual force of attraction towards each other, they

meet at their centre of mass. a) In the above case Vcm and acm = 0 b) If the two particles are m1 and m2 and their velocities are v1 and v2, then m1v1 = – m1v2 97 Powered by www.myengg.com

Powered by www.myengg.com Centre of mass c) If the two particles have accelerations a1 and a2. m1a1 = – m2a2 d) If s1 and s2 are the distances traveled before they meet m1s1 = m2s2

98 Powered by www.myengg.com

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