Speed control dc shunt

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Speed control dc shunt

© All Rights Reserved

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EX.NO:-____________

DATE:-_____________

___________________________________________________________________________

AIM

To perform the speed control of a d.c. shunt motor by

(i)

Below the normal range by armature resistance control and to plot the Speed Vs

armature voltage ( N / Va ) characteristics.

(ii)

Above the normal range by field control and to plot Speed Vs field current

( N / If ) characteristics.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.NO

NAME

Ammeter

Voltmeter

Rheostat

Tachometer

TYPE

THEORY

The speed of a dc motor is given by the relation

N = KEb / where Eb = V-Ia Ra

Therefore

N = K (V-Ia Ra) /

Where

Ra

RANGE

No.Qty

Ia

Eb

Page - 1

DC SHUNT MOTOR

(+)

220 V

D.C.

SUPPLY

FUSE

F1

D

P

S

T

S

F1

F2

A

(-)

NAME PLATE DETAILS

FUSE

Fig -1

A1

A2

From the above equations it is clear that the speed of dc motors can be controlled by the

following methods.

1. By varying the flux per pole ( ). This is known as flux or field control method.

2. By varying the armature drops i.e. by varying the resistance of the armature circuit.

This is known as armature control method.

3. By varying the applied voltage. This is known as voltage control method.

Field Control Method

The flux produced by the shunt winding depends on the current through it [i.e. Ish

and Ish = V / Rsh]. When a variable resistance R is connected in series with the shunt field

winding as shown in the Fig - 2, the shunt field current [ Ish = V / ( Rsh + R ) ]is reduced and

hence the flux is also reduced. So the motor runs at a speed higher than normal speed ( since N

1 / ). The amount of increase in speed depends upon the value of the variable resistance R.

This is valid only in the linear portion of If Vs flux curve and not in the saturation region.

Ia

A1

A2

IL

If

R

F1

Rsh

Voltage

DC SUPPLY

F2

Fig -2

This method is most commercial as very little power is wasted in the shunt field variable

resistance due to small field current. The main disadvantage is that only speeds above the

normal speed can be obtained.

TABULAR COLUMN

Armature control

If1 =

Armature

Speed

If2 =

Armature

Speed

Voltage (V)

(Rpm)

Voltage (V)

(Rpm)

Field Control

Va1 =

Va2 =

Speed

If (A)

N (Rpm)

Speed

If (A)

N (Rpm)

In this method speed control is done for constant field currents. This method is

used when speed below the no load speed are required. As the supply voltage is normally

constant, the voltage across the armature is varied by inserting a variable rheostat or

resistance in series with the armature circuit. As the variable resistance is increased,

potential drop across the armature is decreased thereby decreasing the armature speed. The

maximum speed that can be obtained for a given field current occurs when there is no series

resistance in the armature circuit, thus giving

Page - the

3 armature the maximum voltage without

any series drop. Lower speeds may be obtained by introducing armature resistance in series.

IL

Ia

R

A1

F1

If

Rsh

A2

.

Voltage

DC

SUPPLY

F2

Fig -3

PRECAUTIONS

Before starting the experiment

1. The DC power supply should be in off position while making connections.

2. The field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position and armature

rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.

3. There should not be any load on the motor throughout the experiment.

PROCEDURE

Armature Control & Field Control Method

1.

2.

After observing the precautions, the motor is started by switching on the DC power

supply. The motor will start running at a low speed.

3.

Cut out the external resistance in armature circuit and adjust the field current, so

that the speed of the motor becomes rated speed.

4.

The field current is kept constant to the above value. Vary the voltage applied to the

armature by varying the external resistance in the armature circuit. Record the

applied voltage and the corresponding speed.

5.

Repeat step 4 for various values of applied voltage to the armature, till the rated

voltage of the motor.

6.

Keep the applied voltage to the armature constant at its rated value. Vary the

speed of the motor by inserting external resistance in the field circuit. Record the

field current and the corresponding speed of the motor.

MODEL GRAPH

Armature control

rpm

If1

N

If2

Va

Fig -4

7. Repeat step 6 for various values of field current, till the speed of the motor is about

1.4 times the rated speed of the motor.

8.

Field control

N

rpm

V1a

V2a

If

Fig -5

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