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SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

EX.NO:-____________

DATE:-_____________

___________________________________________________________________________
AIM
To perform the speed control of a d.c. shunt motor by
(i)

Below the normal range by armature resistance control and to plot the Speed Vs
armature voltage ( N / Va ) characteristics.

(ii)

Above the normal range by field control and to plot Speed Vs field current
( N / If ) characteristics.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.NO

NAME

Ammeter

Voltmeter

Rheostat

Tachometer

TYPE

THEORY
The speed of a dc motor is given by the relation
N = KEb / where Eb = V-Ia Ra
Therefore

N = K (V-Ia Ra) /
Where
Ra

is the armature resistance

RANGE

No.Qty

Ia

is the armature current

is the flux and

Eb

is the back emf.

is the supply voltage

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR


Page - 1

DC SHUNT MOTOR

(+)

220 V
D.C.
SUPPLY

FUSE

F1

D
P
S
T
S

F1

F2

A
(-)
NAME PLATE DETAILS

FUSE

Fig -1

A1

A2

From the above equations it is clear that the speed of dc motors can be controlled by the
following methods.
1. By varying the flux per pole ( ). This is known as flux or field control method.
2. By varying the armature drops i.e. by varying the resistance of the armature circuit.
This is known as armature control method.
3. By varying the applied voltage. This is known as voltage control method.
Field Control Method
The flux produced by the shunt winding depends on the current through it [i.e. Ish
and Ish = V / Rsh]. When a variable resistance R is connected in series with the shunt field
winding as shown in the Fig - 2, the shunt field current [ Ish = V / ( Rsh + R ) ]is reduced and
hence the flux is also reduced. So the motor runs at a speed higher than normal speed ( since N
1 / ). The amount of increase in speed depends upon the value of the variable resistance R.
This is valid only in the linear portion of If Vs flux curve and not in the saturation region.

Ia
A1

A2

IL

If
R
F1
Rsh

Voltage
DC SUPPLY

F2
Fig -2
This method is most commercial as very little power is wasted in the shunt field variable
resistance due to small field current. The main disadvantage is that only speeds above the
normal speed can be obtained.

TABULAR COLUMN
Armature control
If1 =
Armature

Speed

If2 =
Armature

Speed

Voltage (V)

(Rpm)

Voltage (V)

(Rpm)

Field Control
Va1 =

Va2 =
Speed

If (A)

N (Rpm)

Speed
If (A)

N (Rpm)

Armature Control Method


In this method speed control is done for constant field currents. This method is
used when speed below the no load speed are required. As the supply voltage is normally
constant, the voltage across the armature is varied by inserting a variable rheostat or
resistance in series with the armature circuit. As the variable resistance is increased,
potential drop across the armature is decreased thereby decreasing the armature speed. The
maximum speed that can be obtained for a given field current occurs when there is no series
resistance in the armature circuit, thus giving
Page - the
3 armature the maximum voltage without
any series drop. Lower speeds may be obtained by introducing armature resistance in series.
IL
Ia
R
A1

F1

If

Rsh

A2
.

Voltage
DC
SUPPLY

F2

Fig -3

PRECAUTIONS
Before starting the experiment
1. The DC power supply should be in off position while making connections.
2. The field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position and armature
rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.
3. There should not be any load on the motor throughout the experiment.

PROCEDURE
Armature Control & Field Control Method

1.

Connections are made as shown in ( Fig 1 )the circuit diagram.

2.

After observing the precautions, the motor is started by switching on the DC power
supply. The motor will start running at a low speed.

3.

Cut out the external resistance in armature circuit and adjust the field current, so
that the speed of the motor becomes rated speed.

4.

The field current is kept constant to the above value. Vary the voltage applied to the
armature by varying the external resistance in the armature circuit. Record the
applied voltage and the corresponding speed.

5.

Repeat step 4 for various values of applied voltage to the armature, till the rated
voltage of the motor.

6.

Keep the applied voltage to the armature constant at its rated value. Vary the
speed of the motor by inserting external resistance in the field circuit. Record the
field current and the corresponding speed of the motor.

MODEL GRAPH
Armature control

rpm

If1

N
If2

Va
Fig -4

7. Repeat step 6 for various values of field current, till the speed of the motor is about
1.4 times the rated speed of the motor.
8.

Switch off the DC power supply to stop the motor.

Field control

N
rpm

V1a
V2a
If
Fig -5

RESULT