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ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline

Engineering

Lecture 02: Pipeline Systems Engineering and


Routing Considerations

Shawn Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.


Assistant Professor
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
Memorial University of Newfoundland
spkenny@engr.mun.ca
Lecture 02 Objective
„ To provide an overview of subsea pipeline
systems engineering and key factors in
pipeline routing

2 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Pipeline Systems Primary Function
„ Product Transport
¾ Liquid hydrocarbons
¾ Natural gas
¾ Natural gas liquids
¾ Water
¾ Chemicals
„ Key Elements
¾ Product type
¾ Delivery rate
¾ Operating pressure
¾ Distance from field development to market
¾ Current and future demand/capacity

3 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Pipeline Transportation Systems
„ Flowlines
¾ Field development to
a subsea manifold or
production facility
„ Gathering Lines
¾ Connecting multiple
flowlines to a
production facility
„ Export Pipeline
¾ Transport from a
production facility to
domestic or
international market

4 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Project Phases

5 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Systematic Approach
„ Management
¾ Project execution plan
„ Technical
¾ Development plan
¾ Design basis
¾ Safety plan
„ Auxiliary
¾ Project summary
¾ Economic benefits plan
¾ Environmental impact assessment
¾ Socio-economic impact assessment

6 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Project Execution Plan
„ Overview
¾ Early stage, live document, project wide
¾ Client objectives, drivers and risk tolerance
„ Primary Components
¾ Project scope and deliverables
¾ Organizational hierarchy, roles and responsibilities
¾ Execution strategies for engineering, quality,
procurement, construction, commissioning and safety
¾ Project schedule
¾ Integrated communication protocols and decision
making processes

7 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Design Basis
„ Overview
¾ Early stage, live document, project wide
¾ Clear, complete and authoritative reference
„ Primary Components
¾ Pipeline system overview
¾ Operational parameters
¾ Environmental and physical data
¾ Materials engineering
¾ Design issues and constraints
¾ Design methodology and philosophy

8 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Major Design Issues
„ Product Characterization
„ Route Selection
„ Materials Selection
„ Hydraulic Analysis
„ Mechanical Design
„ Coatings
„ Components and Assemblies
„ Constructability and Intervention
„ Operation, Inspection and Repair
„ Decommissioning and Abandonment

9 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Major Cost Factors
„ Linepipe Tonnage
¾ Material
¾ Transportation Ref: SEIC (2005)

¾ Length
• Alignment &
heading changes
„ Example
¾ ≈ US$25k / WT(mm)-D(m)-L(km)
¾ 762mm OD; 100km; 17.1mm⇒22.2mm WT
¾ ≈ US$10M differential

10 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Major Cost Factors (cont.)
„ Vessel Selection Castoro Sei

¾ Performance
¾ Water depth range
¾ Tension limits
„ Construction Vessel Time
¾ Alignment, heading angle
¾ Stinger change-out
¾ Platform, landfall approach
¾ Crossings, interactions
¾ Monitored, restricted Ref: Saipem (2006)
lay operations

11 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Major Cost Factors (cont.)
„ Route Intervention Activities
¾ Dredging
¾ Trenching

¾ Pre-sweeping

¾ Rock dumping

¾ Span correction

Ref: Saipem (2006)

12 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Overview
„ Pipeline Route Characterization
¾ Landfall and platform approaches
¾ Length, kilometer post and
intermediate stations
¾ Changes in alignment and elevation
profile
„ System Environment
Characterization
¾ Political and social factors
¾ Physical and environmental factors
¾ Engineered systems

13 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Critical Activity
„ Upfront Planning and Assessment
¾ Desk study
• “Ounce of prevention >> pound of cure”
¾ Utilize available resources
• Regulator and operator experience & lessons learned
• Government departments & agencies
• New technologies, data acquisition & historical archives
¾ Uncertainty
• Prioritize and plan for engineering surveys

14 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Politics
„ Landfall and Platform Approaches
Ref: Lanan (2007)
Ref: Saipem (2006)

Ref: BHP (2005)

15 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Politics
„ Regional and International Scope
¾ Political, civil or military instability
¾ Jurisdictions &
regulations Ref: Saipem (2006)
¾ Archaeological,
historical
significance
¾ Examples
• Black Sea
• Europipe
• Oman–India
• Medgaz
• Vancouver
Island &
Georgia Strait

16 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Remote Sensing
Ref: Hansen (2005)

Ref: Google (2005)

17 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Existing Data

Ref: EnCana (2002)

18 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Sensitive Areas
„ Environmental
¾ Significant or sensitive ecosystem
• Wetlands, estuaries,
northern environments
… Resident habitat
… Breeding grounds

… Migration patterns

¾ Cumulative effects
„ Military Zones
Ref: EnCana (2002)

19 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Seabed Characteristics

„ Bathymetry & Slope


„ Soil Properties
¾ Type
¾ Index & strength

¾ Spatial distribution Ref: BCOG (2001)

Ref: NOAA (2005)


W

20 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Seabed Characteristics

„ Significant Features

Ref: Hydro (2005)

Ref: Hansen (2005)

21 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Seabed Characteristics

„ Seabed Mobility
¾ Sediment transport
¾ Sandwave migration

¾ Scour

Ref: Heap (2004)

22 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Seabed Hazards
„ Seismic
¾ Faulting
¾ Liquefaction
„ Mass
¾ Slides Ref: BCOG (2001)
¾ Spreads
¾ Falls
¾ Flows
„ Subsurface
¾ Shallow gas
• Pockmarks
• Subsidence
¾ Subsea vents
• Pinnacles
Ref: Trifunac et al. (2002)

23 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Physical Environment
Ref: NASA (2005)

„ Currents
¾ Systems, tidal,
delta, loop
¾ Surface
„ Waves
¾ Wind induced
• Shallow water, breaking
• Bathymetry, refraction,
wave crest orthogonality
¾ Internal
• Pycnocline [density]
ø (water temp., salinity)

24 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Physical Environment
„ Seabed Use and Obstacles
¾ Oil and gas industry developments
¾ Communications
¾ Mobile and fixed gear fishing zones
¾ Shipping traffic lanes
¾ Military exercise zones
¾ Military/civilian dumping grounds
¾ Mining, dredging zones
¾ Expected or anticipated future operations,
developments
¾ Shipwrecks

25 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Physical Environment

„ Unique Features – Ice Gouging

26 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Physical Environment

„ Unique Features – Ice Gouging

27 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Physical Environment

„ Unique Features –
Strudel Scour

Ref: MMS (2005)

28 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Route Selection – Physical Environment

„ Unique Features
– Permafrost

Ref: NRCan (2005)

29 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
Reading List
1. Chaudhuri, J and Nash, I. (2005).
Medgaz: the ultra-deep pipeline. Pipeline
World, June, 10p.
[2005_Pipeline_World_06_Medgaz_Pipe
line.pdf]

30 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02
References
„ BCOG (2001). BC Offshore Oil & Gas Technology Update. JWEL Project No. BCV50229,
October 19, 2001
„ BHP (2005). http://www.bhpbilliton.com
„ EnCana (2002). Development Plan – Revised Volume 2, Deep Panuke Offshore Gas
Development Project, 142p.
„ Google (2005). earth.google.com
„ Hansen, B. (2005). How Hydro’s Ormen Lange Project Can Contribute to the Development of
the Russian Arctic. Proc., IBC Arctic Oil and Gas Development Conference, Challenges and
Opportunities – The Technology Solution, London, UK.
„ Heap, A. (2004). “Shifting sands the clue to the vanishing seagrasses.” AusGEO, 75
September, p.32-34.
„ Hydro (2005). http://www.hydro.com/ormenlange/en
„ Lanan, G. (2007). Offshore Arctic Pipeline Operations. Proc., IBC Offshore Oil and Gas in Arctic
and Cold Waters Conference, Stavanger, Norway
„ Saipem (2006). http://www.saipem.eni.it/index.asp
„ SEIC (2005). http://www.sakhalinenergy.com/
„ Trifunac, M.D., A. Hayir and M.I. Todorovska (2002) “Was Grand Banks event of 1929 a slump
spreading in two directions?” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 22, pp.349-360.
„ MMS (2005). www.mms.gov
„ NASA (2005). http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/
„ NOAA (2005). Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, US Department of Commerce, http://www.oar.noaa.gov/
„ NRCan (2005). http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/inter/index_e.html

31 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02