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Tubes with bolted circular Flange

Tubes with bolted circular Flange

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M. Couchaux

CTICM, Saint-Aubin, France

M. Hjiaj

INSA, Rennes, France

I. Ryan

CTICM, Saint-Aubin, France

ABSTRACT: Bolted flange joints are commonly used for both support and continuity connections of

tubular members in a variety of structures such as trusses, communication tower pylons, chimneys, pylons

for wind turbines and ski-lift installations as well as lighting and road signal posts. It is usual to design

the flange joints such that the ultimate limit state static resistance is governed by that of the attached

tubular section. A design method suited for tensile loading of the tubular section can be readily adapted

to deal with bending also. Based on the work of Igarashi et al., a closed form solution for the ultimate

tensile resistance of a bolted flange joint is derived. The effects of contact between the two opposite

flanges are also considered. A design approach similar to that of the Eurocode 3 for T-stubs is developed.

A finite element model analysis considering elastoplastic behaviour and contact shows good agreement

with published experimental results and with the analytical model. A parametric study indicates that the

proposed analytical model should be valid for a large range of joints.

1

INTRODUCTION

which is almost axisymetric and therefore quite

similar to the failure mode proposed by Igarashi

et al. (1985).

In this paper, the model proposed by Igarashi

et al. (1985) is reformulated and extended to better

account for the effect of the position of the prying

force as well as for the action of the tube on the

joint.

ensure the continuity of tubular sections in various

types of constructions such as trusses, chimneys

and communication towers. Many of these

joints may need to be designed for both static and

fatigue loads under combined axial and bending

loads. This study is restricted to considering the

static resistance of flange joints of circular tubes

subjected to tensile loading, it being noted that

extension to bending is readily possible. CIDECT

(2008) proposed a design method for flange joints

subjected to tensile force but no information was

given for the case of ring flanges or flanges with

central holes. The latter design method is based

on the work made by Igarashi et al. (1985) on the

tensile resistance of bolted flange joints. Those

authors considered both blank and ring flanges

and used limit analysis to derive approximate

expressions for the ultimate loads.

Models proposed by Igarashi et al. (1985) and

Kato & Hirose (1985) are based on limit analysis

while Cao & Packer (1997) have proposed design

formulae derived from an elastic analysis. While

the complex expressions given by Cao & Packer

(1997) lead to safe results, a limit analysis is more

optimal. Using the upper bound theorem, Kato &

NT

nb : Number of bolts

R

Tube

tt

Rb

bolt

e1

tf

R0

Rf

Figure 1.

Flange

e2

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Eurocode 3 (2005), for the resistances corresponding to the different failure modes are proposed for

blank and ring flange joints.

Finally, results of the analytical model and the

simplified method are compared with those of a

numerical model for a large range of joints.

2

2.1

Vr+dVr

Mr+dMr

M

Vr

ANALYTICAL MODEL

Mr

Model assumptions

flange joints using a polar symmetric model gives

useful results both for the elastic (Cao & Bell, 1997,

Couchaux et al, 2009a) and for the plastic ranges

(Igarashi et al, 1985) of behavior. It is assumed

that the tube applies an axial load to the flange

which is uniformly distributed along the tube centre wall perimeter and that the secondary tube wall

moment is constant about the latter perimeter. The

bolt loads are uniformly distributed on the circle

of the position radius Rb. The equilibrium equation of a circular plate (see Figure 2) is given as

d

M r ) = M

(rM

dr

rV

Vr

Figure 2.

rV

Vr

M r + rV

Vr

B

Mpl,f

Mpl,f

F M = t 2/4

r

r f

(1)

Tresca

D

Figure 3.

Von Mises

a part of the flange being in contact, tension failure

of the bolts with full separation of the flanges and

finally failure of the tube section.

Prying forces, which are the resultant of the

contact pressure between the two opposite flanges,

play an important role in the second failure mode.

Indeed, the ultimate load depends on the prying

force location. The prying force is often placed at

a distance n (see Figure 4) of the bolt axis as given

by EN1993-1-8 (2005):

(2)

2

where M pl , f f y, f t f 4 is the plastic bending

moment per unit length with

fy,f = yielding strength of the steel of flange.

For regime BC:

d

M r ) = M ppl

(rM

dr

M = tf2/4

While the von Mises criterion is usually appropriate to model the plastic behavior of steel, it

often proves to be difficult to apply for ultimate

load calculations. The Tresca criterion is used

instead. The expression of the Tresca yield condition for moments per unit lengths Mr and M takes

exactly the same form as it does for the stresses r

and (See Figure 3). Steel is assumed to be elastic

perfectly plastic.

Failure mechanisms considered in this study

involve regimes AB and BC (see Figure 3), only. For

these regimes, the equilibrium equation becomes:

For regime AB:

d

M r ) = M ppl

(rM

dr

(4)

In reality, this distance depends on the relative

stiffness of the bolt and the flange (Couchaux et al,

2009b) and therefore can vary significantly. A 2D

elastic model has been proposed to analyze the

contact pressure distribution between the flanges

of L-stubs. A fairly complex expression has been

derived for the position of the resultant prying

(3)

in the plate corresponding to a failure mechanism,

one can determine the exact limit load using the

theorems of limit analysis. The following 4 different

failure modes are considered: bending mechanism

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Mpl,t, is affected by the presence of the tensile

force NT. While this interaction is ignored in the

following clause, a zero moment is adopted later in

the simplified approach.

NT

m

e2

B

In this failure mode, two collapse mechanisms

have to be considered. The first one corresponds

to a global failure mode where the whole flange

yields and leads to a plastic circular mechanism

involving the entire flange circumference. In

the second collapse mechanism, the yielding

is restricted to parts of the flange around each

bolt.

Q

Figure 4.

e1

agreement with numerical results.

However, this length can be accurately estimated

using the following simplified expression

(Couchaux 2010):

n = min [(2e2 + )/3; + 0,74tf]

When yielding of the flange occurs, the radial

bending moment is negative and the condition is:

Mr (Rb) = Mpl,f

(5)

failure mechanism is denoted NT,1,pl. Both the AB

and the BC regimes have to be considered (see

Figure 5).

The regime AB has to be considered for r < 1.

Considering the equilibrium equation for regime

AB (2) and the boundary condition (7) and (8)

it can be shown that 1 verifies the following

equation:

where

3

e1 As

R 0

= e2 min 1;

1

,

, R = 4

R

t f Lbleff

e e +1

R ,0 = 2 1 3 .

(e2 e1 )

with Lb = equivalent length of a bolt of sectional

area; As and leff the equivalent length of the connection per bolt as defined in EN1993-1-8 (2005).

The application of the above expression to circular flange joints underestimates the distance

n due to the effect of circular symmetry. However this will lead to overestimating the prying

force and thus will give safe results for the joint

resistance involving bolt failure. The radius of the

circle along which the prying force, Q, is uniformly

distributed is given by:

Re = Rb + n Rf

(10)

AB

BC

Mpl,f

Mr

R0

Rb

Re Rf r

(6)

-Mpl,f

conditions apply:

Mr (R0) = 0

(7)

(8)

Mr (Re) = 0

(9)

NT,1,pl /2R

Mpl,t

/2Rb

Q/2Re

where

M pl ,t f y,ttt2 4 , is the tube wall plastic bending

moment per unit length with

fy,t = yield strength of the tube steel.

for mode 1.

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( )

Mr

M pl

1= R 1 +

n1 1

where

n1 =

NT 1 pl

, k2 =

2 M pl , f

( )=M

Mr R

pl f

< Rb

n1

(11)

Approximation

R0

,

R

Exact

k2 ) + M pl ,t

M pl f .

flange. Hence, according to the equilibrium equation (3) and taking into account the continuity condition of the bending moment at r = 1, the radial

bending moment Mr has the following expression:

M r (r ) = M pl

(n1 ) ln

1

r

x=e-k1

(12)

of the radial bending moment (12) and the radius

1(11) give:

( )

M r R M pl

1

k1 + ln 1 +

n1 1

n1 1

=0

(13)

l2

C

A

l1

e2

l3

C

D

where

Figure 7.

R

k1 = ln b .

R

A closed form solution of equation (13) has been

obtained but it involves complicated expressions.

By expanding the function ln (1+ x) in expression

(13) about zero using a Taylor series the following

simpler solution is obtained:

which is selected so as to minimize the resistance

NT,1,pl. Several shapes of the plastic zone can be

considered. Instead, it is proposed here to adapt

the various forms of failure mechanisms that

are given in EN1993-1-8 (2005) for T-stubs (see

Figure 8). A lower bound limit is given by the following expression:

( )

k ) + Mr R

(14)

k1

For a blank flange, the ratio n1 calculated via

expression (14) is presented in Figure 6 and compared to the exact solution of equation (13). The

approximate solution slightly overestimates n1.

Note that for ring flange the exact and approximate solution are similar.

NT 1 pl =

2 M pl , f

NT

pl

M pl f nb 4

l2

l3

pl

M pl f nb i

4 ; 2 + 4

(16)

where

e

2.3

When the circumferential spacing between the

bolts is sufficiently large, a local failure mechanism

may develop around each bolt. Igarashi et al (1985)

proposed the following local mechanism:

The corresponding ultimate load is given by

NT

R 2f m 2

Rb

in the presence of prying forces

two failure modes are possible depending on the

geometry of the joint:

Mode 2-1: The radial bending is always positive.

Mode 2-2: The radial bending becomes negative

at a certain radius.

In all the cases, the total of the bolt forces is

(15)

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e'

FT, pl 2 + 4 Mpl, f

m

AB

Mpl,f

Mr

m

e

e2

R0

FT, pl = 4 Mpl, f

Re

Rb

NT,2-1,pl /2 R

z

Ft,pl /2 Rb

Mpl,t

Q/2 Re

Figure 8.

for Mode 21.

This mode is equivalent to the second mode proposed by Igarashi et al. (1985). The circumferential

curvature is taken equal to zero along the flange for

r ranging between R0 and 22 (see Figure 10).

The radial bending moment diagram is similar

to that obtained for mode 1 but the moment is

always lower than Mpl,f. Hence for Rb < r <Re, the

expression for the radial bending moment is:

where As = cross section area of the bolt; fyb = yield

strength of steel of bolts.

The tensile resistance of bolts is multiplied by

0,9 to compensate for the effects of bolt bending

moments which are not explicitly considered.

2.3.1 Mode 2-1

This mode is equivalent to the first mode proposed by Igarashi et al (1985). The circumferential

curvature is equal to zero over all the flange and

plastic axial resistance is reached in all bolts (see

Figure 9).

Since the radial bending moment is always positive, equilibrium equation (2) has to be used. It can

be shown that the tensile resistance is given by

NT 2 1 pl

=

M r (r ) = M pl f ( n

(18)

( + ) R + Ft pl (Re Rb )

, n2

NT 2

2 pl

2 M pl , f

flange (9) and (18) we get:

Re R

( )

M r + M pl

= R 1 +

n2 2 1

Mr R

(17)

It is to be noted that mode 2-1 may occur only if

the following condition is verified:

R

2 2 Ft pl

ln b .

r

2 M pl , f

r

where

2 M pl , f Re R

) ln

( )

M r + M pl

= R 1 +

n2 1 1

1

n2

Rb

F t pl

(k1 k3 )

1 2 M pl , f

M r R + M pl

= k3 + l 1 +

n2 2 1

( )

(19)

where

failure in mode 2-1 was never predicted in an

analytical parametric study covering a large range

of joints.

k3 = ln

Re

.

R

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NT,4,pl = Afy,t

BC

AB

Mpl,f

Mr

R0

(22)

2.6

Rb

Re

joints

joint corresponds to the lowest ultimate load for

each failure mode:

NT,pl = min[NT,1,pl; NT,21,pl; NT,22,pl; NT,3,pl; NT,4,pl;]

-Mpl,f

(23)

NT,2-2,pl /2 R

z

Mpl,t

Ft,pl / 2 Rb

SIMPLIFIED METHOD

3.1 Objective

The analytical model proposed in paragraph 2 is

applicable to all types of circular flange joints.

However, the expressions for mode 1 and mode

2 type failures developed in section 2 may not be

very convenient for design office use. In this section, we propose a simplification by firstly neglecting the influence of the tube wall bending moment

which is particularly relevant for the common case

of relatively small wall thickness to flange thickness. Secondly many joints used in steel construction have either blank flanges or ring flange for

which R0 is equal to R. The simplifications proposed here are applied to the latter two types of

joints. In the particular case of ring flange joints

whose hole radius R0 is less than that of the tube

R, the method proposed in this paragraph for ring

flange joints gives safe results. For mode 2 failure

(bolt failure in the presence of prying forces) mode

22 can be taken.

Obviously, joint resistance corresponding to

mode 3 and mode 4 are given by expressions (21)

and (22) for all types of circular flange joints.

The tensile resistance of a ring flange joint is

calculated using the new expressions for modes 1

and 2 in addition to those for modes 3 and 4. For

design purposes, relevant partial safety coefficients

need to be introduced into the expressions given

above and below.

Q/ 2 Re

for mode 2-2.

expression (19) about zero using a Taylor serie the

following expression for the tensile resistance of

mode 2-2 is obtained:

NT

2 2 pl

( )

2 M pl , f k + M r R + + F t

k3

ppl

[k3 k1 ]

(20)

The above expression involve terms that are

related to the flange bending resistance, tube bending resistance and bolt tensile resistance.

2.4

prying force

of the flange, the plastic resistance of the joint is:

NT,3,pl = Ft,pl

(21)

3.2 Method for ring flange joint

ratio of the tube diameter to the flange thickness

is low.

resistance and considering that R0 = R in (14) and

(20), the tensile resistance of mode 1 becomes:

NT

cases, corresponds to yielding of the tube section.

Ignoring any secondary tube wall moment, the axial

plastic resistance of the tube section is equal to

pl

1

2 M pl f 1 +

k1

e

M pl , f nb in 4 ; 2 + 4

(24)

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2 M pl

Ft ppll 1 k1

NT

pl

3.3

Contact elements

(25)

resistance and considering that R0 = 0 in (14) and

(20), the tensile resistance of mode 1 becomes:

NT

pl

2

2 M pl f 1 +

k1

e

M pl , f nb in 4 ; 2 + 4

(26)

Figure 11.

joint.

NT

pl

1

2 M pl f 1 + + Ft

k

3

ppll

k1

1

k3

(27)

(MPa)

fu

fy

4.1

Numerical model

element code ANSYS V11.0. Cao & Bell (1996)

and Couchaux et al. (2009a) have developed quite

similar models whose predictions of the bolt force

were compared with experimental results and

good agreement was found in the elastic range.

Joints are generated with three dimensional elements, which are hexahedral or tetrahedral bricks.

For bolts a constant cross-section equal to the

effective cross area specified by EN1993-1-8

(2005) is considered over the entire length including the threaded part. Two types of contact elements are also used: a) Flexible contact elements

between the flange and the bolt and b) Rigid contact elements between one flange and the plane

of symmetry.

An isotropic Coulomb friction law ( = 0,25)

is used to reproduce sliding and sticking conditions

between the flange and the bolt head. Friction is

neglected between the two flanges because of the

symmetry. In fact, when the joints are subjected to

a tensile force, it is possible to take into account the

symmetry of the joint geometry and the loading.

Hence just a quarter of the joints is represented.

A vertical displacement is applied at the end of the

tube and a plane of symmetry in contact with the

flange is created.

The stress-strain relationship for the steel (flange,

tube and bolts) is assumed to be multi-linear (see

Figure 12). Large deformations are also considered. As soon as the deformation level reaches u,

Collapse :

r=10

r=

Figure 12.

u +1

Sj/10

N T,u

N T,pl

Sj

u

Figure 13.

failure of the element. This phenomena leads

either to a drop of the force applied to the joint or

to the termination of the calculation. This state is

assumed to be the ultimate state for the joint. The

criterion of the yielding surface is Von-Mises.

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are presented in Table 2. The Young modulus and

the Poisson Coefficient are equal to 210 GPa and

0,3, respectively.

as the resistance of an elastic perfectly plastic

joint. In reality, strain hardening always exists

and this resistance needs to be defined. Several

methods have been proposed for the calculation of this plastic resistance such as the ECCS

method (1986). The plastic resistance is defined

as the intersection of the initial stiffness line

with the tangent to the load-displacement curve

whose slope is equal to the initial stiffness dived

by 10 (see Figure 13).

4.3 Comparisons

Plastic resistances obtained via the analytical

model and the simplified method has been compared with the predictions of the numerical model

for joints presented in paragraph 4.2.

Furthermore a comparison has been made with

the experimental results given by Igarashi et al

(1985) and interpreted also with the ECCS method.

In the latter comparison, steel mechanical properties used in the analytical model are those obtained

experimentally by Igarashi et al. (1985).

In Figure 14, the tensile resistance obtained

via tests (numerical or experimental) and analytical results are compared. The Plastic resistance is

underestimated by the analytical model for thin

flanges.

In Figure 15, the tensile resistance obtained

via tests (numerical or experimental) and the

predictions given by the simplified method are

compared. The plastic resistance obtained via

the simplified method seems to be not far from

the resistance predicted by the analytical model

A parametric FEM study has been carried out

by Couchaux (2010) and the results as interpreted by the ECCS method were compared to

the predictions by the analytical model presented

in this paper. Although only the results for some

of the joints studied are presented here they cover

a large range of ring flange joints. The tube diameter was varied from 76 to 1020 mm. The Table 1

presents main dimension of the joints:

The dimension of the bolt respect specification

of EN14399-3 (2004). The weld throat size is taken

as equal to the tube wall thickness in all cases.

The class of the bolt is 10.9 for tubes of 762 and

1020 mm in diameter and 8.8 for other diameters.

Table 1.

Joints

Rf (mm)

nb

Rb (mm)

tf (mm)

Tube

d* (mm)

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

C9

100

100

160

160

190

458

526

526

620

70

70

120

120

150

422

462

462

570

20

25

102030

3040

40

40

40

4060

40

76,1*8

76,1*6

114,3*8

168,3*10

216,3*10

762*12,5

762*16

762*6

1020*10

16

16

20

20

24

24

24

24

30

6

8

8

8

12

24

24

24

3050

Table 2.

Elements

fy (MPa)

fu (MPa)

y (%)

Bolt 8.8

Bolt 10.9

Flange

Tube 216,3*10

Tube 762*12,5

Tube 762*6/16

Other tube

640

900

371

420

355

235

371

840

1050

730

562

630

360

562

18

18

30

30

30

30

30

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Eurocode 3 (2005), for the resistances corresponding to the different failure modes are proposed for

blank and ring flange joints. The predictions of

the analytical model and the simplified method are

compared against F.E. results. A quite good agreement is obtained, particularly for thick flanges.

Enhancement of the proposed analytical model to

deal with joints in bending is being developed.

REFERENCES

Figure 14.

ones.

Figure 15.

tests.

flange joints in tubular structures, The Journal of Strain

Analysis for Engineering Design 31(4): 259267.

Cao, J.J. & Packer, J.A. 1997. Design of tension circular

flange joints in tubular structures, Engineering journal, 34(1): 1725.

Couchaux, M., Ryan, I. & Hjiaj, M. 2009a. Stress concentration factors for the fatigue design of tubular

flange connections, 11th Nordic Steel Construction

Conference, Malm, Sweden.

Couchaux, M., Hjiaj, M., Ryan, I. & Bureau, A. 2009b.

Effect of contact on the elastic behavior of bolted

flange connections, 11th Nordic Steel Construction

Conference, Malm, Sweden.

Couchaux, M. 2010. Behavior of bolted circular flange

joints, PhD Thesis, INSA of Rennes (in French).

ECCS, 1986. Recommended testing procedures for

assessing the behavior of structural elements under

cyclic loads, European Convention for Constructional

Steelwork, Technical Committee 1, TWG 13Seismic

Design, No. 45.

Eurocode 3 2005. Design of steel structuresPart 18:

Designs of joints.

Igarashi, S., Wakiyama, K., Inoue, K., Matsumoto, T. &

Murase, Y. 1985. Limit design of high strength bolted

tube flange joints: Part 1. Joint without rib-plates

and ring-stiffeners, Journal of structural and construction engineering, Transactions of AIJ 354: (5266)

(in Japanese).

Kato, B. & Hirose, R. 1985. Bolted Tension Flanges

Joining Circular Hollow Section Members, Journal of

Constructional Steel Research 5(2): 79101.

NF EN 14399-3: 2004 High-strength structural bolting

assemblies for preloading.

Wardenier, J., Kurobane, Y., Packer, J.A., Dutta, D. &

Yeomans, N. 2008. Design guide for circular hollow

section (CHS) joints under predominantly static loading, CIDECT.

For thinner flanges, the plastic resistance can be

significantly underestimated by the simplified

method.

5

SUMMARY

In this paper, an analytical model has been proposed to evaluate the tensile resistance of bolted

flange joints of circular tubes. This model is an

extension of the model proposed by Igarashi et al.

In the extended model the effect of the position of

the prying force as well as the local resistance of

the tube are better accounted for.

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