You are on page 1of 2

See

discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299260230

BIOMASS BURNING CONTRIBUTION TO PAHS


CONCENTRATION IN THE URBAN AREA OF
ROME. MAIN FINDINGS FROM THE LIFE+
EXPAH PROJECT AND FURTHER
OBSERVATIONS.
CONFERENCE PAPER MARCH 2016

READS

42

25 AUTHORS, INCLUDING:
Angelo Cecinato

Sandro Finardi

Italian National Research Council

Arianet

152 PUBLICATIONS 3,196 CITATIONS

89 PUBLICATIONS 676 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE

SEE PROFILE

Francesco Forastiere
Regional Health Service, Lazio
595 PUBLICATIONS 14,546 CITATIONS
SEE PROFILE

All in-text references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate,


letting you access and read them immediately.

Available from: Claudio Gariazzo


Retrieved on: 27 March 2016

BIOMASS BURNING CONTRIBUTION TO PAHS CONCENTRATION IN THE URBAN AREA OF ROME. MAIN
FINDINGS FROM THE LIFE+ EXPAH PROJECT AND FURTHER OBSERVATIONS.
C. Gariazzo (1), S. Argentini (2), C. Balducci (3), M.P. Bogliolo (1), A. Cecinato (3), G. Cesaroni (4), A. Cristofari (1), A. DAllura
(5), S. Finardi (5), F.Forastiere (4), M.P. Gatto (1), M. Gherardi (1), A. Gordiani (1), O. Hnninen (6), M. Lamberti (1), A.
Pelliccioni (1), M. Perilli (3), C. Perrino (3), D. Porta (4), P. Radice (5), P. Romagnoli (3), F. Sacco (7), C. Silibello (5), M. Stafoggia
(4), L. Tofful (3).
(1) INAIL-Research Center, Via Fontana Candida 1, 00040, Monteporzio Catone (RM), Italy; (2) CNR-ISAC, Via Fosso del
Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome, Italy; (3) CNR-IIA, Via Salaria km 29.300, CP 10, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo RM, Italy; (4)
Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Region Health Service, Rome, Italy; (5) ARIANET Srl, Via Gilino, 9 20128, Milan, Italy; (6)
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland, POB 95, 70701 Kuopio, Finland; (7) ARPA-LAZIO, Rieti, Italy.
Presenting author email: c.gariazzo@inail.it
Summary
The main findings of EU LIFE+ EXPAH project, aimed to assess PAHs exposure and their health effects on the population living in
urban areas, are presented. Domestic heating and biomass burning were found to be the main contribution to PAH levels observed in
Rome urban area.
Introduction
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of complex organic chemicals of increasing concern due to their occurrence in
the environment. They are ubiquitous in ambient air and some of them have been identified as carcinogens or suspected carcinogens
for human. Domestic heating, mobile sources and vehicles, are the largest contributors of PAHs in highly urbanized areas. Therefore,
population living in cities are particularly exposed to these pollutants. The EXPAH project, funded by the EU LIFE+ program, aims to
assess the population exposure to PAHs in the city of Rome and the consequent health effects on the inhabitants by means of an
integrated approach including measurements, modeling techniques and epidemiologic investigations.
Methodology and Results
Several experimental field campaigns were carried out, during different seasons,
to investigate the ability of PAHs to penetrate living environments (homes,
schools, offices, cars and bus). Experimental results evidenced that indoor PAHs
levels were about one order of magnitude higher in winter than in spring/summer
due to domestic heating (Romagnoli et al., 2014). Benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P), the
most toxic PAH, was usually well below the European guideline value in the
warm season whilst it exceeded this value during winter. The PAHs emission
inventory, built for the Lazio Region (Gariazzo et al., 2015), indicates that the
domestic heating is responsible for 28% and 96% respectively for PM10 and
PAHs emissions in the city of Rome (figure 1). Biomass burning systems are
estimated to be responsible for 99% and 90% of PAHs and PM10 emissions from
residential heating, even if the contribution of biomass burning to the overall
Fig.1 Contribution of the different source to the
heat production is small. Environmental and health impacts were estimated
emission of pollutants in Rome
based on one year of PAHs simulated concentrations at urban level. Daily
average concentrations indicated that Rome urban area is exposed to high levels of
PAHs during the winter with B[a]P exceeding limit value. A 3.1% of increased in
mortality was estimated for 1 ng/m3 variation in PAHs exposure occurring 2 to 5
days before deaths. To evaluate the impacts of future emissions on PAH levels, the
Current Legislation (CLE) scenario for year 2020, based on the GAINS-Italy project,
has been simulated. A general reduction of 2020 emissions with respect to 2009
reference values was obtained for all pollutants except for PAHs, as they show an
increase of 38% (figure 2). The increase of PAHs emission is influenced by domestic
heating and mainly due to the predicted increase of wood combustion contribution.
An Additional Measures (AME) scenario, forcing the substitution of biomass with
natural gas for domestic heating, has been considered as a possible effective action
leading to a potential PAHs emissions of more than 90%.
Fig.2 Emission Scenarios: reference (2009); current

Conclusions
legislations (2020 CLE); additional measures (2020 AME)
EXPAH LIFE+ project has highlighted the relevance of domestic heating
and biomass burning on the environmental and health impacts of PAHs at urban level. The analysis of future emission scenarios
indicates that PAHs emissions are estimated to increase during the next years claiming for the adoption of mitigation measures.
Acknowledgement
The LIFE+ EU financial program is acknowledged for the provision of funding for EXPAH project (LIFE09 ENV/IT/082).
References
Romagnoli, P., Balducci, C., Perilli, M., Gherardi, M., Gordiani, A., Gariazzo, C., Gatto, M.P., Cecinato, A., 2014. Indoor PAHs at
schools, homes and offices in Rome, Italy. Atmospheric Environment 92: 51-59
Gariazzo, C., Lamberti, M., Hnninen, O., Silibello, C., Pelliccioni, A., Porta, D., Cecinato, A., Gherardi, M., Forastiere, F., 2015.
Assessment of population exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) using integrated models and evaluation of
uncertainties, Atmospheric Environment, 101, 235-245.