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OBJECTIVES

To demonstrate the relationship between power input and surface


temperature in forced convection.
To demonstrate the use of extended surface to improve heat transfer from
the surface.
To determine the temperature distribution along an extended surface.

SUMMARY
The main purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate the relationship
between the power input and the surface temperature in forced convection and
also to demonstrate the use of an extended surface to improve heat transfer
from the surface. Furthermore, another main purpose of this experiment is to
determine the temperature distribution along an extended surface. The variables
involved in this experiment are air velocity (m/s), ambient air temperature, t A
(C), plate temperature, tH (C), power (Watts), and surface temperature, t H tA
(C). Based on the results acquired, the air velocity increases when the surface
temperature decreases for all three types of plates which are the finned, pinned,
and flat plates. This shows that the air velocity is inversely proportional to the
surface temperature. It was proven through experimentation that an object with
a wider area has more surface particles working to transfer heat. As such, the
rate of heat transfer is directly proportional to the surface area through which
the heat is being transferred. In experiment 1, at air velocities of 0.5 m/s, 1.0
m/s, and 1.5 m/s, the surface temperatures for finned plate are 26.4 C, 22.1 C,
and 18.1 C respectively. In experiment 2, at air velocities of 0.0 m/s, 1.0 m/s,
and 1.5 m/s, the surface temperatures for flat plate are 49.7 C, 47.7 C, and
45.4 C respectively. As for the pinned plate, at air velocities of 0.0 m/s, 1.0 m/s,
and 1.5 m/s, the surface temperatures are 50.0 C, 32.3 C, and 19.4 C
respectively. Trend graphs were created to demonstrate each of the operations
relationship between the air velocity and the surface temperature. From that,
based on the results achieved and the theory stated, the objectives were
achieved which were to demonstrate the correlation between the power input
and the surface temperature in forced convection, to demonstrate the use of an
extended surface to improve heat transfer from the surface and to determine the
temperature distribution along an extended surface.

INTRODUCTION
Convection, also known as Convective Heat Transfer, is a circulatory motion
that occurs in a fluid (liquid/gas) in which, depending on density, the warmer
parts move up and the colder parts move down. In this experiment, a specific
type of convection is investigated on which is forced convection. Unlike natural
convection (has a slower heat transfer because of limited air velocity), forced
convection uses an external source, a fan for example, to aid in the movement of
air over a heated surface for a more efficient heat transfer. This experiment is
divided into two parts; Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. The set-up is as shown in
Figure 1 (Refer to Appendices). The parameters involved are air velocity (m/s),
ambient air temperature, tA (C), plate temperature, tH (C), power (Watts), and tH
tA (C).
For the first experiment, a demonstration on the relationship between power
input and surface temperature in forced convection is conducted. The
experiment begins by firstly ensuring that the power supply for the system is
switched off and the wires involved are plugged in. Then, the finned heat
exchanger is placed into the test duct and the system is switched on. Before
proceeding, record the ambient air temperature, t A. The heater power connected
to the test duct will then be set to 50 Watts and is allowed to stabilize for 10
minutes. After that, the fan speed is set to 0.5 m/s and is allowed to stabilize for
3 minutes. When the readings are steady, the temperature of the heat
exchanger, tH is recorded. Similar steps will be conducted for fan speed of 1.0
m/s and 1.5 m/s.
For the second experiment, the use of extended surface to improve heat
transfer from the surface is demonstrated. The experiment begins by firstly
ensuring that the power supply for the system is switched off and the wires
involved are plugged in. Then, the flat plate heat exchanger is placed into the
test duct and the system is switched on. Before resuming, record the ambient air
temperature, tA. The heater power connected to the test duct will then be set to
75 Watts and then wait patiently until the temperature rises to 80 C. Later, tone
down the heater power to 20 Watts and set the air velocity to 0 m/s and wait for
5 minutes. After the readings have stabilized, record the temperature of the heat
exchanger, tH. Similar steps are taken but with air velocities of 1.0 m/s and 1.5
m/s. Repeat the experiment using the pinned plate heat exchanger.

THEORY
NEWTONS LAW OF COOLING
The Newtons Law of Cooling states that the rate of heat loss of a body is
proportional to the difference in temperatures between the body and its
surroundings [Anonymous A, 2013]. The heat loss due to the forced convection is
given by the following equation :

P = = hA (T- T0 )
Where :
P
= dQ/dt is rate at which heat is
transferred
h

= Convection heat-transfer coefficient

= Exposed surface area

= Temperature of the immersed object

T0

= Temperature of convecting fluid

The convection heat-transfer coefficient (h), can only described by equations


based on empirical analysis. For example, the h of air is approximately equals
to :
h = 10.45 v + 10v
Where v is the relative speed of the object through the air or the speed of the air
around the object. This equation is valid for speed from 2 to 20 m/s [Glenn Elert,
1998-2013].

HOW SURFACE AREA AFFECTS THE RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER


Another variable that affects the rate of convective heat transfer is the area
through which heat is being transferred. An object with a wider area has more
surface particles working to transfer heat. As such, the rate of heat transfer is
directly proportional to the surface area through which the heat is being
transferred [Anonymous B, 1996-2013].
Extended surfaces are extensions of an object to increase the rate of heat
transfer to or from the environment by increasing convection. The amount of
conduction, convection, or radiation of an object determines the amount of
heat it transfers. By adding an extended surface on an object, increases the
surface area hence increasing the amount of convection [Anonymous C,
2013].

DISCUSSION
Experiments to demonstrate the relationship between power input and
surface temperature, usage of extended surface to improve heat transfer from
the surface, as well as to determine the temperature distribution along an
extended surface were conducted using the set-up shown in Figure 1 (Shown in
Appendices). The parameters involved in this experiment are air velocity (m/s),
ambient air temperature, tA (C), plate temperature, tH (C), power (Watts), and
the surface temperature, tH tA (C).
Two experiments were conducted during this session; Experiment 1 and
Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, a finned heat exchanger was used to
demonstrate the relationship between power input and surface temperature
using air velocities of 0.5 m/s, 1.0 m/s, and 1.5 m/s. After setting up the needed
velocity, the plate temperature, tH was recorded. On the other hand for
Experiment 2, flat and pinned plate heat exchangers were used to demonstrate
the use of extended surface to improve heat transfer with air velocities of 0 m/s,
1.0 m/s, and 1.5 m/s. After setting up the wanted speed, the plate temperature,
tH was recorded. The temperatures between the two types of plates were then
compared to see which improves heat transfer better.
For both experiments, an ambient air temperature, t A of 30.2 C was obtained.
For Experiment 1, the values for velocity-surface temperature for the finned heat
exchanger are 0.5 m/s-26.4 C, 1.0 m/s-22.1 C, and 1.5 m/s-18.1 C. For
experiment 2, the values for velocity-surface temperature for the flat plate are 0
m/s-49.7 C, 1.0 m/s-47.7 C, 1.5 m/s-45.4 C. Whereas for the pinned plate,
values of 0 m/s-50 C, 1.0 m/s-32.3 C, and 1.5 m/s-19.4 C were obtained.
Through results, it can be concluded that the plate that has the highest rate of
heat transfer is pinned plate, followed by finned plate, and lastly flat plate.

Theoretically, Newtons Law of Cooling states that the rate of heat loss (heat
transfer) of a body is proportional to the difference in temperatures (t H - tA)
between the body and its surroundings. Another variable that affects the rate of
heat transfer is the area through which heat is being transferred. An object with
a wider area has more surface particles working to transfer heat. As such, the
rate of heat transfer is directly proportional to the surface area through which
the heat is being transferred. By adding an extended surface on an object, will
increase the surface area hence increasing the amount of convection. Hence, the
finned plate has relatively high heat transfer, followed by the pinned plate, and
lastly the flat plate. The statements were endorsed through the plotting of
Correlation charts/Temperature profiles. Based on the results, it can be observed
that the results have much complied with the theory stated. With that, the
objectives of this experiment were achieved.
There are several possibilities that might have contributed to the errors
that occurred during the experiment. Among those errors is physical errors
(caused by experimenters). The experimenters might not have waited for the
readings to stabilize first and have recorded down the wrong readings, which
could lead to an abnormal trend of results. Not just that, the experimenter may
not have focused well during the experiment and may have recorded down the
readings of the parameter in the field of another parameter. By doing so, it will
disrupt the results, and the trend graphs will not result as expected. Other than
that, the experimenter may be careless and accidentally set a higher/lower
power supply than it was supposed to thus, resulting in different temperature
values. Besides that, the wires or other equipment involved may be faulty or not
plugged in. When this happens, the panel will not display the correct value.

CORRELATION CHARTS/TEMPERATURE PROFILES

A graph between Air Velocity (m/s) against Surface Temperature (C)


1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0

Air Velocity (m/s)

0.8

Finned Plate

0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
1718192021222324252627

Surface Temperature (C)

A graph between Air Velocity (m/s) against Surface Temperature (C)


1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0

Air Velocity (m/s)

Flat Plate

0.8

Pinned Plate

0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55

Surface Temperature (C)

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the correlation chart plotted showed the trend of the surface
temperature. Through that, we can determine the plate which has the highest
rate of heat transfer to the plate with the lowest rate of heat transfer. Through
this experiment, we have learned that surface area and the speed of the air
around the body plays a huge role in convection. By adding an extended surface
on an object will in return increases the surface area hence increasing the
amount of convection. This experiment revolves mostly around the Newtons Law
of Cooling which states that the rate of heat loss of a body is proportional to the
difference in temperatures between the body and its surroundings. Based on
results, in descending order of the rate of heat transfer of the plates; pinned
plate has the highest rate of heat transfer, followed by finned plate, and lastly
flat plate. This is because x plate has an extended surface, together with the
widest surface area causing it to transfer/release even more heat at an instance.
The results mentioned have very much supported by the theory stated, thus it
can be deduced that the objectives of this experiment were achieved.

RECOMMENDATIONS
There are steps that can be taken to prevent these types of errors from
occurring. To prevent physical errors (caused by experiments) from occurring,
experimenters have to focus and be patient for the readings to stabilize before
recording any data. Also, work together to record data, and not just be
dependent on just a team member. Next, in order to prevent recording the wrong
data, team members should reconfirm with each other on the results to acquire
the readings which best fit. Besides that, to prevent conducting a slow process,
those who conduct the experiment should read the lab manual prior to
conducting

the

experiment.

Furthermore,

even

before

conducting

the

experiment, each team should request assistance from available technicians to


check whether the experiment is faulty or not, to avoid unwanted results.

TUTORIALS
EXPERIMENT 1

1. Plot a graph of air velocity against surface temperature (t H - tA) for the finned
plate.

A graph between Air Velocity (m/s) against Surface Temperature (C)


1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0

Air Velocity (m/s)

0.8

Finned Plate

0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
1718192021222324252627

Surface Temperature (C)

2. Comment on the correlation between the velocity of the air and the surface
temperature.
It is observed from the results obtained from the actual experiment that as
the Air Velocity (m/s) increases, the Surface Temperature, t H - tA (C)
decreases. With that being said, this shows an inversely proportional
relationship between Air Velocity (m/s) against Surface Temperature.

EXPERIMENT 2

1. Plot graphs of air velocity against surface temperature for each flat plate and
pinned plate.

A graph between Air Velocity (m/s) against Surface Temperature (C)


1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0

Air Velocity (m/s)

Flat Plate

0.8

Pinned Plate

0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55

Surface Temperature (C)

2. Comment on the correlation between total surface of the plate and the
surface temperature for both flat and pinned plate.
The total surface area of the plate affects greatly on the surface temperature
on both Flat and Pinned Plates. As observed on the correlation graph
generated based on the results obtained from the experiment conducted, the
Surface Temperature, tH - tA (C) for Pinned Plate has a more drastic increment
than the Flat Plate. This shows that the total surface area of the plate of the
Pinned Plate and the Flat Plate are both affected by the Surface Temperature.
Since the Pinned Plate has an extended surface, it aids tremendously in heat
transfer/loss as it has a larger surface area in which increases its rate of
convection. As for the Flat Plate, it has a flat surface area in which has a lower
rate of heat transfer/loss compared to the plates that have extended surfaces
which leads to a lover convection rate.

3. If the same experiment is run by using the finned plate, which one from the
three plates will have more efficient heat transfer? Discuss.
The Finned Plate would have more efficient heat transfer compared to the
other plates (Pinned and Flat). It is because the Finned Plate has the widest
extended surface compared to the other plates (Pinned and Flat). With a
wider extended surface, more heat transfer/loss will be released and a faster
convection rate is developed.

REFERENCES

[1] [Anonymous A, 2013],


Convective Heat Transfer,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convective_heat_transfer,
[17th October 2013]
[2] [Glenn Elert, 1998-2013],
The Physics Hypertextbook,
http://physics.info/convection/,
[17th October 2013]
[3] [Anonymous B, 1996-2013],
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/thermalP/u18l1f.cfm,
[17th October 2013]
[4] [Anonymous C, 2013],
Extended Surface,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fin_(extended_surface),
[17th October 2013]
[5] Transport Process Laboratory Manual,
Forced Convection Heat Transfer (Experiment 2),
[17th October 2013]

APPENDICES