DUS2022 INTRODUCTION TO ii:::::i;li ;:','i,'i, STRATEGIC STU D IE S
Irreg Warfare: Terrorism ular andInsurgency

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insurgencies widely differ in o lndividual and character type seek o Generally, terrorists to create grievance, of awareness theirpolitical hope while insurgents to takepower force arms of through

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= o IRREGULAR WARFAREtypes violence of conducted substate actors by including terrorism insurgency. &

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or o ls an armedinsurrection rebellion against an of established system government a state. in o lf the violentchallenge the insurgents forcefully by is and resisted its incumbents, it normally a civilor by is will internal situation result. war E.g.:protracted violence between parties. the o Twogoals: the regime 1. Seekto replace incumbent witha system to of government conducive theirinterest inclination & e.g.toendformer of the insurgents. colonial control. opposition authoritarian 2. Typical to form of violent thatareformally regime withinstates independent. (Africa) nationalism ethnic E.g.revolution,
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o 1. 2. o Recruits under principle: two To their sense ethnic of identity To theirpolitical allegiance Usestrategy unconventional of warfare guerilla including warfare o Insurgency instances Clausewitzian is of tradition viewing military of the instrument asthemeans achieving political of goals.

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o Theluse threatened ofviolence a or use on systematic political basis achieve to objectives. o Methods includes hijacking, hostage taking, bom bings, indiscriminate shootings, assassinations & mass murders. o Distinguished between state/political & factional terrorism. o Politicalcoercive agencies thestate at disposal combined ideologies reston with that ends/means rationalizations. o Factionalcarried by nonstate out actors &
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o State sponsored terrorisminternal groups outside factional with governmental supportl transnational o ltsnota species guerilla of warfare o lt is a strategy method is or that groups widely comrnon to of different political, philosophical & religious beliefs
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MaoZe Dong's Three-Stage Theory Insurgency of

o The insurgent moves fromthestrategic defensive stalemate the strategic to to offensive o As the insurgents more grow powerful, they takeon more thecharacteristics of of a conventional military force

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MaoZe Dang's Three-Stage Theory Insurgency of

o Stage : Strategic 1 Defensivecharacterized by avoidance allcosts pitched, at of set-piece battles. Tactical offensives local with numerical superiority, carried to are out further resources. stretch enemy o Themoral of superioritytheguerillas is population, political established thelocal with indoctrination is carried & newrecruits out aretrained fightas irregulars remote, to in safebases.
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MaoZe Dong's Three-Stage Theory Insurgency of

withprolonged o Stagell: Stalemate begins battle to physical moral attrite enemy's the & strength. control, the formof localotficials in Governmental is targeted and its representatives or forcedto killed presence ruralareas leave. Withgovernment in neutralized, population be drawnuponfor moral the can & physical support. Thatsupport mustbe channeled intomainbuilding capable, conventional forces. main o Stagelll: Strategic the Offensive: endgameof the conflict, whichpopular and mainforcesconduct in the battle maneuver use overwhelming and of forcedestroy positions. decimated enemy forcesin theirdefensive
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lrregular warfare time and

o Timeis the mostimportant element the success for of an insurgency r Can be "exchanged" make up for other to


guerrilla" o Marighella the "urban and etfort achieve to speedy victory o Timeis the mostimportant element the success in of insurgencies, progression involving nonlinear a that includes spaceto manoeuvre to gain the and legitimacy and/or support of whichare necessary all for eventual Victory.
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lrregular warfare space and

o Relationship between space time and o Using force-to-space to offset ratios relative weakness o Terrain a factor as o Establishing areas safe o Terrain important offset is to weaknesses and gain gaining including tactical advantages, 'force space' to superiority thetime& place at yourchoosing. of
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lrregular warfare and support

o Insurgents seekbothinternal external can and support o lmportance support of fromthe local populace o CheGuevara theory the"foco" and of which the is centre gravity guerrilla of of movement. o Represent political military the & heart of insurgency believed guerrilla & that movement itself cangenerate condition victory, the for o Thesuccess eventually will peasant inspire local to come support to them, allowing organization the to e+**SP){Vot{?q.$'-[-e'H1h.n,',,nn,r,..*,'ou,r.


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lrregular warfare and support
o Support dependent legitimacy, is on it is derived internally thequality from of the interaction thelocal with populace andexternally resources via from allies sympathizers. and

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warfare lrregular and legitimacy
between support and o Relationship legitimacy in as o Insurgents acting a government "liberated" areas e "Positive" "negative" measures and

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warfare and lrregular (cont) legitimacy

military operationsa to o lmportancelinking of political end key the o Moraljustificationto sustaining struggle government responses insurgency to o Excessive people support insurgents to the canconvince provides cornerstone the to o Moraljustification usually blending cultural sustain struggle, the with ends. causes political andsocial
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o Terrorism insurgencies be examined & can interms time, of legitimacy space, or support, reflecting specific contexts local goals rather thanpredetermined attributed o a general theory.

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o Methods usedby statein response localthreats to are aimed crucially maintaininglaMul,hencepoliticalat a moral,legitirnacy political/moral o Maintaining legitimacy preferably o Location: ldentifying insurgency, an duringits veryearlystages r Oftena slow process o lmportance intelligence-gathering assessment of and o lsolation: insurgents the population from Segregating politically phySically and
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insurgents physically on both o Sr"l"rs based isolating & politically. o The importance "thehearts of andminds" the of people destruction insurgent o Eradication: physical The of forces o Activeand passive techniques o The eradication insurgents oftena slow of is process willtakedifferent formsin different and political cultural context. and
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insurgency Future

o Culture insurgency and insurgents might inspired change the o Culturally 'Trinitarian' fromtraditional nature uprisings of conflicts. warsto chaotic ethnic fanaticism "apocalyptic and o Religious - martyrdom millenarianism" fanatics political by of o The replacement religious possibly millenarianism' withapocalyptic portends lethalcombination martyrs with of the weapons massdestruction. of
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Future insurgency
point o Religion useful rallying is as andenabler for terrorism cannotprovide strategy achieve but a to the desired objectives. o Technology: WMD,information technology o The Internet reaches across timeandspace o lnformation technologies theWorld and WideWeb (uruvw) haveprovided terrorist withnewcapabilities to reachacross timeand space, creating vulnerability in a statesbasedsystemwherecontrol information of equalspower.

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o Hadlongbeen political used change to power systems acquire & o Religion, culture, ethnicitytechnology & remain important elements irregular of warfare. o Religion -Chechenprotracted guerilla war o EthnicitySomaliaSomali warlord to seek gainpolitical power influence clan. to their
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