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Mechanism Assignment 1

Problem 1.2: Four-bar linkage

Coupler

Foot petal

input link

Output link

Fixed link

Cutter

Frame

D

E

B

F

C

Coupler

Input

link

Output

link

Hood

Mechanism Assignment 2

1.2

s+l = 25 < p+q = 12+14 =26

Since s = r3, it is Grashof, R-R.

1.3

1.5

Watt II

a) slider-crank, with an oscillating slide,

b) four-bar: FA (r1)(s) =10, AD (r2) (p) =20, DE(r3) (q) =15, EF(r4) (l) =30

Since s+l = 10 +30 = 40 > p+q = 20 + 15 = 35, it is non-Grashof.

1.6

I) When r1=18, s+l = 20+5 = 25 < p+q =18 +15 = 33

Since s = r3, it is Grashof, R-R

II) When r1=25, s+l = 25+5 = 30 < p+q = 20 +15 = 35

Since s = r3, it is Grashof, R-R

1.19

Watt I,

st

a) 1 four bar: DA(r1)=15, AB(r2)=25, BC(r3)=15, CD(r4)=25, parallelogram

b) 2nd four bar: EC=12, CG=20, GF=12, FE=20, parallelogram.

s = r2 (C ra n k - R o c k er )

< ( p + q ) s = r1 ( D o u b le C ra n k )

G ra sh o f

s = r4 ( R o c k e r - C ran k )

s = r3 ( D o u b le R o ck e r )

s = r2 (C - R )

s = r (C - C )

1

s = r4 ( R - C )

= (p + q)

N o n G ra sh o f s = r3 ( R - R )

l = q , s = p

P aralle lo g ram

Mechanism Assignment 3

3.1 Use graphical method to find VA, VB, VC and 3, 4. The sizes are given as AoBo=3.5,

AoA=2, AB=3, BBo=3, AC=3, BC=3; all in inch. AoA is at 60o, 2 =1 rad/s (cw).

Step 1: solve the angles graphically and also can check with your excel program.

Vc = VA + VCA

Ao

Bo

This is case two.

From the drawing

BBo

VB

VBA

VAB =

90 60

= 30

AB

VA

3 = VBA/AB = 0.994/3= 0.33 rad/s (ccw)

4 = VB/BBo = 1.3183/4= 0.44 rad/s (cw)

2=60; 3=25; 4=86

3 = (r2/r3) (sin(4-2)/sin(3-4))2 = (2/3) [sin(86-60) / sin(25-86)] (-1) = 0.33 (ccw)

4 = (r2/r4) (sin(2-3)/sin(4-3))2 = (2/3) [sin(60-25) / sin(86-25)] (-1) = -0.44 (cw)

From the drawing

VC= 1.1745 inches/s

VCA = AC x 3 = 3 x 0.331 = 0.993 inches /s

VA

VC

VCA

AC

32 = 3 - 2 = 0.33 (-1) = 1.33 rad/s

34 = 3 - 4 = 0.33 (-0.44) = 0.77 rad/s

If 3 is given, how to determine 4?

j4 r4 ej4 = j 2 r2 ej2 + j3 r3 ej3

Step 1: determine angles using the displacement equations

r1 + r2 + r3 + r4 = 0

Bx = AAo cos 2 + AB cos 3

By = BC = AAo sin2 + AB sin3

3 = sin-1 [(AAo sin2 BC)/AB] = sin-1 [(2 sin120 1)/3] = 14.12o

Ao

VBx = -2 AAo sin2 -3 AB sin3

VBy = 2 AAo cos2 + 3 AB cos3

Since VBy = 0, then

3 = - 2 AAo cos2 /AB cos3 = -(-1) x 2 x cos120 / 3 cos14.12o = -0.34 rad/s

(cw)

Step 3: solve for link 4

VBx = -2 AAo sin2 -3 AB sin3 = 1 x 2 sin 120 + 0.34 x 3 sin14.12 = 1.81/s

4 = VBx / BC = 1.81/1 = 1.81 rad/s

VC = 2 VBx = 1.81 x 2 = 3.62/s

3.3 Determine:

1) transmission angle

2) mechanical advantage

3) force at the bottom.

Sizes are given as

AD = 2.6, AB = 2, BC = 3, CD = 3.5

rin = 4, rout = 1.7.

F = 10 (N)

AB is horizontal.

Step 1. solve the angles using your excel program.

2 = 90o

3 = 30o

4 = 90o

B

2

Step 2: = 4 - 3 = 60o

F

3

Step 3:

v = 2 - 3 = 60o

= 4.12

Step 4:

Fout = M.A. x Fin = 10 x 4.12 = 41.2 (N)

Mechanism Assignment 4

4.4 Find the velocity and acceleration of point C. Size is in inch. 2= -60 rad/s, 2= -900

rad/s2.

C

r3 = 3.6

B

r2 = 2

r4 = 2.5

2 = 60

4

r1 =4.5

Solution:

AC = AB + ACB

AtC + AnC = AtB + AnB + AtCB + AnCB

j4r4 ej4 - 42r4 ej4 = j2r2 ej2 - 22r2 ej2 + j3r3 ej3 - 32r3 ej3

3 = (r2/r3) (sin(4-2)/sin(3-4))2

= (2/3.6) (sin(30)/sin(-78))(-60) = 17.52 rad/s (ccw)

4 = (r2/r4) (sin(2-3)/sin(4-3))2

= (2/2.5) (sin(48)/sin(78))(-60) = -36.47 rad/s (cw)

4 = r2 2 sin(3 -2) r222cos(3 -2) + r4 24cos(3 -4) r323

r4 sin(3 -4)

= 2(-900) sin(-48) 2x602cos(-48) + 2.5x36.472cos(-78) + 3.6x17.522

2.5 sin(-78)

= 1567.86 (ccw)

Vc = 4 x r4 = 36.47 rad/s x 2.5 = 91.2 inches/s

3) Solve acceleration

a) Graphical method. By forming a vector polygon

AtC + AnC = AtB + AnB + AtCB + AnCB

To solve AtC and then AC = AtC + AnC

b) Analytical method (used here). Solving 4 and then

AC = [(r44)2 + (r424)2]1/2 = 5139 inch/s2

AC = arctan (24 / 4) = arctan (36.472 / 1567.86) = 40 + 180 = 220o

4.6 Find the acceleration of point C. Size is in inch. 2= -25 rad/s, 2= -180 rad/s2.

D

r3 = 12

B

8

5

r2 = 5

r4 = 10

2 = 60

r1 =15

A

Solution:

AC = AB + ACB

AtC + AnC = AtB + AnB + AtCB + AnCB

B

C

3 = (r2/r3) (sin(4-2)/sin(3-4))2

= (5/12) (sin(41)/sin(-74))(-25) = 7.11 rad/s (ccw)

3 = -r2 2 sin(4 -2) + r222cos(4 -2) + r323cos(4 -3) r424

r3 sin(4 -3)

2

= 266.65 rad/s (ccw)

3) Solve acceleration

a) Analytical method. Use complex number expression to project all accelerations along x

and y, respectively, and then AC is the vector sum.

AtC + AnC = AtB + AnB + AtCB + AnCB

b) Graphical method (used here)

AtB = r2 2ej(60-90)= 900e-j30 (inch/s2) (2= -180 rad/s2 (cw))

Direction

-30o

Magnitude

Direction

Magnitude

88o

Direction

Magnitude

Direction

Magnitude

Ac = AtC + AnC

Direction ?

Magnitude ?

AC = 2246.83 inch/s2

AC

(240 )

AtCB (88o)

AtB (-30o)

AnCB(178o)

3

r2 =1.8

r4= 2.3

4

r1 = 3.5

V4=20/s

1

An2 =934/s2

V2 =41/s

V42 =36/s

Solution:

1) Solve angular velocity

2 = V2 / r2 = 41/1.8 =-22.78 rad/s (cw)

4 = V4 / r4 = 20/2.3 = 8.7 rad/s (ccw)

2) Solve acceleration

2

2

j2r2ej2 - 2 r2ej2 = j4r4ej4 - 4 r4ej4 + A42 ej4 + Ac42

Dir

x

x

x

x

x

x

Mag x

x

x

x

At2 = 0

2

2

2

An2 = V 2/r2 = 41 /1.8 = 933.89 inch/s

2

2

2

An4 = V 4/r4 = 20 /2.3 = 173.91 inch/s

Ac42 = 2V424= 2 x 36 x 8.7 = 626.4 inch/s2

The vector polygon is scaled down by 1/100, hence

At4 = 1460 inch/s2

A42 = 593 inch/s2

An4 =174/s

An4

Ac42

An2

4

At4

A42

V42

Vibration Assignment 1

2.1

Given = 7.87mm

fn = (1/2)(g/)/12 = (1/2)(9.8 / (7.87x10-3)) = 5.62 Hz

2.2

Given f2 = f1/2

f1 = (1/2) (k1/m1)1/2

when the second spring is added in serial, then

1/k = 1/k1 + 1/k2 k = k1k2/ (k1 + k2)

f2 = (1/2) (k/m1)1/2 = f1/2

Hence 4k/m1 = k1/m1

4(k1k2)/(k1+k2) = k1 4k2 = k1+k2 3k2 = k1 k2 = k1/3

2.3

Given m =4.53 kg, = 0.45s. Then m1 = 2.26 kg is added in the middle of the spring.

f n =(1/2) (k/m)1/2

k = m (2f)2 = m(2/)2 = 4.53 (2x3.14 / 0.45)2 = 883 N/m

When the spring is cut half, k1 = 2k. This is because, the spring stiffness is

k = Gd/64nR (see table on page36 of text 2)

where n is the number of turns, and the rest are the spring parameters. If n is reduced half,

then the stiffness is doubled.

When the mass is put in the middle of the spring, then

m1 d2x /dt2 = -2kx 2kx

m1d2x /dt2 + 4kx = 0

Hence 1= 2(m1/4k)1/2 = (2) (2.26 / (4 x 883) )1/2 = 0.159 s

2.4

2kx

2kx

m1

f =(1/2) (k/m)1/2 = 94/60 k/m = (2 x 94 /60)2

f1 =(1/2) (k/ (m + m1) )1/2 = 76.7/60 k/ (m+0.453) = (2 x 76.7 /60)2

2.5

(m1 + m2) d2x /dt2 = - kx + m2 g

Total solution is

x(t) = m2g / k + A sin nt + B cos nt

where n = [ k /(m1+m2)]1/2

Initial condition

x(0) = 0

v(0) is determined by energy equation, that is

(m1 + m2) v(0)2/2 = m2gh v(0) = [2gh m2 / (m1 + m2)]1/2

x(0) = 0 B = -m2g/k

v(0) = nA = [2gh m2 / (m1 + m2)]1/2 A = [2gh m2 / (m1 + m2)]1/2 / n

Hence

x(t) = (m2g / k )(1- cos nt ) + {[2gh m2 / (m1 + m2)]1/2 / n} sin nt

2.6

x(t) = (v(0)/n) sin nt + x(0)cos nt = Xsin (nt +)

n = [ k /m]1/2 = 41/2 = 2

Amplitude

X = [(v(0)/n)2 + x(0)2]1/2 = [ (8/2)2 + 22]1/2 = 201/2 = 4.47 cm

Acceleration d2x/dt2 = n2X = 22 x 4.47 = 17.89 cm/s2

= atan2(2, -4) = 153.3o

x(t) = 4.47 sin(2t +153.3)

Vibration Assignment 2

3.9

121.6o

X1o

X1o = (2.82 + 62 2 x 2.8 x 6 x cos 35o)1/2 = 4.04 mm

The final balance mass is

m1 = m1 (Xo/X1o) = 2 x (2.8/4.04) = 1.386 oz

The angle is

sin / X1 = sin 35o / X1o

= sin-1(sin 35o X1 / X1o) = sin-1 (sin35o x 6 / 4.04) = 58.4 180 58.4 = 121.6o

By rotating X1o 121.6o clockwise, the new X1o will be opposite to Xo. Hence the final

balance mass is equal to 1.386 oz and it is rotated from the first trial mass position by 121.6o

clockwise.

3.10

Ref

45o

Xo =2.8 mm

135o

111o

X1o

X1 =4.3 mm

m1 =2 oz

X1o = (2.82 + 4.32 2 x 2.8 x 4.3 x cos(111o 45o) )1/2 = 4.05 mm

m1 = 2 x (2.8 /4.05) = 1.38 oz (same as problem 3.9)

3.11

= tan-1 ( 2 (/n) / ( 1 (/n)2)

Since /n = rpm / rpmresonance = 600/900 = 2/3, then

= tan-1 ( 2 x 0.1x (2/3) / ( 1 (2/3)2) = 13.49o

The product of the original unbalance and its radius is determined as

For the original unbalance, the amplitude ratio is

MXo/moeo = (/n)2 / [ ( 1 (/n)2)2 + ( 2 (/n))2 ]1/2

For the trial mass, it is also expressed as

MX1o/m1e1 = (/n)2 / [ ( 1 (/n)2)2 + ( 2 (/n))2 ]1/2

Hence moeo = (Xo/X1o) m1e1 (leading to m1 = (Xo/X1o) m1)

Vibration Assignment 3

3.21 Given = 10.16 cm, Y = 7.62 cm, L = 14.63 m, v = 64.4 km/h.

n = (g/)1/2 = (981/10.16)1/2 =9.83 rad/s

vcri = n L / 2 = 9.83 x 14.63 / 2 = 22.9 m/s

v = 64.4 x 1000 / 3600 = 17.89 m/s

= 2 v / L = 2 x 17.89 / 14.63 = 7.683 rad/s

( /n )2 = (7.683 / 9.83)2 = 0.6117

TR = 1/[1 - ( /n )2] = 1 / (1- 0.6117) = 2.58

X = TR x Y = 2.58 x 7.62 = 19.62 cm

3.23

The equation of motion is

m d2x/dt2 + c dx/dt + kx = c dy/dt + k y

Assuming

y = Y sint,

x = X sin(t- )

then

dy/dt = Y cost

then

(k - m2)X sin(t- ) + cX cos(t- ) = cYcost + kYsint

Expanding to obtain

Coefficient of sint:

Coefficient of cost:

[(k - m2)sin - c cos]X = -cY

tan = mc3 / [k(k - m2) + (c)2] eqn. (3.5.9)

X/Y = {[k2 (c)2] / [(k - m2)2 + (c)2]}1/2 eqn. (3.5.8)

3.28

mmotor = 68 kg, miso = 1200 kg, fn = 160 cpm, = 0.1, F = 100 sin31.4t

X = (F/k) / [(1- (/n)2)2 + (2/n)2]}1/2

n = 2fn = 2 x 160 / 60 = 16.75 rad/s

/n = 31.4 / 16.75 = 1.875

k = n2M = 16.75 ( 68 + 1200) = 355753 N/m

X = (100/355753) / [(1-1.8752)2 + (2 x 0.1 x 1.875)2]1/2 = 1.105 x 10-4 m

TR = {[ 1 + (2/n)2 ] / [ (1- (/n)2)2 + (2/n)2] }1/2

= [1 + (2 x 0.1x 1.875)2] / [ (1- 1.8752)2 + (2 x 0.1x 1.875)2 ]1/2 = 0.42

FT = TR Fo = 0.42 x 100 = 42 (N)

Alternatively,

FT = k X [1 + (2/n)2 ]1/2 = 355753 x 1.105 x 10-4 [1 + (2 x 0.1x 1.875)2]1/2 = 42 (N)

Vibration Assignment 4

4.1

The impulse response is

x = (v(0)/d) e-nt sindt

dx /dt = (v(0)/d) e-nt [ -n sindt + d cosdt ] = 0

Hence

tandt = d / n = (1-2)1/2 /

4.2

See lecture note chapter 11, page 10.

4.3

The step response is

xk / Fo = 1 [e-nt / (1-2)1/2 ] cos (dt - )

d (xk / Fo) / dt = [e-nt / (1-2)1/2 ] [n cos (dt - ) + d sin (dt - )] = 0

Leading to

tan(dt - ) = -d / n = -(1-2)1/2 /

Expanding

(tandt tan ) / ( 1 + tandt tan ) = -(1-2)1/2 /

Note

tan = / (1-2)1/2

tandt = 0

dt = 0 (not feasible)

dt = nt = / (1-2)1/2

4.4

From 4.3,

tp = / d

(xk / Fo)peak

= 1 + (1 / (1-2)1/2 ) exp [(- / (1-2)1/2] cos

Note

then

Vibration Assignment 5

5.1

Compared with lecture note section 12.1, in here, k3 = 0, k1=k2 = k, m1 = m2 = m.

m 1:

m 2:

m d2x2/dt2 + k(x2 x1) = 0

m1m2 2 [ (k1+k2)m2+(k2+k3)m1] + (k1+k2)(k2+k3) k22 = 0

2 3(k/m) + (k/m)2 = 0

Eigenvalues are

1 = 0.382 k/m, 2 = 2.61 k/m

Natural frequencies are

n1 = 0.618 (k/m)1/2, n2 = 1.615 (k/m)1/2

This indicates how the frequencies change for the 2 DOF system made of 2 identical single

DOF systems.

Original equations are

(k - mn2) A2 - kA1 = 0

A1/A2 = (k - mn2) / k = [1 (m/k) n2]

(A1/A2)1 = 0.614

(A1/A2)2 = -1.618

1 = [ 0.614 1]T, 2 = [-1.618 1]T,

Follow problem 5.1, in here k2=nk, k1= k3 =k, m1=m2 =m.

m 1:

m 2:

m d2x2/dt2 + nk(x2 x1) + kx2 = 0

m1m2 2 [ (k1+k2)m2+(k2+k3)m1] + (k1+k2)(k2+k3) k22 = 0

2 2(n+1)(k/m) + (1+2n)(k/m)2 = 0

Eigenvalues are

1,2 = [(1+n) n ] k/m

Natural frequencies are

n1,2 = [(1+n) n ]1/2(k/m)1/2

Original equations are

[(n+1)k - mn2) A2 - nkA1 = 0

A1/A2 = [(n+1)k - mn2] /nk = [(n+1)/n (m/k) n2/n ]

(A1/A2)1 = (n+1)/n (1+2n)/n = -1

(A1/A2)2 = (n+1)/n 1/n = 1

Eigenvectors are

1 = [ -1 1]T, 2 = [1 1]T,

When n =1

n1 = 31/2(k/m)1/2 = 1.732(k/m)1/2; n2 = (k/m)1/2

1 = [ -1 1]T, 2 = [1 1]T,

5.4

Follow problem 5.1, in here k3=3k, k1= k2 =k, m1= 3m, m2 =m.

m 1:

m 2:

m d2x2/dt2 + k(x2 x1) + 3kx2 = 0

m1m2 2 [ (k1+k2)m2+(k2+k3)m1] + (k1+k2)(k2+k3) k22 = 0

32 14(k/m) + 7(k/m)2 = 0

Eigenvalues are

1 = 0.57 k/m;

2 = 4.096 k/m

n1 = 0.75 (k/m)1/2, n2 = 2.02(k/m)1/2

Original equations are

(4k - mn2) A2 - kA1 = 0

A1/A2 = (4k - mn2) / k = [4 (m/k) n2]

(A1/A2)1 = 3.43

(A1/A2)2 = -0.096

Eigenvectors are

1 = [3.43 1]T, 2 = [-0.096 1]T,

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