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# AER 403 Assignment Solutions

Mechanism Assignment 1

Coupler

Foot petal

Cutter

Frame

D
E
B
F
C

Coupler

Input

Output

## Problem 1.19: Watt I

Hood

Mechanism Assignment 2
1.2

## r1= 12 (p), r2=20 (l), r3=5 (s), r4=14 (q)

s+l = 25 < p+q = 12+14 =26
Since s = r3, it is Grashof, R-R.

1.3

## crank-slider (original, no inversion)

1.5

Watt II
a) slider-crank, with an oscillating slide,
b) four-bar: FA (r1)(s) =10, AD (r2) (p) =20, DE(r3) (q) =15, EF(r4) (l) =30
Since s+l = 10 +30 = 40 > p+q = 20 + 15 = 35, it is non-Grashof.

1.6

## AD(r1) = 18 - 25, AB(r2)=20, BC(r3)=5, CD(r4)=15

I) When r1=18, s+l = 20+5 = 25 < p+q =18 +15 = 33
Since s = r3, it is Grashof, R-R
II) When r1=25, s+l = 25+5 = 30 < p+q = 20 +15 = 35
Since s = r3, it is Grashof, R-R

1.19

Watt I,
st
a) 1 four bar: DA(r1)=15, AB(r2)=25, BC(r3)=15, CD(r4)=25, parallelogram
b) 2nd four bar: EC=12, CG=20, GF=12, FE=20, parallelogram.

s = r2 (C ra n k - R o c k er )

< ( p + q ) s = r1 ( D o u b le C ra n k )
G ra sh o f

s = r4 ( R o c k e r - C ran k )

s = r3 ( D o u b le R o ck e r )

## (l + s ) > ( p + q ), N o n G rash o f, T rip p le - R

s = r2 (C - R )

s = r (C - C )
1

s = r4 ( R - C )
= (p + q)

N o n G ra sh o f s = r3 ( R - R )

l = q , s = p

P aralle lo g ram

Mechanism Assignment 3
3.1 Use graphical method to find VA, VB, VC and 3, 4. The sizes are given as AoBo=3.5,
AoA=2, AB=3, BBo=3, AC=3, BC=3; all in inch. AoA is at 60o, 2 =1 rad/s (cw).
Step 1: solve the angles graphically and also can check with your excel program.

Vc = VA + VCA

Ao
Bo

## Step 2: solve VB with VA = AoA x 2 = 2 x 1 rad/s = 2 inches/s

This is case two.
From the drawing

BBo

VB
VBA

VAB =
90 60
= 30

AB
VA

## VB =1.3183 inches/s, VBA= 0.994 inches/s

3 = VBA/AB = 0.994/3= 0.33 rad/s (ccw)
4 = VB/BBo = 1.3183/4= 0.44 rad/s (cw)
2=60; 3=25; 4=86
3 = (r2/r3) (sin(4-2)/sin(3-4))2 = (2/3) [sin(86-60) / sin(25-86)] (-1) = 0.33 (ccw)
4 = (r2/r4) (sin(2-3)/sin(4-3))2 = (2/3) [sin(60-25) / sin(86-25)] (-1) = -0.44 (cw)

## Step 3: This is case one.

From the drawing
VC= 1.1745 inches/s
VCA = AC x 3 = 3 x 0.331 = 0.993 inches /s

VA

VC

VCA
AC

## What are 32 and 34?

32 = 3 - 2 = 0.33 (-1) = 1.33 rad/s
34 = 3 - 4 = 0.33 (-0.44) = 0.77 rad/s
If 3 is given, how to determine 4?

## 3.2 Using the analytical equation for velocity determination

j4 r4 ej4 = j 2 r2 ej2 + j3 r3 ej3
Step 1: determine angles using the displacement equations
r1 + r2 + r3 + r4 = 0
Bx = AAo cos 2 + AB cos 3
By = BC = AAo sin2 + AB sin3
3 = sin-1 [(AAo sin2 BC)/AB] = sin-1 [(2 sin120 1)/3] = 14.12o

Ao

## Step 2: determine angular velocity of link 3

VBx = -2 AAo sin2 -3 AB sin3
VBy = 2 AAo cos2 + 3 AB cos3
Since VBy = 0, then
3 = - 2 AAo cos2 /AB cos3 = -(-1) x 2 x cos120 / 3 cos14.12o = -0.34 rad/s
(cw)
Step 3: solve for link 4
VBx = -2 AAo sin2 -3 AB sin3 = 1 x 2 sin 120 + 0.34 x 3 sin14.12 = 1.81/s
4 = VBx / BC = 1.81/1 = 1.81 rad/s
VC = 2 VBx = 1.81 x 2 = 3.62/s

3.3 Determine:
1) transmission angle
3) force at the bottom.
Sizes are given as
AD = 2.6, AB = 2, BC = 3, CD = 3.5
rin = 4, rout = 1.7.
F = 10 (N)
AB is horizontal.
Step 1. solve the angles using your excel program.
2 = 90o
3 = 30o
4 = 90o

B
2

Step 2: = 4 - 3 = 60o

F
3

Step 3:

v = 2 - 3 = 60o

## hence M.A. = (3.5/2) (sin60/sin60) (4/1.7)

= 4.12
Step 4:
Fout = M.A. x Fin = 10 x 4.12 = 41.2 (N)

Mechanism Assignment 4
4.4 Find the velocity and acceleration of point C. Size is in inch. 2= -60 rad/s, 2= -900
C

r3 = 3.6
B

r2 = 2

r4 = 2.5

2 = 60

4
r1 =4.5

Solution:

AC = AB + ACB
AtC + AnC = AtB + AnB + AtCB + AnCB
j4r4 ej4 - 42r4 ej4 = j2r2 ej2 - 22r2 ej2 + j3r3 ej3 - 32r3 ej3

## 2) Solve angular velocities and accelerations

3 = (r2/r3) (sin(4-2)/sin(3-4))2
= (2/3.6) (sin(30)/sin(-78))(-60) = 17.52 rad/s (ccw)
4 = (r2/r4) (sin(2-3)/sin(4-3))2
= (2/2.5) (sin(48)/sin(78))(-60) = -36.47 rad/s (cw)
4 = r2 2 sin(3 -2) r222cos(3 -2) + r4 24cos(3 -4) r323
r4 sin(3 -4)
= 2(-900) sin(-48) 2x602cos(-48) + 2.5x36.472cos(-78) + 3.6x17.522
2.5 sin(-78)
= 1567.86 (ccw)
Vc = 4 x r4 = 36.47 rad/s x 2.5 = 91.2 inches/s
3) Solve acceleration
a) Graphical method. By forming a vector polygon
AtC + AnC = AtB + AnB + AtCB + AnCB
To solve AtC and then AC = AtC + AnC
b) Analytical method (used here). Solving 4 and then
AC = [(r44)2 + (r424)2]1/2 = 5139 inch/s2
AC = arctan (24 / 4) = arctan (36.472 / 1567.86) = 40 + 180 = 220o

4.6 Find the acceleration of point C. Size is in inch. 2= -25 rad/s, 2= -180 rad/s2.
D
r3 = 12
B
8
5
r2 = 5

r4 = 10

2 = 60
r1 =15
A

Solution:

AC = AB + ACB
AtC + AnC = AtB + AnB + AtCB + AnCB

B
C

## 2) Solve angular velocity and acceleration of link 3

3 = (r2/r3) (sin(4-2)/sin(3-4))2
= (5/12) (sin(41)/sin(-74))(-25) = 7.11 rad/s (ccw)
3 = -r2 2 sin(4 -2) + r222cos(4 -2) + r323cos(4 -3) r424
r3 sin(4 -3)
2

3) Solve acceleration
a) Analytical method. Use complex number expression to project all accelerations along x
and y, respectively, and then AC is the vector sum.
AtC + AnC = AtB + AnB + AtCB + AnCB
b) Graphical method (used here)
AtB = r2 2ej(60-90)= 900e-j30 (inch/s2) (2= -180 rad/s2 (cw))
Direction 

 -30o

Magnitude 

Direction 

Magnitude 

 88o
Direction 

Magnitude 

Direction 

Magnitude 

Ac = AtC + AnC
Direction ?

Magnitude ?

## The vector polygon is scaled down by 1/100, hence

AC = 2246.83 inch/s2

AC

(240 )

AtCB (88o)
AtB (-30o)

AnCB(178o)

## 4.22 Complete the acceleration polygon. Size is in inch.

3
r2 =1.8

r4= 2.3
4

r1 = 3.5
V4=20/s

1
An2 =934/s2

V2 =41/s
V42 =36/s

Solution:
1) Solve angular velocity
2 = V2 / r2 = 41/1.8 =-22.78 rad/s (cw)
4 = V4 / r4 = 20/2.3 = 8.7 rad/s (ccw)
2) Solve acceleration
2
2
j2r2ej2 - 2 r2ej2 = j4r4ej4 - 4 r4ej4 + A42 ej4 + Ac42
Dir
x
x
x
x
x
x
Mag x
x
x
x
At2 = 0
2
2
2
An2 = V 2/r2 = 41 /1.8 = 933.89 inch/s
2
2
2
An4 = V 4/r4 = 20 /2.3 = 173.91 inch/s
Ac42 = 2V424= 2 x 36 x 8.7 = 626.4 inch/s2
The vector polygon is scaled down by 1/100, hence
At4 = 1460 inch/s2
A42 = 593 inch/s2

An4 =174/s

An4
Ac42

An2

4
At4

A42

V42

Vibration Assignment 1
2.1

Given = 7.87mm
fn = (1/2)(g/)/12 = (1/2)(9.8 / (7.87x10-3)) = 5.62 Hz

2.2

Given f2 = f1/2

## For the first single spring,

f1 = (1/2) (k1/m1)1/2
when the second spring is added in serial, then
1/k = 1/k1 + 1/k2  k = k1k2/ (k1 + k2)
f2 = (1/2) (k/m1)1/2 = f1/2
Hence 4k/m1 = k1/m1
4(k1k2)/(k1+k2) = k1  4k2 = k1+k2  3k2 = k1  k2 = k1/3
2.3

Given m =4.53 kg, = 0.45s. Then m1 = 2.26 kg is added in the middle of the spring.

## For the original spring mass system

f n =(1/2) (k/m)1/2

k = m (2f)2 = m(2/)2 = 4.53 (2x3.14 / 0.45)2 = 883 N/m
When the spring is cut half, k1 = 2k. This is because, the spring stiffness is
k = Gd/64nR (see table on page36 of text 2)
where n is the number of turns, and the rest are the spring parameters. If n is reduced half,
then the stiffness is doubled.
When the mass is put in the middle of the spring, then
m1 d2x /dt2 = -2kx 2kx
m1d2x /dt2 + 4kx = 0
Hence 1= 2(m1/4k)1/2 = (2) (2.26 / (4 x 883) )1/2 = 0.159 s
2.4

2kx

2kx
m1

## f = 94 cpm (cycles per minute). When m1 = 0.453 kg is added, f2 = 76.7 cpm

f =(1/2) (k/m)1/2 = 94/60  k/m = (2 x 94 /60)2
f1 =(1/2) (k/ (m + m1) )1/2 = 76.7/60  k/ (m+0.453) = (2 x 76.7 /60)2

2.5

## The equation of motion is

(m1 + m2) d2x /dt2 = - kx + m2 g
Total solution is
x(t) = m2g / k + A sin nt + B cos nt
where n = [ k /(m1+m2)]1/2
Initial condition
x(0) = 0
v(0) is determined by energy equation, that is
(m1 + m2) v(0)2/2 = m2gh  v(0) = [2gh m2 / (m1 + m2)]1/2
x(0) = 0  B = -m2g/k
v(0) = nA = [2gh m2 / (m1 + m2)]1/2  A = [2gh m2 / (m1 + m2)]1/2 / n
Hence
x(t) = (m2g / k )(1- cos nt ) + {[2gh m2 / (m1 + m2)]1/2 / n} sin nt
2.6

## Free vibration equation is

x(t) = (v(0)/n) sin nt + x(0)cos nt = Xsin (nt +)
n = [ k /m]1/2 = 41/2 = 2
Amplitude
X = [(v(0)/n)2 + x(0)2]1/2 = [ (8/2)2 + 22]1/2 = 201/2 = 4.47 cm
Acceleration d2x/dt2 = n2X = 22 x 4.47 = 17.89 cm/s2
= atan2(2, -4) = 153.3o
x(t) = 4.47 sin(2t +153.3)

Vibration Assignment 2
3.9

121.6o

X1o

## Xo = 2.8 mm, X1 =6.0 mm, m1 = 2 oz

X1o = (2.82 + 62 2 x 2.8 x 6 x cos 35o)1/2 = 4.04 mm
The final balance mass is
m1 = m1 (Xo/X1o) = 2 x (2.8/4.04) = 1.386 oz
The angle is
sin / X1 = sin 35o / X1o

= sin-1(sin 35o X1 / X1o) = sin-1 (sin35o x 6 / 4.04) = 58.4 180 58.4 = 121.6o


## Law of Cosines is better.

By rotating X1o 121.6o clockwise, the new X1o will be opposite to Xo. Hence the final
balance mass is equal to 1.386 oz and it is rotated from the first trial mass position by 121.6o
clockwise.

3.10
Ref

45o
Xo =2.8 mm
135o

111o

X1o

X1 =4.3 mm
m1 =2 oz
X1o = (2.82 + 4.32 2 x 2.8 x 4.3 x cos(111o 45o) )1/2 = 4.05 mm
m1 = 2 x (2.8 /4.05) = 1.38 oz (same as problem 3.9)

3.11

## For forced vibration, the phase is determined by

= tan-1 ( 2 (/n) / ( 1 (/n)2)
Since /n = rpm / rpmresonance = 600/900 = 2/3, then
= tan-1 ( 2 x 0.1x (2/3) / ( 1 (2/3)2) = 13.49o
The product of the original unbalance and its radius is determined as
For the original unbalance, the amplitude ratio is
MXo/moeo = (/n)2 / [ ( 1 (/n)2)2 + ( 2 (/n))2 ]1/2
For the trial mass, it is also expressed as
MX1o/m1e1 = (/n)2 / [ ( 1 (/n)2)2 + ( 2 (/n))2 ]1/2
Hence moeo = (Xo/X1o) m1e1 (leading to m1 = (Xo/X1o) m1)

Vibration Assignment 3
3.21 Given = 10.16 cm, Y = 7.62 cm, L = 14.63 m, v = 64.4 km/h.
n = (g/)1/2 = (981/10.16)1/2 =9.83 rad/s
vcri = n L / 2 = 9.83 x 14.63 / 2 = 22.9 m/s
v = 64.4 x 1000 / 3600 = 17.89 m/s
= 2 v / L = 2 x 17.89 / 14.63 = 7.683 rad/s
( /n )2 = (7.683 / 9.83)2 = 0.6117
TR = 1/[1 - ( /n )2] = 1 / (1- 0.6117) = 2.58
X = TR x Y = 2.58 x 7.62 = 19.62 cm

3.23
The equation of motion is
m d2x/dt2 + c dx/dt + kx = c dy/dt + k y
Assuming
y = Y sint,
x = X sin(t- )

then

dy/dt = Y cost

then

## Substituting into the equation of motion

(k - m2)X sin(t- ) + cX cos(t- ) = cYcost + kYsint
Expanding to obtain
Coefficient of sint:
Coefficient of cost:

## [(k - m2)cos + csin]X = kY

[(k - m2)sin - c cos]X = -cY

## Solve these two equations and obtain

tan = mc3 / [k(k - m2) + (c)2]  eqn. (3.5.9)
X/Y = {[k2 (c)2] / [(k - m2)2 + (c)2]}1/2  eqn. (3.5.8)

3.28

mmotor = 68 kg, miso = 1200 kg, fn = 160 cpm, = 0.1, F = 100 sin31.4t
X = (F/k) / [(1- (/n)2)2 + (2/n)2]}1/2
n = 2fn = 2 x 160 / 60 = 16.75 rad/s
/n = 31.4 / 16.75 = 1.875
k = n2M = 16.75 ( 68 + 1200) = 355753 N/m
X = (100/355753) / [(1-1.8752)2 + (2 x 0.1 x 1.875)2]1/2 = 1.105 x 10-4 m
TR = {[ 1 + (2/n)2 ] / [ (1- (/n)2)2 + (2/n)2] }1/2
= [1 + (2 x 0.1x 1.875)2] / [ (1- 1.8752)2 + (2 x 0.1x 1.875)2 ]1/2 = 0.42
FT = TR Fo = 0.42 x 100 = 42 (N)
Alternatively,
FT = k X [1 + (2/n)2 ]1/2 = 355753 x 1.105 x 10-4 [1 + (2 x 0.1x 1.875)2]1/2 = 42 (N)

Vibration Assignment 4
4.1
The impulse response is
x = (v(0)/d) e-nt sindt
dx /dt = (v(0)/d) e-nt [ -n sindt + d cosdt ] = 0
Hence
tandt = d / n = (1-2)1/2 /
4.2
See lecture note chapter 11, page 10.

4.3
The step response is
xk / Fo = 1 [e-nt / (1-2)1/2 ] cos (dt - )
d (xk / Fo) / dt = [e-nt / (1-2)1/2 ] [n cos (dt - ) + d sin (dt - )] = 0
tan(dt - ) = -d / n = -(1-2)1/2 /
Expanding
(tandt tan ) / ( 1 + tandt tan ) = -(1-2)1/2 /
Note

tan = / (1-2)1/2

## Substitute tan and solve it, leading to

tandt = 0


dt = 0 (not feasible)
dt =  nt = / (1-2)1/2

4.4
From 4.3,

tp = / d

(xk / Fo)peak

## = 1 (1 / (1-2)1/2 ) exp [(- / (1-2)1/2] cos (- )

= 1 + (1 / (1-2)1/2 ) exp [(- / (1-2)1/2] cos

Note

then

## (xk / Fo)peak = 1 + exp [(- / (1-2)1/2]

Vibration Assignment 5
5.1
Compared with lecture note section 12.1, in here, k3 = 0, k1=k2 = k, m1 = m2 = m.
m 1:
m 2:

## m d2x1/dt2 + kx1 + k(x1 x2) = 0

m d2x2/dt2 + k(x2 x1) = 0

## Let = n2, then the characteristic equation is

m1m2 2 [ (k1+k2)m2+(k2+k3)m1] + (k1+k2)(k2+k3) k22 = 0


2 3(k/m) + (k/m)2 = 0

Eigenvalues are
1 = 0.382 k/m, 2 = 2.61 k/m
Natural frequencies are
n1 = 0.618 (k/m)1/2, n2 = 1.615 (k/m)1/2
This indicates how the frequencies change for the 2 DOF system made of 2 identical single
DOF systems.
Original equations are

## (2k - mn2) A1 - kA2 = 0

(k - mn2) A2 - kA1 = 0
A1/A2 = (k - mn2) / k = [1 (m/k) n2]
(A1/A2)1 = 0.614
(A1/A2)2 = -1.618

## Eigenvectors (modes) are

1 = [ 0.614 1]T, 2 = [-1.618 1]T,

## 5.2 & 5.3

Follow problem 5.1, in here k2=nk, k1= k3 =k, m1=m2 =m.
m 1:
m 2:

## m d2x1/dt2 + kx1 + nk(x1 x2) = 0

m d2x2/dt2 + nk(x2 x1) + kx2 = 0

## Let = n2, then the characteristic equation is

m1m2 2 [ (k1+k2)m2+(k2+k3)m1] + (k1+k2)(k2+k3) k22 = 0


## 2 2(n+1)(k/m) + (n+1)2(k/m)2 (nk/m)2 = 0

2 2(n+1)(k/m) + (1+2n)(k/m)2 = 0

Eigenvalues are
1,2 = [(1+n) n ] k/m
Natural frequencies are
n1,2 = [(1+n) n ]1/2(k/m)1/2
Original equations are

## [(n+1)k - mn2] A1 - nkA2 = 0

[(n+1)k - mn2) A2 - nkA1 = 0
A1/A2 = [(n+1)k - mn2] /nk = [(n+1)/n (m/k) n2/n ]
(A1/A2)1 = (n+1)/n (1+2n)/n = -1
(A1/A2)2 = (n+1)/n 1/n = 1

Eigenvectors are
1 = [ -1 1]T, 2 = [1 1]T,
When n =1
n1 = 31/2(k/m)1/2 = 1.732(k/m)1/2; n2 = (k/m)1/2
1 = [ -1 1]T, 2 = [1 1]T,

5.4
Follow problem 5.1, in here k3=3k, k1= k2 =k, m1= 3m, m2 =m.
m 1:
m 2:

## 3m d2x1/dt2 + kx1 + k(x1 x2) = 0

m d2x2/dt2 + k(x2 x1) + 3kx2 = 0

## Let = n2, then the characteristic equation is

m1m2 2 [ (k1+k2)m2+(k2+k3)m1] + (k1+k2)(k2+k3) k22 = 0


## 32 14(k/m) + 8(k/m)2 (k/m)2 = 0

32 14(k/m) + 7(k/m)2 = 0

Eigenvalues are
1 = 0.57 k/m;

2 = 4.096 k/m

## Natural frequencies are

n1 = 0.75 (k/m)1/2, n2 = 2.02(k/m)1/2
Original equations are

## (2k - 3mn2) A1 - kA2 = 0

(4k - mn2) A2 - kA1 = 0
A1/A2 = (4k - mn2) / k = [4 (m/k) n2]
(A1/A2)1 = 3.43
(A1/A2)2 = -0.096

Eigenvectors are
1 = [3.43 1]T, 2 = [-0.096 1]T,