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A gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part in order

to transmit torque. Two or more gears working in tandem are called atransmission and can produce
a mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple machine. Geared
devices can change the speed, torque, and direction of a power source. The most common situation is for
a gear to mesh with another gear, however a gear can also mesh a non-rotating toothed part, called a
rack, thereby producing translation instead of rotation.
The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a pulley. An advantage of gears is that the
teeth of a gear prevent slipping.
When two gears of unequal number of teeth are combined a mechanical advantage is produced, with
both the rotational speeds and the torques of the two gears differing in a simple relationship.
In transmissions which offer multiple gear ratios, such as bicycles and cars, the term gear, as in first gear,
refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear. The term is used to describe similar devices
even when gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or when the device does not actually contain any
gears, as in a continuously variable transmission.[1]
The earliest known reference to gears was circa A.D. 50 by Hero of Alexandria,[2] but they can be traced
back to the Greek mechanics of the Alexandrian school in the 3rd century B.C. and were greatly
developed by the Greek polymath Archimedes (287212 B.C.).[3] The Antikythera mechanism is an
example of a very early and intricate geared device, designed to calculate astronomical positions. Its time
of construction is now estimated between 150 and 100 BC. [4]

Types of gears

External vs internal gears

An external gear is one with the teeth formed on the outer surface of a cylinder or cone. Conversely,
an internal gear is one with the teeth formed on the inner surface of a cylinder or cone. For bevel gears,
an internal gear is one with the pitch angle exceeding 90 degrees. Internal gears do not cause output
shaft direction reversal.[5]


Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear. They consist of a cylinder or disk with the
teeth projecting radially, and although they are not straight-sided in form, the edge of each tooth is straight
and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation. These gears can be meshed together correctly only if they are
fitted to parallel shafts.


Helical or "dry fixed" gears offer a refinement over spur gears. The leading edges of the teeth are not
parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle. Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the
tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears can be meshed in parallel or crossed orientations.
The former refers to when the shafts are parallel to each other; this is the most common orientation. In the
latter, the shafts are non-parallel, and in this configuration are sometimes known as "skew gears".
The angled teeth engage more gradually than do spur gear teeth causing them to run more smoothly and
quietly.[6] With parallel helical gears, each pair of teeth first make contact at a single point at one side of
the gear wheel; a moving curve of contact then grows gradually across the tooth face to a maximum then
recedes until the teeth break contact at a single point on the opposite side. In spur gears teeth suddenly
meet at a line contact across their entire width causing stress and noise. Spur gears make a characteristic
whine at high speeds. Whereas spur gears are used for low speed applications and those situations
where noise control is not a problem, the use of helical gears is indicated when the application involves
high speeds, large power transmission, or where noise abatement is important.[7] The speed is considered
to be high when the pitch line velocity exceeds 25 m/s.[8]
A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust along the axis of the gear, which needs to be
accommodated by appropriate thrust bearings, and a greater degree of sliding friction between the
meshing teeth, often addressed with additives in the lubricant.
[edit]Skew gears
For a 'crossed' or 'skew' configuration the gears must have the same pressure angle and normal pitch;
however the helix angle and handedness can be different. The relationship between the two shafts is
actually defined by the helix angle(s) of the two shafts and the handedness, as defined: [9]
for gears of the same handedness

for gears of opposite handedness

Where is the helix angle for the gear. The crossed configuration is less mechanically sound
because there is only a point contact between the gears, whereas in the parallel configuration
there is a line contact.[9]
Quite commonly helical gears are used with the helix angle of one having the negative of the
helix angle of the other; such a pair might also be referred to as having a right-handed helix and
a left-handed helix of equal angles. The two equal but opposite angles add to zero: the angle
between shafts is zero that is, the shafts are parallel. Where the sum or the difference (as
described in the equations above) is not zero the shafts are crossed. For shafts crossed at right
angles the helix angles are of the same hand because they must add to 90 degrees.

3D Animation of helical gears (parallel axis)

3D Animation of helical gears (crossed axis)

Double helical gears, or herringbone gears, overcome the problem of axial thrust presented by
"single" helical gears, by having two sets of teeth that are set in a V shape. A double helical gear
can be thought of as two mirrored helical gears joined together. This arrangement cancels out
the net axial thrust, since each half of the gear thrusts in the opposite direction. However,
double helical gears are more difficult to manufacture due to their more complicated shape.
For both possible rotational directions, there exist two possible arrangements for the oppositelyoriented helical gears or gear faces. One arrangement is stable, and the other is unstable. In a
stable orientation, the helical gear faces are oriented so that each axial force is directed toward

the center of the gear. In an unstable orientation, both axial forces are directed away from the
center of the gear. In both arrangements, the total (or net) axial force on each gear is zero when
the gears are aligned correctly. If the gears become misaligned in the axial direction, the
unstable arrangement will generate a net force that may lead to disassembly of the gear train,
while the stable arrangement generates a net corrective force. If the direction of rotation is
reversed, the direction of the axial thrusts is also reversed, so a stable configuration becomes
unstable, and vice versa.
Stable double helical gears can be directly interchanged with spur gears without any need for
different bearings.

Main article: Bevel gear
A bevel gear is shaped like a right circular cone with most of its tip cut off. When two bevel
gears mesh, their imaginary vertices must occupy the same point. Their shaft axes also
intersect at this point, forming an arbitrary non-straight angle between the shafts. The angle
between the shafts can be anything except zero or 180 degrees. Bevel gears with equal
numbers of teeth and shaft axes at 90 degrees are called miter gears.

3D Animation of two bevel gears

Spiral bevel gear

The teeth of a bevel gear may be straight-cut as with spur gears, or they may be cut in a variety
of other shapes. Spiral bevel gear teeth are curved along the tooth's length and set at an angle,
analogously to the way helical gear teeth are set at an angle compared to spur gear teeth. Zerol

bevel gears have teeth which are curved along their length, but not angled. Spiral bevel gears
have the same advantages and disadvantages relative to their straight-cut cousins as helical
gears do to spur gears. Straight bevel gears are generally used only at speeds below 5 m/s
(1000 ft/min), or, for small gears, 1000 r.p.m.[10]


Crown gear

Main article: Crown gear

Crown gears or contrate gears are a particular form of bevel gear whose teeth project at right
angles to the plane of the wheel; in their orientation the teeth resemble the points on a crown. A
crown gear can only mesh accurately with another bevel gear, although crown gears are
sometimes seen meshing with spur gears. A crown gear is also sometimes meshed with
an escapement such as found in mechanical clocks.


Worm gear

4-start worm and wheel

Main article: Worm drive

Main article: Slewing drive
Worm gears resemble screws. A worm gear is usually meshed with a spur gear or a helical
gear, which is called the gear, wheel, or worm wheel.
Worm-and-gear sets are a simple and compact way to achieve a high torque, low speed gear
ratio. For example, helical gears are normally limited to gear ratios of less than 10:1 while wormand-gear sets vary from 10:1 to 500:1.[14] A disadvantage is the potential for considerable sliding
action, leading to low efficiency.[15]
Worm gears can be considered a species of helical gear, but its helix angle is usually somewhat
large (close to 90 degrees) and its body is usually fairly long in the axial direction; and it is these
attributes which give it screw like qualities. The distinction between a worm and a helical gear is
made when at least one tooth persists for a full rotation around the helix. If this occurs, it is a
'worm'; if not, it is a 'helical gear'. A worm may have as few as one tooth. If that tooth persists for
several turns around the helix, the worm will appear, superficially, to have more than one tooth,
but what one in fact sees is the same tooth reappearing at intervals along the length of the
worm. The usual screw nomenclature applies: a one-toothed worm is calledsingle
thread or single start; a worm with more than one tooth is called multiple thread or multiple start.
The helix angle of a worm is not usually specified. Instead, the lead angle, which is equal to 90
degrees minus the helix angle, is given.
In a worm-and-gear set, the worm can always drive the gear. However, if the gear attempts to
drive the worm, it may or may not succeed. Particularly if the lead angle is small, the gear's
teeth may simply lock against the worm's teeth, because the force component circumferential to
the worm is not sufficient to overcome friction. Worm-and-gear sets that do lock are called self
locking, which can be used to advantage, as for instance when it is desired to set the position
of a mechanism by turning the worm and then have the mechanism hold that position. An
example is the machine head found on some types of stringed instruments.
If the gear in a worm-and-gear set is an ordinary helical gear only a single point of contact will
be achieved.[16] If medium to high power transmission is desired, the tooth shape of the gear is

modified to achieve more intimate contact by making both gears partially envelop each other.
This is done by making both concave and joining them at a saddle point; this is called a conedrive.[17] or "Double enveloping"
Worm gears can be right or left-handed following the long established practice for screw
3D Animation of a worm-gear set

Rack and pinion

Rack and pinion gearing

Main article: Rack and pinion

A rack is a toothed bar or rod that can be thought of as a sector gear with an infinitely

large radius of curvature. Torque can be converted to linear force by meshing a rack with
a pinion: the pinion turns; the rack moves in a straight line. Such a mechanism is used in
automobiles to convert the rotation of the steering wheel into the left-to-right motion of
the tie rod(s). Racks also feature in the theory of gear geometry, where, for instance, the
tooth shape of an interchangeable set of gears may be specified for the rack (infinite
radius), and the tooth shapes for gears of particular actual radii then derived from that.
The rack and pinion gear type is employed in a rack railway.

The above gearing system is called a rack and pinion. Circular motion is
changed into linear motion. If the pinion rotates in a fixed position the rack
moves in a linear motion.


Epicyclic gearing

Main article: Epicyclic gearing

In epicyclic gearing one or more of the gear axes moves. Examples are sun and planet

gearing (see below) and mechanical differentials.

[edit]Sun and planet

Sun (yellow) and planet (red) gearing

Main article: Sun and planet gear

Sun and planet gearing was a method of converting reciprocating motion into rotary

motion in steam engines. It was famously used by James Watt on his early steam
engines in order to get around the patent on the crank.
In the illustration, the sun is yellow, the planet red, the reciprocating arm is blue,
the flywheel is green and the driveshaft is grey.

Cage gear

Cage gear in Pantigo Windmill, Long Island

A cage gear, also called a lantern gear or lantern pinion has cylindrical rods for teeth,

parallel to the axle and arranged in a circle around it, much as the bars on a round bird
cage or lantern. The assembly is held together by disks at either end into which the tooth
rods and axle are set. Lantern gears are more efficient than solid pinions, and dirt can
fall through the rods rather than becoming trapped and increasing wear.
Sometimes used in clocks, the lantern pinion should always be driven by a gearwheel,

not used as the driver. The lantern pinion was not initially favoured by conservative clock
makers. It became popular in turret clocks where dirty working conditions were most
commonplace. Domestic American clock movements often used them.
[edit]Magnetic gear

All cogs of each gear component of such gear are performed as a constant magnet with

periodic alternation of opposite magnetic poles on mating surfaces and nearest poles of
cogs of different gear components are similar. And gear components are mounted with a
backlash with capability of mechanical gearing.
At not too big load such gear works without touch of motive details and has a raised

reliability without noise.

(Literature: Kravchenko A.I., Bovda A.M. Gear with magnetic couple. Pat. of Ukraine N.
56700 Bul. N. 2, 2011 F16H 49/00.)

Main article: Backlash (engineering)
Backlash is the error in motion that occurs when gears change direction. It exists because there
is always some gap between the trailing face of the driving tooth and the leading face of the
tooth behind it on the driven gear, and that gap must be closed before force can be transferred
in the new direction. The term "backlash" can also be used to refer to the size of the gap, not
just the phenomenon it causes; thus, one could speak of a pair of gears as having, for example,
"0.1 mm of backlash." A pair of gears could be designed to have zero backlash, but this would
presuppose perfection in manufacturing, uniform thermal expansion characteristics throughout
the system, and no lubricant. Therefore, gear pairs are designed to have some backlash. It is
usually provided by reducing the tooth thickness of each gear by half the desired gap distance.
In the case of a large gear and a small pinion, however, the backlash is usually taken entirely off

the gear and the pinion is given full sized teeth. Backlash can also be provided by moving the
gears further apart. The backlash of a gear train equals the sum of the backlash of each pair of
gears, so in long trains backlash can become a problem.
For situations in which precision is important, such as instrumentation and control, backlash can
be minimised through one of several techniques. For instance, the gear can be split along a
plane perpendicular to the axis, one half fixed to the shaft in the usual manner, the other half
placed alongside it, free to rotate about the shaft, but with springs between the two halves
providing relative torque between them, so that one achieves, in effect, a single gear with
expanding teeth. Another method involves tapering the teeth in the axial direction and providing
for the gear to be slid in the axial direction to take up slack.

of gears

In some machines (e.g., automobiles) it is necessary to alter the gear ratio to suit the task, a
process known as gear shifting or changing gear. There are several ways of shifting gears, for

Manual transmission

Automatic transmission

Derailleur gears which are actually sprockets in combination with a roller chain

Hub gears (also called epicyclic gearing or sun-and-planet gears)

There are several outcomes of gear shifting in motor vehicles. In the case of vehicle noise
emissions, there are higher sound levels emitted when the vehicle is engaged in lower gears.
The design life of the lower ratio gears is shorter, so cheaper gears may be used (i.e. spur for
1st and reverse) which tends to generate more noise due to smaller overlap ratio and a lower
mesh stiffness etc. than the helical gears used for the high ratios. This fact has been utilized in
analyzing vehicle generated sound since the late 1960s, and has been incorporated into the
simulation of urban roadway noise and corresponding design of urban noise barriers along

Gear materials

Wooden gears of a historic windmill

Numerous nonferrous alloys, cast irons, powder-metallurgy and plastics are used in the
manufacture of gears. However, steels are most commonly used because of their high strengthto-weight ratio and low cost. Plastic is commonly used where cost or weight is a concern. A
properly designed plastic gear can replace steel in many cases because it has many desirable
properties, including dirt tolerance, low speed meshing, the ability to "skip" quite well [20]and the
ability to be made with materials not needing additional lubrication. Manufacturers have
employed plastic gears to reduce costs in consumer items including copy machines, optical
storage devices, VCRs, cheap dynamos, consumer audio equipment, servo motors, and

Gear train
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Gearing" redirects here. For the financial concept of "gearing", see leverage (finance). For other meanings of
"gearing", see gearing (disambiguation).

Illustration from Army Service Corps Training on Mechanical Transport, (1911), Fig. 112 Transmission of motion and
force by gear wheels, compound train

A gear train is formed by mounting gears on a frame so that the teeth of the gears engage. Gear teeth are
designed to ensure the pitch circles of engaging gears roll on each other without slipping, this provides a
smooth transmission of rotation from one gear to the next. [1]
The transmission of rotation between contacting toothed wheels can be traced back to the Antikythera
mechanism of Greece and the South Pointing Chariot of China. Illustrations by the renaissance
scientist Georgius Agricola show gear trains with cylindrical teeth. The implementation of the involute
tooth yielded a standard gear design that provides a constant speed ratio.
Some important features of gears and gear trains are:

The ratio of the pitch circles of mating gears defines the speed ratio and the mechanical advantage of
the gear set.

A planetary gear train provides high gear reduction in a compact package.

It is possible to design gear teeth for gears that are non-circular, yet still transmit torque smoothly.

The speed ratios of chain and belt drives are computed in the same way as gear ratios. See bicycle

Types of gear trains include:

Simple gear train

Compound gear train

Epicyclic gear train

Reverted gear train

Gears have many uses in our lives. They are used to :
- multiply or reduce speed and force;
- change the direction of motion;
- transmit a force over a distance.

Intermeshing gears are used to transmit

motion and force. A series of intermeshing
gears is called a gear train. Intermeshing
gears turn in opposing directions.
An understanding of some of the
terminology is needed. In a gear train we
have a gear known as the driver and one
known as the follower.
Driver - is the gear that has the force or
motion input.
Follower - is the gear that results in the
force or motion output.
The above diagram shows a very simple gear train.
Notice how the gears spin in opposite directions. If we
were to turn the large gear (driver) we can multiply the
number of turns generated by the smaller gear
We often talk about a gear ratio. The gear ratio of a gear train is the number of teeth on the follower
divided by the number of teeth on the driver. In the gear train above the driver has 18 teeth while the
follower has 8 teeth. Therefore the gear ratio is 8/18 or 4/9. For every 4 turns of the driver the follower
turns 9 times. This gear train can be used to multiply speed on a bicycle if the follower was connected
to a wheel and the driver connected to the paddles.

Now if we were to change the driver and

the follower we can increase the gear ratio.
The gear ratio of the gear train on the right
is 18/8 or 9/4. For every 9 turns of the
driver the follower will make 4 complete
rotations. Now this gear train is not for
multiplying speed but for multiplying force.

A simple rule applies.

Low gear ratio = more speed = less force
High gear ratio= less speed = more force.

Compound gear trains

Compound gear trains have two or more pairs of gears in mesh, so that they rotate together.

Compound gear trains have two or more pairs of gears in mesh, so that they rotate together.

This compound gear train has gears on three shafts.

The gear on the input shaft meshes with a larger gear on a counter-shaft or cluster gear. The countershaft has a smaller gear formed on it, in mesh with the output shaft gear.
The motion of the input is transferred through the large gear, along the counter-shaft to the smaller gear,
to the output.
The output turns in the same direction as the input, but at a reduced ratio, depending on the relative
sizes of the gears.
Since two pairs of gears are involved, their ratios are compounded, or multiplied together.
The input gear, with 12 teeth, drives its mating gear on the counter-shaft, which has 24 teeth. This is a
ratio of 2 to 1.
This ratio of DRIVEN over DRIVER at the Input - 2 to 1 - is then multiplied by the Output ratio, which has
a DRIVEN to DRIVER ratio of 3 to 1.
This gives a gear ratio of 6 to 1 between the input and the output, resulting in a speed reduction and a
corresponding increase in torque.
Gear reductions in the lower gears of manual transmissions can be provided by compound gear trains.
Typical ratios are, 1st gear - 4.41 to 1 2nd gear - 2.63 to 1, and 3rd gear - 1.61 to 1.
Fourth gear is normally a ratio of 1 to 1. The input and output shafts turn at the same speed. There is no
torque multiplication. A fifth gear is normally an overdrive ratio, typically with a value of .87 to 1.
Then the output shaft turns faster than the input, but the output torque is reduced.
A further reduction is always provided by the final drive gears. Their ratio is included when calculating
overall gear reduction.
The overall gear ratio is the gearbox ratio multiplied by the final drive ratio.
A gearbox ratio of 3 to 1 with a final drive ratio of 4 to 1, gives an overall ratio of 12 to 1.
12 revolutions of the crankshaft result in 1 turn of the driving road wheels. Assuming 100% efficiency, the
torque applied is 12 times the engine torque, although this is divided equally between the driving wheels.


A reverted gear train is very similar to a compound gear train. They are both used when there is
only a small space between the input and output shafts and large changes in speed or power are

There are two major differences between compound and reverted gear trains. First, the
input and output shafts of a reverted train must be on the same axis (in a straight line
with one another). Second, the distance between the centers of the two gears in each
pair must be the same.

The majority of gears are composed of carbon and low-alloy steels, including carburised steels.
Among the carburised steels used in gears are 1018, 1524, 4026, 4118, 4320, 4620, 4820,
8620 and 9310. The intended gear use will dictate the material used in its creation. For example
gears to be used in food processing are made of stainless steels or nickel-base alloys because
of their corrosion resistance.

A compound gear is a number of gears fixed together.

Consequently, they rotate at the same speed. An example can be
seen below.
The gears that make up a compound gear usually differ in size and
have a different number of teeth. This is useful if there is a need to
speed up or slow down the final output.
For the example seen opposite, the output speed will be faster than
the input speed

The materials used for the manufacture of gears depends upon the strength and service conditions like
wear, noise etc. The gears may be manufactured from metallic or non-metallic materials. The metallic
gears with cut teeth are commercially obtainable in cast iron, steel and bronze. The non-metallic
materials like wood, rawhide, compressed paper and synthetic resins like nylon are used for gears,
especially for reducing noise.
The cast iron is widely used for the manufacture of gears due to its good wearing properties, excellent
machinability and ease of producing complicated shapes by casting method. The cast iron gears with
cut teeth may be employed, where smooth action is not important.
The steel is used for high strength gears and steel may be plain carbon steel or alloy steel. The steel
gears are usually heat treated in order to combine properly the toughness and tooth hardness.
The phosphor bronze is widely used for worms gears in order to reduce wear of the worms which will
be excessive with cast iron or steel.

Carburizing[1] or carburising (chiefly British English) is a heat treatment process in which

increasing carbon on the surface of iron or steel followed by heat treatment and hence
absorbing carbon liberated when the metal is heated in the presence of a carbon bearing
material, such as charcoal or carbon monoxide, with the intent of making the metal harder.
Depending on the amount of time and temperature, the affected area can vary in carbon
content. Longer carburizing times and higher temperatures lead to greater carbon diffusion into
the part as well as increased depth of carbon diffusion. When the iron or steel is cooled rapidly

by quenching, the higher carbon content on the outer surface becomes hard via the
transformation from austenite tomartensite, while the core remains soft and tough as
a ferritic and/or pearlite microstructure.[2]
This manufacturing process can be characterized by the following key points: It is applied to
low-carbon workpieces; workpieces are in contact with a high-carbon gas, liquid or solid; it
produces a hard workpiece surface; workpiece cores largely retain their toughness and ductility;
and it produces case hardness depths of up to 0.25 inches (6.4 mm).
Plastic Gear Materials

Under certain operating conditions, the tolerances for plastic gears may be less critical than for
metal gears for smooth and quiet performance. Ordinarily, however, the same care in
manufacturing, testing, measuring, and quality level specifications should be utilized in plastic
gearing as in metal gearing. The inherent resiliency of some of the plastic used may result in
better conjugate action. The resiliency of many plastic gears gives them the ability to better
dampen moderate shock or impact type loads within the capabilities of the particular plastics

Operating Characteristics.
Generally, plastic gearing materials are noted for low coefficient of friction, high efficiency
performance, and quiet operation.
Many plastic gearing materials have inherent lubricity so that gears require little or no
external lubrication.
They can perform satisfactorily when exposed to many chemicals which have a corrosive effect
on metal gears.
Plastic gearing, when operating at low stress levels in certain environments, have been known
to outwear
equivalent metal gears.

Load Carrying Capacity.

The maximum load carrying capacity of most plastic gears decreases as the temperature
increases more than with metal gears. The upper temperature limit of most
thermoplastic gears is 250_F(121_C) at which point they lose approximately 50 percent of
their rated strength. The upper operating temperature limit of thermosetting gears now
exceeds 400_F(250_C). Very little degradation of mechanical properties in certain
thermosetting materials occurs at temperatures up to 450_F(232_C).

Plastic Materials.
Many different plastics are now used for gearing. Both thermosetting and thermoplastic
material are used, with the latter being by far the most prevalent.

Phenolic(T/S - indicates thermosetting).

Phenolics are invariably compounded with various fillers such as woodflour, mineral,
glass, sisal, chopped cloth, and such lubricants as PTFE (polytetrafluorethylene) and
graphite. Phenolics are generally used in applications requiring stability, and when
higher temperatures are encountered.


Polyimide (T/S).
Polyimide is usually 40-65 percent fiber glass reinforced and has good strength
retention when used at high operating temperatures.


Nylon(T/P - indicates thermoplastic).

Nylon is a family of thermoplastic polymers. The most widely used of any
molded gearing material is nylonbr> 6/6, but nylon 6 and nylon 12 are also used.
Some nylons absorb moisture which may cause dimensional instability. Nylon may be
compounded with various types and amounts of glass reinforcing materials, mineral
fillers, and such lubricants as PTFE and MoS2 (molybdenum disulfide).


Acetal (T/P).
Acetal has a lower water absorption rate than nylon and, therefore, is more stable
after molding or machining. Acetal polymers are used unfilled or filled, with glass and
minerals with and without lubricants, such as PTFE and MoS2, as well as one version
with fibrous PTFE.


Polycarbonate (T/P).
Polycarbonate is generally used with the addition of glass fiber and/or PTFE lubricant
and is a fine, low shrinkage material for producing consistently accurate molded gears.


Polyester (T/P).
Polyesters are both unfilled and with glass fiber, and are finding their way into more
markets as a moldedgearing material in competition with nylon and acetal.


Polyurethane (T/P).
Polyurethane is generally noted for its flexibility and, therefore, has the ability to
absorb shock and deaden sound.


SAN(Styreneacrylonitrile) (T/P).
SAN is a stable, low shrinkage material and is used in some lightly loaded gear


Polyphenylene Sulfid (T/P).

When compounded with 40 percent glass fiber with or without internal lubricants, it
has been found in certain gear applications to have much greater strength, even at
elevated temperatures, than most materials previously available.

10. Polymer Elastomer (T/P).

Polymer elastomer is a newcomer to the gearing field, and has excellent sound
deadening qualities and resistance to flex fatigue, impact, and creep, among other
advantageous characteristics.

Part Combinations.
Several plastic gears can be molded together as a gear cluster. Combinations of gears, pulleys,
sprockets, and cams can also be produced as a single part.

Gear Blanks.
Many of these plastic materials, notably unfilled nylon and acetal, are available in standard
extruded shapes, such as rounds, squares, and rectangles of various sizes from which gears
can be machined. Gears can be molded at less cost if large quantity warrants the cost of the

Machined Plastics Gears.

The quality of machined gears may be generally better than their molded counterparts, but
the molded tooth surface is superior to the machined surface in smoothness and toughness.
Final tooth strength is generally better inr> a molded gear, than an equivalent machined gear,
because of the flow of the material into the tooth cavity of the mold. Gear cutting is done on
standard machines and with standard tools. The following considerations will assist in
obtaining higher quality machined parts.


The modulus of elasticity is so low in plastics that errors in measurements are very
difficult to control. The use of controlled load checking equipment is almost mandatory
to avoid errors in measurements.


Sharp cutting tools are necessary to avoid tooth profile and size variation due to


Feather edge burrs, if not eliminated by back up discs or subsequent removal by other
means, will impair inspection of gearing and possibly contribute to noise during

Laminated Phenolics Plastics.


Industrial Laminated Thermosetting Products.

These products, whether in sheet or rod form, contain laminations or plies of fibrous
sheet materials such as cellulose, paper, asbestos, cotton fabric, glass fabric, or mat.
These materials are impregnated or coated with a enolic resin and consolidated under
high pressures and temperatures into various grades which have properties useful for
Fabric base grades are chosen to withstand severe shock loads and repeated bending
stresses, and to resist wear. Fabric base grades are tougher and less brittle than paper
base grades. The linen grades made with finer textured lightweight fabrics will
machine with less trouble. Gears of linen base phenolic are abrasive, and thus may
require a hardened steel mate and adequate lubrication.
Asbestos-phenolic grades have excellent thermal and dimensional stability.
The glass fabric base grades have good heat resistance and very high tensile and
impact strength.


Performance Characteristics.
Phenolics are used for fine pitch gears due to economy, high resiliency, and high wear
resistance. Lower
density than metals often provides higher strength to weight ratios. It should be noted
that all grades have
some dimensional change due to humidity.


Chopped Fabric Molding Compound.

Chopped fabric impregnated with phenolic resin is capable of being molded as
a gear but may require
finish machining to meet most commercial quality requirements.