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N A VI - E NGLISH D ICTIONARY v. 13.

283
Compiled by Mark Miller
www.LearnNavi.org
Last updated: December 13th , 2015

This is the definitive dictionary for Navi, the language created by Dr. Paul Frommer for
James Camerons film, Avatar. The words within come directly from, or are derived from, Dr.
Frommer.
Some notes: The traditional Navi transcription in use by Dr. Frommer has been maintained
throughout: the IPA transcription is given as well. Compound non-inflected words and loan
words from English have been noted. Some lenited words have been included if in the official
corpus. Some inflected words are included here, if their inclusion is deemed particularly useful. Note that adpositions are free if before their modifier, but are bound as a suffix if situated
after it.
Bold indicates Navi word. Italics indicate English definition. Plain text indicates grammatical categorization: parentheses such as x represents an infix, where tpre-first1ar2on
are the positions: Included are periods in the IPA to mark syllable divisions, and mid-dots to
show infix positions (for beginners), as in [ta.Ron]. Irregular infixes are marked with (ii). Transitivity is marked if known: words marked v. are either unattested or ambitransitive. Most, if
not all transitive verbs can be used intransitively in the absence of a direct object. Known modal
verbs and verbs known to use modal syntax are marked with vim or vtrm, depending upon
transitivity according to the previous note. Knowledge of lenition and other sound changes
will be assumed. Monosyllabic words are not noted for having a single primary stress in the
IPA; if an enclitic is added, the root will be assumed to have primary stress. Note also that
variants, where specified, are subject only to personal preference, and not syntactic or morphological rules. There are several useful appendices that hold further information.
Abbreviations:
num. = number
ofp. = only for people
part. = particle
ph. = phrase
pn. = pronoun
prop. n. = proper noun
v. = verb
svin. = stative intransitive verb
vtr. = transitive verb
vin. = intransitive verb
vtrm. = transitive modal verb
vim. = intransitive modal verb
sbd. = subordinated

= morpheme boundary
+ = leniting morpheme boundary
= infix morpheme
adj. = adjective
adp. = adposition
adv. = adverb
conj. = conjunction
c.w. = compound word
dem. = demonstrative
intj. = interjection
inter. = interrogative
n. = noun
nfp. = not for people

An English - Navi dictionary, and a Dictionary Categorized by Parts of Speech are provided, and may be helpful when searching fails. Translations are also available in French, Estonian, German, Hungarian, Portugus and Swedish. There are also other, unfinished translations
in other languages available.

Sources
We have sourced every word as best as we could. This sourcing is placed in a subscript after
the IPA transcription and reveals the source of each word. For historical interest, this dictionary was originally based on an initial list of around 500 words provided by Dr. Frommer in early
March, 2010. As the language has continued to develop, additional vocabulary has been added
as it appears in communications from Dr. Frommer via his blog and emails. Dr. Frommer has
solicited the LearnNavi.org community to help come up with new vocabulary via the Lexical
Expansion Project. This project continues and many suggested words now appear in the cannon lexicon presented in this dictionary. Other sources are words modified by unproductive
affixes that are included here if Dr. Frommer has used them and words that have a modified
semantic meaning due to a productive affix. Order of canonicity, from most to least:

PF = Dr. Paul Frommer


M = The Movie
JC = James Cameron
G = the Avatar Games
ASG = The Survival Guide
PND = Pandorapedia.com

The Activists Survival Guide, a key early source of words, contained many words which
are illegal - these are in the appendix. However, the plant names and songs are distinctly Frommerian, and are thus included in the dictionary proper. James Cameron himself made up many
words, which Dr. Frommer then legalized. Dr. Frommer legalized some pronunciation errors
made during filming: these, like osss, are now canon. Finally, Dr. Frommer has approved several constructions made by learners as good words, and so, occasionally there are extra sources.
These sources are as follows: CP for CCH Pounder, LA for Laz Alonso, Prr for Prrton, RL for
Richard Littauer, SW for Sigourney Weaver, ZS for Zo Saldana, CM for Carla Meyer and Skxawng. LN is for LearnNavi, specified when the original sourcing has been lost or is ambiguous.
Regarding the IPA, there are some other possible interpretations. Open syllables always
use a tense [u] pronunciation, but closed syllables can be either tense [u] or lax [U]. There is no
>
>
rule for which to use in closed syllables. So tsun, for example, can be either [tsun] or [tsUn],
but lu is always [lu], never [lU]. Also, an alternate method of transcribing the diphthongs [Ej],
[aj], [Ew], and [aw], not used here (for Frommer prefers the former), is [EI], [aI], [EU], and [aU].
 have
 been

Concerning syllables, where not made clear by Dr. Frommer, the divisions
split in
accordance with the Maximal Onset Principle. Also note that stress and ejective markers can
be difficult to differentiate. One example is the word atxkxe which is described as [at."kE].
Please note the subtle difference between the characters for ejective, and "for stress.
This dictionary is a work in progress and is likely to have errors. Rutxe, if you note any,
let me know here or by email to mark@learnnavi.org, and I will correct them. As for version
number, Ill change the first digit when there is a big change, .0x0 for a significant, but not large
change and the .00x number for tiny edits. Refer to the Changelog for enlightenment.
2

I would like to take this opportunity to recognize those who have been instrumental in
the creation and maintenance of this dictionary. First of course, is Dr. Paul Frommer and his
monumental effort in creating this amazing language. Eternal thanks to Richard Littauer for
originally creating and maintaining this document. Thanks also to Tuiq, who applied significant time and skills to automate the maintenance of this dictionary and its variants. Tuiqs
scripts also make the process of updating much easier for the authors of the various translations. Finally, thanks to everyone in the Learn Navi Community who are helping Navi to
bloom!
- Mark Miller, et alia

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aaw: ["Pa.Paw] P F adj. a few, several (Used


with countable nouns in the singular form)
akra: ["Pak.Ra] P F n. soil (fertile)
aku: ["Pa.ku] P F vtr. remove, take away, take off
al: [Pal] P F vtr. waste
ali: [Pa."liP.] P F n. collar / choker
ampi: ["Pam.pi] P F vtr. touch
ana: ["Pa.na] P F n. hanging vine
ango: ["Pa.No] P F adj. soft (of a sound)
anla: ["Pan.la] P F vtr. yearn for
are: ["Pa.RE] P F n. poncho, cape, shawl
aw: [Paw] P F num. one
awkx: [Pawk'] P F n. cliff
awlie: [Paw."li.E] P F adv. once (in the past)
awlo: ["Paw.lo] P F adv. once
awm: [Pawm] P F n. camp
awnm: ["Paw.nIm] P F vtr. avoid (c.w. from
awn remain and alm distance)
awpo: ["Paw.po] P F pn. one individual
awsiteng: [Paw.si."tEN] P F adv. together (c.w.
from aw one and teng same, equal)
awstengyem: [Paw.stEN."jEm] P F vtr. bind /
bring two or more things together (ii) (c.w.
from awsiteng together and yem put)
awve: ["Paw.vE] P F adj. first (ordinal) (derived
from aw one)
: [PP] P F intj. oops!
nsyem: [Pn."sjEm] P F adj. complete
rp: ["P.RIp^] P F vtr. move
eal: ["PE.Pal] P F adj. worst
ein: [PE."Pin] P F n. pod, gourd
einsey: [PE."Pin.SEj] P F n. drinking gourd (c.w.
from ein gourd and sey cup or bowl minimally modified from naturally occurring resources)
efu: ["PE.fu] P F vtr. feel, sense, perceive
eko: ["PE.ko] P F vtr. attack
ekong: ["PE.koN] P F n. beat (rhythmic)
ekxin: [PE."k'in] P F adj. tight
ekxinum: [PE."k'i.num] P F n. degree of tightness, looseness (c.w. from ekxin tight and
um loose)
ekxinumpe: [PE."k'i.num.pE] P F inter. how
tight, loose? (derived from ekxinum tightness, looseness)
em: [PEm] P F vtr. cook

emyu: ["PEm.ju] P F n. cook, cooker (derived


from em cook)
en: [PEn] P F n. guess, informed guess, hunch, intuition
engeng: ["PEN.EN] P F adj. level
en si: ["PEn "si] P F vin. make an informed guess
(derived from en guess)
eoio: ["PE.o.i.o] P F adj. ceremonious
etnaw: ["PEt.naw] P F n. shoulder
evan: ["PE.van] P F n. boy (colloquial) (derived
from evengan boy)
eve: ["PE.vE] P F n. girl (colloquial) (derived
from evenge girl)
eveng: ["PE.vEN] P F n. child
evengan: ["PE.vE.Nan] P F n. boy (derived from
eveng child)
evenge: ["PE.vE.NE] P F n. girl (derived from
eveng child)
evi: ["PE.vi] P F n. kid (affectionate form of
eveng child)
ewan: ["PE.wan] P F adj. young
ewll: ["PE.wl] P F n. plant
"
eylan: ["PEj.lan] P F n. friend
eylanay: [PEj.la."naj] P F n. acquaintance (with
the potential for becoming a friend) (derived
from eylan friend)
eyng: [PEjN] P F v. answer, respond
eyt: [PEjt^] P F n. the symbol 8 (not the value
eight)
ia: ["PiP.a] P F vin. end, conclude
ia: ["Pi.a] P F vin. lose oneself (spiritual sense)
ipu: ["Pi.pu] P F adj. humorous, funny, amusing
it: [Pit^] P F n. bit, a small amount
itan: ["Pi.tan] JC,P F n. son
ite: ["Pi.tE] JC,P F n. daughter
>
itetsyp: ["Pi.tE.tsjIp^] P F n. little daughter (term
of endearment) (derived from ite daughter)
awn: [PI."Pawn] P F vin. remain, stay
heyu: [PI."hE.ju] P F n. spiral
n: [PIn] P F svin. be busy, be occupied
p: [PIp] P F vin. disappear, vanish, recede from
view
llngo: ["Pl.No] P F n. hip
"
o: [PoP] P F adj. bringing fun, exciting
ok: [Pok^] P F n. remembrance
okrol: [Pok."Rol] P F n. history (ancient) (derived from ok remembrance and rol sing)
5

>
oratsyp: ["Po.Ra.tsjIp^] P F n. pond, pool (derived from ora lake)
otxang: [Po."t'aN] P F n. musical instrument (generic term)
rrko: ["Pr.ko] P F vin. roll
"
rrpxom: ["Pr.p'om] P F n. thunder
"
u: [Pu] P F n. thing (object, fact, abstraction)
ul: [Pul] P F vin. increase
>
umtsa: ["Pum.tsa] P F n. medicine
uo: ["Pu.o] P F pn. something
upe: ["Pu.pE] P F inter. what (thing) (c.w. from
u thing and pe inter. marker)
upxare: [Pu."p'a.RE] P F n. message
ur: [PuR] P F n. sight, look, appearance

okvur: [Pok."vuR] P F n. history (non-ancient)


(c.w. from ok remembrance and vur story)
om: [Pom] P F adj. violet, purple, magenta
ompin: ["Pom.pin] P F n. violet, purple, magenta
(derived from om purple)
on: [Pon] P F n. shape, form
ong: [PoN] P F v. unfold, blossom
ongokx: ["Po.Nok'] P F vin. be born (c.w. from
ong unfold and nokx give birth to)
ongop: ["Po.Nop^] P F vtr. design (c.w. from on
shape, form and ngop create)
ongopyu: ["Po.Nop.ju] P F n. designer (derived
from ongop design)
opin: ["Po.pin] P F n. color
ora: ["Po.Ra] P F n. lake
A
a: [a] P F,LN part. clause-level attributive marker
akrrmaw: [a."kr.maw] P F conj. after (temporal)
"
variant of mawkrra
(c.w. from krr time and
maw after)
akrrta: [a."kr.ta] P F conj. since (temporal) vari" (c.w. from krr time and ta from)
ant of takrra
akum: [a."kum] P F conj. that (as a result) (derived from kum result) this form follows
the result, I.E. Poe yawne slolu oer akum,
nftxan lu sevin (She was so beautiful that I
fell in love with her.); see also kuma
alaksi: [a."lak.si] P F adj. ready
alm: [a."lIm] P F adv. far away, at a distance (derived from lm far, be far)
alo: ["a.lo] P F n. time, turn, instance, one of a
number of repeated or recurring actions
alu: ["a.lu] P F conj. that is, in other words (derived from a subordinator and lu be) (Used for
appositions)
alunta: [a."lun.ta] P F conj. because, from the reason
ama: [am."Pa] P F n. doubt
amake: [am."Pa.kE] P F adj. sure, confident (c.w.
from ama doubt and ke not)
amaluke: [am."Pa.lu.kE] P F adv. without a
doubt (derived from amake sure, confident)
apxa: [a."p'a] P F adj. large nfp.
asim: [a."sim] P F adv. nearby, at close range (derived from sim near, be near)

atan: [a."tan] JC n. light


atanvi: [a."tan.vi] P F n. ray (derived from atan
light)
atanzaw: [a."tan.zaw] P F n. forked lightning
(derived from atan light and swizaw arrow)
atxar: [a."t'aR] P F adj. smell of living animals, as
found around a watering hole
atxkxe: [at'."k'E] P F n. land
atxkxerel: [at'."k'E.REl] P F n. map (c.w. from
atxkxe land and rel picture)
au: ["a.u] JC n. drum (made of skin)
au: [a."u] LA intj. exclamation of consternation
aungia: [a."u.Ni.a] P F n. sign, omen
awnga: [aw."Na] P F pn. we (derived from ayoeng we)
ayfo: [aj."fo] or ["aj.fo] P F pn. they (derived
from po he, she)
aylaru: [aj."la.Ru] P F pn. to the others (contraction of ay+laheru)
aynga: [aj."Na] P F pn. you all, you (pl.) (derived
from nga you)
ayoe: [aj."o.E] P F pn. we, us (exclusive) (derived
from oe I)
ayoeng: [aj."wEN] P F pn. we, us (inclusive) (derived from oe I) (ayoenga base for suffixes)
ayu: [a."ju] P F n. things (derived from u thing)
(never plural u)


ie: [."i.E] P F n. vision (spiritual)
o: [".o] P F adp. under, below
txle: [."t'.lE] P F n. request

txle si: [."t'.lE "si] P F vin. request (with


tsn clause for object) (derived from txle
request)

E
epang: [Ep."PaN] P F adj. complex
epxang: [E."p'aN] P F n. stone jar used to hold
small toxic arachnid
etrp: ["Et.RIp^] P F adj. favorable, auspicious
>
ewktswo: ["Ewk.tswo] P F n. (sense of) taste (derived from ewku taste)
ewku: ["Ew.ku] P F vtr. taste (not intentionally)
eyawr: [E."jawR] P F adj. correct, right
eyk: [Ejk^] JC,P F vtr. lead
eyktan: ["Ejk.tan] JC n. leader (derived from
eyk lead)
eyktanay: [Ejk.ta."naj] JC,P F n. deputy, general,
one step down from leader (derived from eyktan leader)
eykyu: ["Ejk.ju] P F n. leader (typically temporary, of a small group like a hunting party) (derived from eyk lead)

eampin: ["E.am.pin] P F n. blue, green (derived


from ean blue, green)
ean: ["E.an] P F adj. blue, green
ekxan: [E."k'an] P F n. barricade, obstruction
ekxtxu: [Ek'."t'u] P F adj. rough
eltu: ["El.tu] P F n. brain
eltu lefngap: ["El.tu lE."fNap^] P rr n. computer
(c.w. from eltu brain and lefngap metallic)
eltur ttxen si: ["El.tuR tI."t'En si] P F vin. be
interesting, intriguing (derived from eltu-r
brain (dative) and ttxen awakeness)
eltu si: ["El.tu si] P F vin. pay attention, quit goofing off (derived from eltu brain)
emrey: [Em."REj] P F vin. survive
emzau: [Em."za.Pu] P F vtr. pass (a test), overcome (c.w. from zau come)
eo: ["E.o] P F adp. before, in front of (place)
F

fekem: ["fE.kEm] P F n. accident (c.w. from fe


bad and kem action)
fekum: ["fE.kum] P F n. disadvantage, drawback,
downside (c.w. from fe bad and kum result)
fekumnga: ["fE.kum.NaP] P F adj. disadvantageous (derived from fekum disadvantage,
drawback, downside)
few: [fEw] P F adp. across, aiming for the opposite side of
fewi: ["fE.wi] P F vtr. chase
fewtusok: ["fEw.tu.sok^] P F adj. opposite, on the
opposite side (derived from few across)(In
casual speech, fewtsok (few.tsok)
fu: [fI."Pu] P F pn. this (thing) (derived from u
thing)
ffya: [fI."fja] P F adv. this way, like this (derived
from fyao path)
fkem: [fI."kEm] P F pn. this (action) (derived
from kem action, deed)
fpo: ["fI.po] P F pn. this one person or thing (derived from po he, she)
ftrr: [fI."tr] P F adv. today (derived from trr day)
"

fa: [fa] P F adp. with, by means of


fahew: [fa."hEw] P F n. smell
faoi: ["fa.o.i] P F adj. smooth
fayluta: [faj."lu.ta] P F n. these words (contraction of fay+lut a, patientive case)
fk: [f."k] P F vin. go up, ascend (c.w. from
fpa top and k go)
fpa: ["f.pa] P F n. top
fzau: [f."za.Pu] P F vin. come up, ascend
(c.w. from fpa top and zau come)
fe: [fEP] P F adj. bad nfp.
felup: ["fE.lup^] P F adj. tacky, in poor taste (c.w.
from fe bad and lupra style)
feran: ["fEP.Ran] P F n. flawed nature, something
ill-conceived or inherently defective (c.w. from
fe bad and ran intrinsic character or nature)
feranvi: ["fEP.Ran.vi] P F n. blemish, deformity, stain, flawed feature (derived from feran
flawed nature, inherently defective)
feul: ["fE.Pul] P F vin. worsen, get worse (c.w.
from fe bad and ul increase)
7

>
ftsap: [fI."tsap^] P F adv. each other (c.w. from
fpo this one and tsapo that one)
>
ftseng(e): [fI."tsEN(E)] P F adv., n. here, this place (derived from tseng place)
ftxan: [fI."t'an] P F adv. so, to such an extent (derived from txan great, much)
ftxon: [fI."t'on] P F adv., n. tonight (derived
from txon night)
fkan: [fkan] P F vin. resemble in a sensory modality, come to the senses as
fkarut: ["fka.Rut^] P F v. peel
fkay: [fkaj] P F adj. hateful
fkew: [fkEw] P F adj. mighty
fkeytok: ["fkEj.tok^] P F vin. exist (derived
from kifkeyti tok be in the world)
fkip: [fkip^] P F adp. up among
fko: [fko] P F pn. one, they (singular usage) (unspecified agent)
fkxake: ["fk'a.kE] P F v. itch
fkxen: [fk'En] P F n. vegetable (food)
fkxile: ["fk'i.lE] P F n. bib necklace
flawkx: [flawk'] P F n. leather
flawm: [flawm] P F n. cheek
fl: [fl] P F vin. succeed
flew: [flEw] P F n. throat
fl: [flI] P F adj. thin nfp.
flnutx: [flI."nut'] P F n. thickness (c.w. from fl
thin and nutx thick)
flrr: [flr] P F adj. gentle, mild, tender (people or
"
things)
fmal: [fmal] P F vtr. sustain
fmawn: [fmawn] P F n. news, something to report
fmawnta: [fmawnta] P F n. that news (contraction of fmawnit a)
fmetok: ["fmE.tok^] P F v. test
fmi: [fmi] P F vtrm. try, attempt (with the
subjunctive)
fmokx: [fmok'] P F n. jealousy, envy
fnan: [fnan] P F vtr. be good at
fnawe: [fna."wEP] P F adj. cowardly
fnawetu: [fna."wEP.tu] P F n. coward (derived
from fnawe cowardly)
fnel: [fnEl] P F n. kind, type
fnepe: ["fnE.pE] P F inter. which kind variant of
pefnel
fnetxum: [fnE."t'um] n. allergen (derived from
txum poison)
fngap: [fNap^] P F n. metal

fng: [fNP] P F vin. relieve oneself; (on Earth:)


use the restroom, go to the bathroom
fngo: [fNoP] P F vtr. require, demand
fnu: [fnu] P F vin. quiet, be quiet
fo: [fo] P F pn. they (derived from ay+ deleted
plural leniting morpheme and po he/she)
fpak: [fpak^] P F v. hold off, suspend action
fpe: [fpEP] P F vtr. send
fpeio: [fpE."i.o] P F n. challenge (ceremonial)
fpi+: [fpi] P F adp. for the sake of, for the benefit
of
fpl: [fpIl] P F vtr. think
fplfya: ["fpIl.fja] P F n. thought pattern, way of
thinking (c.w. from fpl think and fyao path)
fpom: [fpom] P F n. well-being, peace, happiness
fpomron: [fpom."Ron] n. health or well-being
(mental) (derived from fpom well-being and
ronsem mind) ofp.
fpomronga: [fpom."Ro.NaP] P F adj. healthful
(mentally) (c.w. from fpom well-being, peace,
happiness and ronsem mind) nfp.
fpomtokx: [fpom."tok'] P F n. health (physical)
(c.w. from fpom well-being and tokx body)
ofp.
fpomtokxnga: [fpom."tok'.NaP] P F adj. healthful (physically) (c.w. from fpom well-being,
peace, happiness and tokx body) nfp.
fpxkm: ["fp'.kIm] P F vin. enter
frau: ["fRa.Pu] P F pn. everything (derived from
u thing)
frafya: ["fra.fja] P F adv. in every way (c.w. from
frau everything and fyao way)
frakrr: ["fRa.kr] P F adv. always, all the time (derived from" krr time)
fralo: ["fRa.lo] P F adv. every time, every instance,
each time (derived from alo time)
frapo: ["fRa.po] P F pn. everyone (derived from
po he/she)
frato: ["fRa.to] P F part. superlative marker than
all
fratrr: [fRa."tr] P F adv. daily, every day (derived
"
from trr day)
>
fratseng: ["fRa.tsEN] P F adv. everywhere (derived from tseng place)
fratxon: [fRa."t'on] P F adv. every night (derived
from txon night)
frawzo: [fRaw."zo] P F intj. all is well, everything
is fine or OK (derived from frau everything
and zo be well)
8

frp: [fRIp^] P F vtr. bite


frrfen: ["fr.fEn] P F vtr. visit
" ]
frrtu: ["fr.tu
P F n. guest, visitor
"
fta: [fta] P F n. knot
ftang: [ftaN] P F vim. stop
fta si: [fta si] P F vin. knot, make or tie a knot
(derived from fta knot)
ftawnemkrr: [ftaw."nEm.kr] P F n. past (c.w.
" (passive participle
from ftawnem pass by
form) and krr time)
ftr: [ftR] P F adj. left (not right)
ftrpa: ["ftR.pa] P F n. left side (c.w. from ftr
left and pao side)
fte: [ftE] P F conj. so that, in order to (with
subjunctive verb in dependant clause)
fteke: ["ftE.kE] P F conj. so that not, lest (c.w.
from fte so that and ke not) (with subjunctive verb in dependant clause)
ftem: [ftEm] P F vtr. pass by (something)
ftia: [fti."a] P F vtr. study
ftu: [ftu] P F adp. from (direction)
ftue: ["ftu.E] P F adj. easy, simple
ftumfa: ["ftum.fa] P F adp. out of, from inside
(derived from mfa inside)
ftxavang: ["ft'a.vaN] P F adj. passionate
ftxey: [ft'Ej] P F vtr. choose
ftxey: [ft'Ej] P F conj. whether, or
ftx: [ft'I] P F n. tongue
ftxlor: [ft'I."loR] P F adj. delicious, good tasting
(c.w. from ftx tongue and lor beautiful)
ftxv: [ft'I."vP] P F adj. bad tasting (c.w. from
ftx tongue and v noisome)
ftxoz: [ft'o."z] P F n. celebration, happy occasion
ftxoz si: [ft'o."z si] P F vin. celebrate (derived
from ftxoz celebration)
ftxulu: [ft'u."lI.Pu] P F vin. orate, give speech
(c.w. from tftxu weave and lu word)
ftxuluyu: [ft'u."lI.Pu.ju] P F n. orator, (public)
speaker (derived from ftxulu orate, give
speech)
fu: [fu] P F conj. or
fuke: [fu."kE] P F conj. or not (c.w. from fu or
and ke not)
fula: ["fu.la] P F pn., sbd. that (c.w. from ful
this (agentive) and a subordinator)
furia: ["fu.Ri.a] P F pn., sbd. that (c.w. from
furi this (topical) and a subordinator)

futa: ["fu.ta] P F pn., sbd. that (c.w. from fu-t


this (patientive) and a subordinator)
fwa: [fwa] P F pn., sbd. that (subordinate clause
marker) (c.w. from fu this (subjective) and a
subordinator)
fwang: [fwaN] P F adj. savory, umami, rich
fwefwi: ["fwE.fwi] P F vin. whistle
fwel: [fwEl] P F adj. broken
fwem: [fwEm] P F adj. dull, blunt (as a point)
fwep: [fwEp^] P F n. dust (on a surface)
fwew: [fwEw] P F vtr. look for, seek, search
fwi: [fwi] P F vin. slip, slide
fwopx: [fwop'] P F n. dust (in the air) (derived
from fwep dust and pwopx cloud)
fyao: ["fja.Po] P F n. path, way, manner
fyan: [fjan] P F n. constructed device for keeping
something off the ground and clean
fyany: ["fjan.jI] P F n. shelf (c.w. from fyan constructed device for keeping something off the
ground and clean and y shelf, ledge, level,
step, rung)
fyanyo: ["fjan.jo] P F n. table, elevated utilitarian surface (c.w. from fyan constructed device
for keeping something off the ground and clean
and yo surface) Note: colloquially, yo can be
used in place of fyanyo.
fyape: ["fja.pE] P F inter. how variant of pefya
fyawntxu: [fja.wIn."t'u] P F vin. guide (with
dative of thing guided) (c.w. from fyao path
and wntxu show)
fyel: [fyEl] P F vtr. seal, make impervious
fyep: [fjEp^] P F vtr. hold in the hand, grasp, grip
fyeyn: [fjEjn] P F adj. ripe, mature, adult
fyeyntu: ["fjEjn.tu] P F n. adult person (derived
from fyeyn ripe, mature)
fyin: [fjin] P F adj. simple
fyinepang: [fjin.Ep."PaN] P F n. degree of complexity (c.w. from fyin simple and epang
complex)
fyinepangpe: [fjin.Ep."PaN.pE] P F inter. how
complex? (derived from fyinepang degree of
complexity) variant of pefyinepang
fyole: ["fjo.lE] P F adj. sublime, beyond perfection
fyolup: ["fJo.lup^] P F adj. exquisite, sublime in
style (c.w. from fyole sublime and lupra style)

H
ha: [ha] P F adv. so, in that case
herw: ["hER.wI] P F n. snow
ha: [haP] P F vin. fit, suit, complement, inherent- herwva: ["hER.wI.va] P F n. snowflake (derived
ly enhance
from herw snow and lva flake)
hangir: [haP."NiR] P F n. afternoon
hewne: ["hEw.nE] P F adj. soft (of an object)
hahaw: ["ha.haw] P F vin. sleep
heyn: [hEjn] P F vin. sit
ham: [ham] P F adj. previous
heyr: [hEJR] P F n. chest
hamalo: [ha."ma.lo] P F adv. last time (c.w. from hifwo: ["hi.fwo] P F vin. flee, escape
ham previous and alo time)
hiyk: ["hi.jIk^] P F adj. funny, strange
hangham: ["haN.ham] P F vin. laugh
hang: ["hI.PaN] P F n. insect (c.w. from hi
hangvur: ["haN.vuR] P F n. joke, funny story (c.w.
small and ioang animal)
from hangham laugh and vur story)
hi: ["hI.Pi] P F adj. small, little (in size)
hapx: [ha."p'I] P F n. part
hkrr: ["hI.kr] P F n. second, very short time (c.w.
hapxtu: [ha."p'I.tu] P F n. member (derived
from hi" little, small and krr time)
from hapx part)
hm: [hIm] P F adj. small (in quantity)
hasey: [ha."sEj] P F adj. done, finished
hmpx: [hIm."p'I] P F n. minority, least, small
hasey si: [ha."sEj "si] P F vin. accomplish, bring
part
to a conclusion (derived from hasey done, fi- hmtxampe: [hIm."t'am.pE] P F inter. how much
nished)
variant of pmtxan
hawl: [hawl] P F vtr. prepare
hmtxan: [hIm."t'an] P F n. amount (c.w. from
hawmpam: ["hawm.pam] P F n. noise. sound
hm small and txan much)
that is excessive, unnecessary, inappropriate, hmtxew: [hIm."t'Ew] P F n. minimum (c.w.
unexpected or startling (derived from hawng
from hm small and txew limit)
overabundance and pam sound)
hmtxewvay: [hIm."t'Ew.vaj] P F adv. minimally
hawng: [hawN] P F n. overabundance
(derived from hmtxew minimum)
hawngkrr: ["hawN.kr] P F adv. late (c.w. from hno: [hI."no] P F adj. fine, detailed, precise, intri"
hawng overabundance
and krr time)
cate (of things)
>
hawntsyokx: [hawn."tsjok'] P F n. glove (c.w. hpey: ["hI.pEj] P F vin. hesitate, hold back for a
from hawnu protect and tsyokx hand)
short time (derived from hi small and pey
hawnu: ["haw.nu] P F vtr. protect, shelter
wait)
hawnven: [hawn."vEn] P F n. shoe (c.w. from htxoa: [hI."t'o.a] P F intj. excuse me (derived
hawnu protect and venu foot)
from hi small and txoa forgiveness)
hawre: [haw."REP] P F n. hat (c.w. from hawnu hoan: ["ho.an] P F n. comfort
protect and reo head)
hoet: ["ho.Et^] P F adj. vast, broad, expansive
>
hawtsyp: ["haw.tsjIp^] P F n. nap (derived from hol: [hol] P F adj. few
hahaw sleep)
holpxay: [hol."p'aj] P F n. number (c.w. from
hay: [haj] P F adj. next
hol few and pxay many)
hayalo: [ha."ja.lo] P F adv. next time (c.w. from holpxaype: [hol."p'aj.pE] P F inter. how many
hay next and alo time)
(c.w. from holpxay number and pe how)
hn: [hn] P F n. net, web
hona: ["ho.na] P F adj. endearing, adorable, cute
hefi: ["hE.fi] P F vtr. smell (not intentionally)
hrrap: ["hr.ap^] P F n. danger
>
hefitswo: ["hE.fi.tswo] P F n. (sense of) smell (de- hu: [hu] "P F adp. with (accompaniment)
rived from hefi smell)
hufwa: [hu."fwa] P F conj. although
hek: [hEk^] P F vin. be curious, odd, strange, un- hufwe: [hu."fwE] P F n. wind
>
expected
hufwetsyp: [hu."fwE.tsjIp^] P F n. breeze, light
hena: ["hE.na] P F vtr. carry
wind (derived from hufwe wind)
>
hermeyp: [hER."mEjp^] P F n. snow flurry (deri- hultstxem: [hul."tst'Em] P F vtr. hinder
ved from herw snow and meyp weak)
hum: [hum] P F vin. leave, depart
hertxayo: ["hER.t'a.jo] P F n. snow field (derived huru: ["hu.Ru] P F n. cooking pot
from herw snow and txayo field)
10

I
ien: ["iP.En] JC n. stringed instrument
ikut: ["i.kut^] P F n. large pestle (grinding tool);
meal-mashing pole
il: [il] P F vin. bend
inan: [i."nan] P F vtr. read (e.g. the forest), gain
knowledge from sensory input (stress moves
to first syllable with infixation)
inanfya: [i."nan.fja] P F n. sense (means of perception) (c.w. from inan read, gain knowledge
from sensory input and fyao path, way)
ingyen: ["iN.jEn] P F n. feeling of mystery or incomprehension
ingyenga: ["iN.jE.NaP] P F adj. mysterious, puzzling, enigmatic (derived from ingyen feeling
of mystery)

>
ingyentsim: ["iN.jEn.tsim] P F n. mystery, riddle,
enigma, conundrum (c.w. from ingyen feeling
of mystery and tsim source)
>
ingyentsyp: ["iN.jEn.tsjIp^] P F n. trick, sleight
of hand, clever/special methodology (derived
from ingyen feeling of mystery)
io: ["i.o] P F adp. over, above
ioang: [i."o.aN] P F n. animal, beast
ioi: [i."o.i] P F n. adornment, or ceremonial apparel
(item of)
ioi si: [i."o.i si] P F vin. adorn (derived from ioi
adornment)
irayo: [i."Ra.jo] JC n., intj. thank you, thanks
irayo si: [i."Ra.jo "si] P F vin. thank, give thanks
(derived from irayo thanks)

ley: [I."lEj] LA intj. war cry


: [I:] P F filler um, er
l+: ["I.l] or [I."l] P F adp. by, via, following, lva: ["Il.va] P F n. flake, drop, chip
pxa: [I."p'a] RL,P F n. fern
according to
K
ka: [ka] P F adp. across, covering thoroughly
kakpam: [kak."pam] P F adj. deaf (derived from
pam sound)
kakrel: [kak."REl] P F adj. blind (derived from
rel image, picture)
kalin: [ka."lin] P F adj. sweet to the taste
kaltx: [kal."t'I] P F intj. hello
kaltx si: [kal."t'I "si] P F vin. say hello, greet (derived from kaltx hello)
kam: [kam] P F adp. ago
kame: ["ka.mE] P F vtr. see, see into, understand,
know (spiritual sense)
kan: [kan] P F vtrm. aim, to intend; vtr. aim, to
direct a weapon or other object at a target
kann: ["kan.PIn] P F vtr. focus on, specialize
in, be particularly interested in (c.w. from kan
aim and in be busy)
kanfpl: ["kan.fpIl] P F vin. concentrate, focus
ones attention (c.w. from kan aim and fpl
think)
kangay: [ka."Naj] P F adj. valid (cognate with
ngay true)
kangay si: [ka."Naj si] P F vin. validate, confirm
(derived from kangay valid)

kanom: ["ka.nom] P F vtr. acquire, get


kanu: ["ka.nu] P F adj. smart, intelligent ofp.
kar: [kaR] P F vtr. teach
karyu: ["kaR.ju] P F n. teacher (derived from kar
teach)
karyunay: [kaR.ju."naj] P F n. apprentice teacher
(derived from karyu teacher)
kato: ["ka.to] P F n. rhythm
kavuk: [ka."vuk^] P F n. treachery
kavuk si: [ka."vuk^ "si] P F vin. betray (derived
from kavuk treachery)
kawit: [kaw."Pit^] P F adv. not at all, not a bit
(used with ke; see ke kawit not...at all in phrases) (c.w. from ke aw not one and it bit)
kawkrr: ["kaw.kr] P F adv. never (c.w. from ke
" krr time)
aw not one and
kawng: [kawN] P F adj. bad, evil
kawnglan: ["kawN.lan] P F adj. malicious, bad hearted (c.w. from kawng bad, evil and txelan
heart)
kawngsar: ["kawN.saR] P F vtr. exploit
>
kawtseng: ["kaw.tsEN] P F adv. nowhere (c.w.
from ke aw not one and tseng place)

11

kawtu: ["kaw.tu] P F pn. no-one (c.w. from ke


aw not one and tute person)
kay: [kaj] P F adp. from now (in the future)
kaym: [kajm] P F n. evening (before twilight), late
afternoon
k: [k] P F vin. go
krp: [k."P.RIp^] P F vtr. push (c.w. from
k go and rp move)
kmakto: [k."mak.to] P F v. ride out (c.w.
from k go and makto ride)
kpx: [k."p'I] P F n. rear (part or section) (c.w.
from k go and hapx part)
>
ksatseng: [k."sa.tsEN] P F adv. out there (c.w.
from k go and tseng place)
ksrn: [k."sRIn] P F vtr. lend (derived from
srn temporarily transfer from one to another)
kteng: ["k.tEN] P F vin. spend time with, hang
out with
ke: [kE] P F adv. not
keaw: [kE."Paw] P F adj. divided, torn apart,
strife-ridden (c.w. from ke not and aw one)
keu: ["kE.Pu] P F pn. nothing (c.w. from ke not
and u thing)
kea: ["kE.a] P F adj. no (before a noun)
kefpomronga: [kE.fpom."Ro.NaP] P F adj. unhealthful (mentally) (c.w. from ke not and fpomronga healthful (mentally)) nfp.
kefpomtokxnga: [kE.fpom."tok'.NaP] P F adj.
unhealthful (physically) (c.w. from ke not and
fpomtokxnga healthful (physically)) nfp.
keftxo: [kE."ft'o] P F adj., intj. unhappy, upset,
How sad!
kefyak: [kE."fjak^] P F,P rr part. isnt it?, right?
(c.w. from ke fya not the way and srak question marker)
kehe: ["kE.hE] P F part., intj. no
kekem: ["kE.kEm] P F pn., adv. no action or activity (c.w. from ke not and kem activity)
kelemweypey: [kE.lEm."wEj.pEj] P F adj. impatient (derived from ke not and lemweypey
patient)
kelfpomron: [kEl.fpom."Ron] P F adj. unhealthy
(mentally) (c.w. from ke not and lefpomron
healthy (mentally)) ofp.
kelfpomtokx: [kEl."fpom.tok'] P F adj. unhealthy (physically) (c.w. from ke not and fpomtokx health) ofp.
kelhoan: [kEl."ho.an] P F adj. uncomfortable (derived from hoan comfort)

kelkin: [kEl."kin] P F adj. unnecessary


kelku: ["kEl.ku] P F n. home, house
kelku si: ["kEl.ku "si] P F vin. live, dwell (derived from kelku home)
kelsar: [kEl."saR] P F adj. useless, in vain (c.w.
from ke not and lesar useful)
>
keltsun: [kEl."tsun] P F adj. impossible (c.w.
from ke not and tsun be able)
kem: [kEm] P F n. thing (action), deed
kemlu: ["kEm.lI.Pu] P F n. verb (c.w. from kem
action and lu word)
kemluvi: ["kEm.lI.Pu.vi] P F n. infix (derived
from kemlu verb)
kempe: ["kEm.pE] P F inter. what (action) variant of pehem (c.w. from kem action, deed)
kem si: ["kEm "si] P F vin. do (derived from
kem action, deed)
kenaw: [kEn."Paw] P F adv. not only (c.w. from
ke not and naw only)
keng: [kEN] P F adv. even, so much as
kenong: ["kE.noN] or ["kE.noN] P F vin. model,
represent, exemplify (ii) (c.w. from ke not and
nong follow)
kerusey: ["kE.Ru.sEj] P F adj. dead (c.w. from ke
not and rusey alive (participle infix))
kesran: [kE."sRan] P F adj. so-so, mediocre (c.w.
from ke not and sran yes) (The derivation of
this word is not entirely clear. It may have
originally been kesrankekehe, literally, not
yes, not no, in reference to whether a certain action was performed well or not, and
over time it became shortened to just kesran, its use expanding to include anything
only mediocre in quality.)
keteng: ["kE.tEN] P F adj. different (c.w. from ke
not and teng same, equal)
>
ketsran: [kE."tsRan] P F adj., conj. no matter, no
matter what, whatever (c.w. from ke not and
tsranten Matter, be of importance)
>
ketsuktiam: [kE.tsuk."ti.am] P F adj. uncountable, infinite (derived from ketsuk not
able to do and tiam count)
>
>
ketsuktswa: [kE.tsuk."tswaP] P F adj. unforgettable (derived from ketsuk not able to do
and tswa forget)
ketuwong: ["kE.tu.woN] P F n. alien
kew: [kEw] P F num. zero
kewong: ["kE.woN] P F adj. alien
key: [kEj] P F n. face

12

keyawr: [kE."jawR] P F adj. incorrect, wrong, not


right (c.w. from ke not and eyawr correct)
keyeung: [kE."jE.PuN] P F n. insanity
keyrel: ["kEy.REl] n. facial expression (c.w. from
key face and rel image)
kezemplltxe: [kE.zEm.pl."t'E] P F adv. of
"
course, needless to say
(contraction of
ke+zene+pivlltxe)
ki: [ki] P F conj. but rather, but instead
kifkey: [ki."fkEj] P F n. world (physical, solid)
kilvan: [kil."van] P F n. river
kin: [kin] P F vtr. need
kinam: [ki."nam] P F n. leg
kinamtil: [ki."nam.til] P F n. knee (c.w. from kinam leg and til joint)
kin: ["ki.n] P F num. seven
kintrr: ["kin.tr] P F n. week (derived from kin
" day)
seven and trr
kintrram: ["kin.tram] P F n. last week (derived
"
from kintrr week)
kintrray: ["kin.traj] P F n. next week (derived
"
from kintrr week)
kip: [kip^] P F adp. among
kive: ["ki.vE] P F adj. seventh (ordinal) (derived
from kin seven)
kong: [kI."PoN] P F adj. slow
km: [kIm] P F vtr. spin, to spin (something) Pol
rumit kolm He spun the ball
kmar: [kI."maR] P F adj. in season (of foods, vegetable or animal)
kng: [kIN] P F n. thread
ktee: [kI.tE."PE] P F n. service
ktee si: [kI.tE."PE "si] P F vin. serve (derived
from ktee service)
kllfro: [kl."fRoP] P F svin. be responsible
"
kllk: [kl."k] P F vin. go down, descend (c.w.
"
from kllpa
bottom and k go)
kllkulat: [kl."ku.lat^] P F vtr. dig up
"
kllkxem: [kl."k'Em] P F vin. stand
"
kllpa: ["kl.pa] P F n. bottom
"
kllp: [kl."p] P F vin. land, reach the ground
"
(c.w. from kllte ground and phem arrive)
kllpxltu: [kl."p'Il.tu] P F n. territory
"
kllrikx: [kl."rik'] P F n. earthquake (c.w. from kll
ground "and rikx move)
kllte: ["kl.tE] P F n. ground
>
"
klltseng: ["kl.tsEN] P F n. position (derived from
"
tseng place)

klltxay: [kl."t'aj] P F vin. lie on the ground (c.w.


" ground and txay lie flat)
from kllte
klltxeykay: [kl.t'Ej."kaj] P F vtr. lay (something)
" (c.w. from kllte ground and txon the ground
ay lie flat) transitive form of klltxay
kllvawm: ["kl.vawm] P F adj. brown (c.w. from
" and vawm dark)
kllte ground
kllwo: [kl."wo] P F vin. alight, land (process of)
"
(c.w. from
kllte ground and wo reach for)
kllyem: [kl."jEm] P F vtr. bury (c.w. from kllte
"
ground and
yem put)
kllzau: [kl."za.Pu] P F vin. come down, descend
" kllte ground and zau come)
(c.w. from
ko: [ko] P F part. solicit agreement
koon: ["ko.Pon] P F n. ring, oval, closed shape
roughly circular (derived from koum rounded, curved and on shape)
koak: ["ko.ak^] P F adj. old, aged (for living
things)
koaktan: ["ko.ak.tan] P F n. old man (derived
from koak old, aged)
koakte: ["ko.ak.tE] P F n. old woman (derived
from koak old, aged)
koaktu: ["ko.ak.tu] P F n. old person (derived
from koak old, aged)
kolan: [ko."lan] P F intj. I mean, rather (selfcorrecting) (derived from kan aim, intend)
kop: [kop^] P F adv. too, also, additionally
kop: [kop^] P F conj. and also
koren: [ko."REn] P F n. rule, guideline
kosman: [ko."sman] P F adj. wonderful, terrific,
fantastic
koum: ["ko.um] P F adj. rounded, curved
krr: [kr] P F n. time
"
krra: ["kr.a] P F conj. when, at the time that (derived" from krr time)
krrka: ["kr.ka] P F adp. during (derived from
krr time)"
krrnekx: [kr."nEk'] P F vin. take/consume time
"
(ii) (c.w. from
krr time and nekx consume)
krrpe: ["kr.pE] P F inter. when variant of pehrr
"
(c.w. from
krr time)
kuup: ["ku.Pup^] P F adj. heavy (physical weight)
kulat: ["ku.lat^] P F vtr. reveal, bring forth, uncover (literally and metaphorically)
kum: [kum] P F n. result
kuma: ["kum.a] P F conj. that (as a result) (derived from kum result) this form precedes
the result, I.E. Lu poe sevin nftxan kuma

13

yawne slolu oer (She was so beautiful that I


ted device for keeping something off the ground
fell in love with her.); see also akum
and clean)
kur: [kuR] P F vin. hang
kurfyavi: ["kuR.fja.vi] P F n. hook (for hanging or
kurakx: [ku."Rak'] P F vtr. drive out
suspending an item) (derived from kurfyan
kurfyan: ["kuR.fjan] P F n. hamper or suspended
hamper or suspended rack)
rack (c.w. from kur hang and fyan construcKx
kxa: [k'a] P F n. mouth
kxakx: [k'ak'] P F vin. break, snap in two
kxam: [k'am] P F n. middle, midpoint
kxaml: ["k'am.l] P F adp. through (via the
middle of) (derived from kxam middle)
kxamtrr: ["k'am.tr] P F n. mid-day, noon (c.w.
" and trr day)
from kxam middle
kxamtrrmaw: ["k'am.tr.maw] P F n. the time
" early afternoon (c.w.
immediately after noon,
from kxamtrr noon and maw after)
>
kxamtseng: ["k'am.tsEN] P F n. center, place in
the middle (c.w. from kxam middle and tseng
place)
kxamtxomaw: ["k'am.t'o.maw] P F n. after midnight (c.w. from kxamtxon midnight and
maw after)
kxamtxon: ["k'am.t'on] P F n. midnight (c.w.
from kxam middle and txon night)
kxamy: ["k'am.jI] P F n. intermediate level (c.w.
from kxam middle and y level)
kxangangang: ["k'aN.aN.aN] P F intj. boom (onomatopoeic)
kxan: ["k'a.nI] P F adj. forbidden
kxap: [k'ap^] P F n. threat
kxapnga: ["k'ap.NaP] P F adj. threatening (derived from kxap threat) nfp.
kxap si: [k'ap si] P F vin. threaten (derived
from kxap threat)
kxawm: [k'awm] P F adv. perhaps, maybe
kxayl: [k'ajl] P F adj. high
kxayly: ["k'ajl.jI] P F n. high level (c.w. from kxayl high and y level)

kxnng: ["k'.nN] P F adj. smell of decaying


animal/flesh, rotting, putrid
kxeltek: ["k'El.tEk] P F vtr. pick up, lift
kxem: [k'Em] P F vin. be vertical
kxemyo: ["k'Em.jo] P F n. wall, vertical surface
(c.w. from kxem be vertical and yo surface)
kxener: ["k'E.nER] P F n. smoke
>
kxetse: ["k'E.tsE] P F n. tail
kxeyey: ["k'E.jEj] P F n. error, mistake
kxitx: [k'it'] P F n. death
kxm: [k'Im] P F vtr. command, order, assign a
task
kxmyu: ["k'Im.ju] P F n. commander, one with
authority over another (derived from kxm
command, order, assign tasks)
kxll: [k'l] P F n. charge, running attack
"
kxll si: ["k'l "si] P F vin. charge (derived from
"
kxll charge)
kxor: [k'oR] P F n. a wall or bank of powerful waterfalls noted for its deafening roar and deadly
force (countable, but only rarely)
kxu: [k'u] P F n. harm
kxuke: ["k'u.kE] P F adj. safe (c.w. from kxu
harm and ke not)
kxukx: [k'uk'] P F vtr. swallow
kxum: [k'um] P F adj. viscous, gelatinous, thick
kxumpay: ["k'um.paJ] P F n. viscous liquid,
gel (derived from kxum viscous, gelatinous,
thick)
kxutu: ["k'u.tu] P F n. enemy (derived from kxu
harm)

L
lahe: ["la.hE] P F adj. other, else
lal: [lal] P F adj. old (opposite of mip) nfp.
lam: [lam] P F vin. seem, appear
lang: [laN] P F vtr. investigate, explore

lapo: ["la.po] P F pn. other one person or thing


(c.w. from lahe other, else and po he, she)
laro: ["la.Ro] P F adj. clean
latem: ["la.tEm]
vtr. change)
14

PF

vin. change (leykatem

>
latsi: [la."tsi] LA v. keep up with someone
law: [law] P F adj. clear, certain
lawk: [lawk^] P F vtr. discourse on, talk about,
say something concerning
lawnol: ["law.nol] P F n. great joy
lawr: [lawR] P F n. melody
law si: ["law "si] P F vin. make clear (derived
from law clear)
layompin: [la."jom.pin] P F n. black (derived
from layon black)
layon: [la."jon] P F adj. black
ltxayn: [l."t'ajn] P F vtr. defeat in battle, conquer
leal: [lE."Pal] P F adj. wasteful (derived from al
waste) nfp.
leaw: [lE."Paw] P F adj. only
leen: [lE."PEn] P F adj. speculative, intuitive (derived from en guess) nfp.
lefkrr: [lE."fkr] P F adj. current (derived from
"
fkrr this time)
lefngap: [lE."fNap^] P F adj. metallic (derived
from fngap metal)
lefpom: [lE."fpom] P F adj. happy, peaceful, joyous, pleasant (derived from fpom happiness,
peace) nfp.
lefpomron: [lE.fpom."Ron] P F adj. healthy (mentally) (derived from fpomron health or wellbeing (mentally)) ofp.
lefpomtokx: [lE."fpom.tok'] P F adj. healthy
(physically) (derived from fpomtokx health
(physical) ) ofp.
lehawmpam: [lE."hawm.pam] P F adj. noisy
(derived from hawmpam noise)
lehawng: [lE."hawN] P F adj. excessive (derived
from hawng overabundance)
lehawngkrr: [lE."hawN.kr] P F adj. late (derived
from hawngkrr late) "
lehpey: [lE."hI.pEj] P F adj. hesitant, in a state of
hesitation (derived from hpey hesitate)
lehoan: [lE."ho.an] P F adj. comfortable (derived
from hoan comfort)
lehrrap: [lE."hr.ap^] P F adj. dangerous (derived
from hrrap" danger)
leioae: [lE.i.o."a.E] P F n. respect
leioae si: [lE.i.o."a.E si] P F vin. to respect (derived from leioae respect)
lek: [lEk^] P F vtr. heed, obey
lekin: [lE."kin] P F adj. necessary (derived from
kin need)

lekoren: [lE.ko."REn] P F adj. lawlike (derived


from koren rule)
lekyeung: [lEk."jE.PuN] P F adj. insane, crazy
(derived from keyeung insanity)
lelfya: [lE."lIP.fja] P F adj. concerning language,
regarding language (derived from lfya language)
lemrey: [lEm."REj] P F adj. surviving (e.g. of entities from a group some of whom have died) (derived from emrey survive)
lemweypey: [lEm."wEj.pEj] P F adj. patient (derived from maweypey be patient)
len: [lEn] P F vin. happen, occur
leNavi: [lE."naP.vi] P F adj. having to do with the
Navi, the People (derived from Navi the People)
leno: [lE."no] P F adj. thorough, detail-orientated
(of a person)
lenomum: [lE."no.mum] P F adj. curious (derived from newomum be curious)
lenrra: [lE."nr.a] P F adj. proud (derived from
nrra pride)"
lepay: [lE."paj] P F adj. watery (derived from
pay water)
lepwopx: [lEp."wop'] P F adj. cloudy (derived
from pwopx cloud)
lereyfya: [lE."REj.fja] P F adj. cultural (derived
from reyfya way of living)
lerk: [lE."RIk^] P F adj. leafy (derived from rk
leaf )
leronsrel: [lE."Ron.sREl] P F adj. imaginary (derived from ronsrelngop imagine)
lertu: ["lER.tu] P F n. colleague
lesar: [lE."saR] P F adj. useful (derived from sar
use)
leskxir: [lE."sk'iR] P F adj. wounded (derived
from skxir wound)
lesngi: [lE."sN.Pi] P F adj. original, existing at
or from the start, first in a series (derived from
sngi begin)
lesnonrra: [lE.sno."nr.a] P F adj. full of self-pride
"
(derived from snonrra
self-pride)
lesoha: [lE."soP.ha] P F adj. enthusiastic, keen
(derived from soha be enthusiastic about)
ofp.
letam: [lE."tam] P F adj. sufficient (derived from
tam suffice)
letokx: [lE."tok'] P F adj. bodily, physical (derived from tokx body)

15

letrr: [lE."tr] RL adj. daily (derived from trr day)


"
letrrtrr: [lE."tr
.tr] P F adj. ordinary (derived
" "
from trr day)
>
letsim: [lE."tsim] P F adj. original, unique, not derived from another source (derived from tsim
source)
>
letsranten: [lE."tsRan.tEn] P F adj. important
(derived from tsranten matter)
>
letsunslu: [lE."tsun.slu] P F adj. possible (derived from tsunslu may, be possible)
letwan: [lEt."wan] P F adj. dodgy, sneaky (of a
person) (derived from tute person and wan
hide)
letxi: [lE."t'i] P F adj. hurried, frenzied (derived
from txi hurry)
letxiluke: [lE."t'i.lu.kE] P F adj. unhurried (c.w.
from txi hurry and luke without)
lew: [lEw] P F n. cover, lid
lewte: [lE.w."tE] P F adj. disagreeable, argumentative (of an agent) (derived from wte
argue)
lew si: ["lEw "si] P F vin. cover (derived from
lew cover)
ley: [lEj] P F vin. be of value, have some positive
value, be worth something
leyapay: [lE."ja.paj] P F adj. foggy, misty (derived from yapay fog)
leyekrr: [lE."jEP.kr] P F adj. early (derived from
yekrr early) "
leyewla: [lE."jEw.la] P F adj. disappointing (derived from yewla disappointment)
leyn: [lEjn] P F vtr. repeat, do again
lezeswa: [lE."zE.swa] P F adj. grassy (derived
from zeswa grass)
li: [li] P F adv. already
lie: ["li.E] P F n. experience
lini: ["li.ni] P F n. young of an animal, bird, fish,
insect
lisre+: ["li.sRE] P F adp. by, before, up to but not
after (c.w. from li already and sre+ before)
litx: [lit'] P F adj. sharp (as a blade)
lfya: ["lIP.fja] P F n. language (c.w. from lu
word and fyao way)

lfyaolo: ["lIP.fja.o."loP] P F n. language group,


language users (c.w. from lfya language and
olo clan)
lfyavi: ["lIP.fja.vi] P F n. expression, bit of language (derived from lfya language)
lu: ["lI.Pu] P F n. word
lupam: ["lI.Pu.pam] P F n. accent, pronunciation (c.w. from lu word and pam sound)
lupe: ["lI.Pu.pE] P F inter. what (word, utterance) variant of pelu
lupuk: ["lI.Pu.puk^] P F n. dictionary (c.w. from
lu word and puk book (English loan word))
luvan: ["lI.Pu.van] P F n. pun, word-play (c.w.
from lu word and uvan game)
lm: [lIm] P F svin. be far
lng: [lIN] P F vin. float in the air, hover
loi: ["lo.i] P F n. egg
lok: [lok^] P F vtr. approach
lok: [lok^] P F adp. close to
lom: [lom] P F adj. missing, missed (as an absent
person who is longed for)
lomtu: ["lom.tu] P F n. missed person (derived
from lom missing, missed)
lonu: [lo."nu] P F vtr. release, let go
lopx: [lop'] P F vin. panic
lor: [loR] P F adj. beautiful, pleasant to the senses
loran: ["lo.Ran] P F n. elegance, grace (c.w. from
lor beautiful and ran intrinsic character or nature)
lrrtok: ["lr.tok^] P F n. smile
lrrtok si:" ["lr.tok^ "si] P F vin. smile (derived
" smile)
from lrrtok
lu: [lu] P F vin., svin. be, am, is, are (predicative copula, existential verb) (signifies possession with dative of possessor)
luke: ["lu.kE] P F adp. without
lukpen: [luk."pEn] P F adj. without clothing, naked (c.w. from luke without and pen clothing
(plural))
lumpe: ["lum.pE] P F inter. why variant of
pelun
lun: [lun] P F n. reason
lupra: ["lup.Ra] P F n. style

16

M
ma: [ma] P F part. O (vocative marker)
makto: ["mak.to] P F vtr. ride
mal: [mal] P F adj. trustworthy, trust-inspiring
masat: ["ma.sat] P F n. breastplate (armor)
mauti: ["ma.u.ti] P F n. fruit
maw: [maw] P F adp. after (time)
mawey: [ma."wEj] CM adj. calm
maweypey: [ma."wEj.pEj] P F svin. be patient
(ii) (c.w. from mawey calm and pey wait)
maweypeyyu: [ma."wEj.pEj.ju] P F n. One who
is patient (derived from maweypey be patient)
mawfwa: ["maw.fwa] P F conj. after (c.w. from
maw after and fwa that)
mawkrr: ["maw.kr] P F adv. after, afterwards
(c.w. from maw" after and krr time)
mawkrra: [maw."kr.a] P F conj. after (temporal)
"
variant of akrrmaw
(c.w. from krr time and
maw after)
mawl: [mawl] P F n. half
may: [majP] P F vtrm. try, sample, evaluate,
check out, test-drive
mkxu: [m."k'u] P F vtr. interrupt, throw out of
harmonious balance (derived from kxu harm)
meem: [mE."PEm] P F adj. harmonious
mefo: ["mE.fo] P F pn. they, those two (derived
from me+ dual marker and po he/she)
mek: [mEk^] P F adj. empty, or metaphorically:
having no value
mekre: ["mEk.RE] P F n. supplies
>
mektseng: ["mEk.tsEN] P F n. gap, breach (c.w.
from mek empty and tseng place)
melo: ["mE.lo] P F adv. twice (derived from me+
dual marker and alo time)
menari: [mE."na.Ri] P F n. eyes (two) (derived
from me+ dual and nari eye)
meoauniaea: [mE.o.a.u.ni.a."E.a] P F n. harmony, living at one with nature
merki: ["mER.ki] P F n. ground rack (for smoking
meats)
mesrram: [mE.sr."am] P F n., adv. the day befo" days ago (derived from trr
re yesterday, two
day)
mesrray: [mE.sr."aj] P F n., adv. the day after tomorrow, two "days from now (derived from trr
day)
meuia: [mE."u.i.a] P F n. honor

meuianga: [mE."u.i.a.NaP] P F adj. honorable,


honorably (derived from meuia honor and
nga contain)
meyam: [mE."yam] P F vtr. hug, embrace, hold
in ones arms
meyp: [mEjp^] P F adj. weak
mi: [mi] P F adv. yet, still, as before
miklor: [mIk."loR] P F adj. pleasant sounding,
beautiful sounding (derived from mikyun
ear and lor beautiful)
>
miktsang: ["mik.tsaN] P F n. earring (c.w. from
mikyun ear and tsang piercing)
mikv: [mIk."vP] P F adj. bad-sounding (derived from mikyun ear and v unpleasant to
the senses)
mikyun: ["mik.jun] JC n. ear
mip: [mip^] P F adj. new
m+: [mI] P F adp. in, on
mfa: ["mI.fa] or [mI."fa] P F n., adv. inside
mftxele: [mI."ft'E.lE] P F adv. in this regard, related to this matter
mkam: [mI."kam] P F adp. between
mn: [mIn] P F vin. turn, rotate on an axis Mn
ne ftrpa Turn to the left
mnyu: ["mIn.ju] P F n. turner (derived from
mn turn)
mso: [mI."so] P F adv. away (position) (derived
from m in)
mllan: [ml."Pan] P F vtr. accept
"
mllte: [ml."tE] P F vin. agree
"
mo: [mo] P F n. space, hollow, enclosed open area
moe: ["mo.E] P F pn. we two, us two (exclusive)
(derived from me+ dual and oe I)
mok: [mok^] P F vtr. suggest
mokri: ["mok.Ri] P F n. voice
momek: ["mo.mEk^] P F adj. hollow, not solid
mong: [moN] P F vtr. depend on, rely on, trust for
protection
mowan: [mo."wan] P F adj. pleasing, enjoyable
(physically, sexually)
mowar: [mo."waR] P F n. advice, bit or piece of advice
mowar si: [mo."waR si] P F vin. advise (derived
from mowar advice)
mowarsiyu: [mo."waR.si.ju] P F n. advisor (derived from mowar advice)
mrr: [mr] P F num. five
"

17

mrrtrr: ["mr.tr] P F n. five day work week (deri" mrr


" five and trr day)
ved from
mrrve: ["mr.vE] P F adj. fifth (ordinal) (derived
" five)
from mrr
mui: [mu."i.] P F adj. proper, fair, right, justified
muni: [mun."Pi] P F v. cut
mune: ["mu.nE] P F num. two
munge: ["mu.NE] P F vtr. take, bring
mungwrr: [muN."wr] P F adp. except
munsna: ["mun.sna]" P F n. pair (derived from
mune two and snao set, group)
muntrr: ["mun.tr] P F n. weekend (derived from
" trr day)
mune two and
muntrram: ["mun.tr.am] P F n. last weekend (de" weekend)
rived from muntrr

muntrray: ["mun.tr.aj] P F n. next weekend (de" weekend)


rived from muntrr
muntxa: [mun."t'a] P F adj. mated, married
muntxa si: [mun."t'a "si] P F vin. mate (with someone), marry (derived from muntxa mated)
muntxatan: [mun."t'a.tan] P F n. husband, male
spouse (derived from muntxatu spouse)
muntxate: [mun."t'a.tE] P F n. wife, female
spouse (derived from muntxatu spouse)
muntxatu: [mun."t'a.tu] P F n. spouse (derived
from muntxa mated)
muve: ["mu.vE] P F adj. second (ordinal) (derived from mune two)
muwntxu: [mu.wIn."t'u] P F vtr. introduce,
present (derived from wntxu show)

N
na: [na] P F adp. like, as
narng: ["naP.RIN] P F n. forest
naer: [na."ER] P F n. drink, something able to be
drunk
nafu: [na.fI."Pu] P F adj. such (c.w. from na as
and fu this)
namake: [nam."Pa.kE] P F adv. confidently (derived from amake confident)
nang: [naN] P F part. surprise, exclamation, encouragement (mirative)
nari: ["na.Ri] P F n. eye
nari si: ["na.Ri si] P F vin. watch out, be careful
(derived from nari eye)
narlor: [naR."loR] P F adj. beautiful visually (derived from nari eye and lor beautiful, pleasant
to the senses)
narv: [naR."vP] P F adj. ugly, unsightly (derived from nari eye and v unpleasant to the
senses)
natkenong: [nat."kE.noN] P F conj. for example,
as an example (c.w. from na like, as and tkenong example)
nawfwe: [naw."fwE] P F adj. fluent (for speech)
Contraction of na hufwe
nawm: [nawm] P F adj. great, noble
nawmtu: ["nawm.tu] P F n. great person (derived from nawm great)
nawri: ["naw.Ri] P F adj. talented
nayn: [najn] P F n. the symbol 9 (not the value
nine)

nk: [nk^] P F vtr. drink


nn: [nn] P F vin. decrease
ne: [nE] P F adp. to, towards (direction)
nem: [nE."PIm] P F adv. back (direction)
nef: [nE."f] P F adv. up (direction)
nekll: [nE."kl] P F adv. down (direction)
"
nekx: [nEk'] P F vtr. burn, consume
nemfa: ["nEm.fa] P F adp. into, inside (c.w.
from ne towards and mfa inside)
nemrey: [nEm."REj] P F adv.,intj. in a fashion as if
ones life were at stake (derived from emrey
survive)
neni: ["nE.ni] P F n. sand
neto: [nE."to] P F adv. away (direction) (derived
from ne to)
netrp: ["nEt.RIp^] P F adv. luckily, happily
new: [nEw] P F vtrm. want
newomum: [nEw."o.mum] P F svin. be curious, want to know (c.w. from new want and
omum know)
neympin: ["nEjm.pin] P F n. light color (derived
from neyn light, shade of white)
neyn: [nEjn] P F adj. light colors, shades of white
ni: [ni."] P F vtr. grab
nik: [nik^] P F adj. convenient, usable without
much expenditure of effort
nikre: ["nik.RE] P F n. hair
nikroi: [nik."Ro.i] P F n. hair adornment (c.w.
from nikre hair and ioi adornment)

18

>
niktsyey: ["nik.tsjEj] P F n. food wrap (food items
wrapped in edible leaves or vines) (c.w. from
nik convenient and tsyey snack, light meal)
nim: [nim] P F adj. timid, shy
ninan: ["ni.nan] P F adv. by reading (derived
from inan read)
ningyen: ["niN,jEn] P F adv. mysteriously, in a
puzzling fashion (derived from ingyen feeling of mystery)
nip: [nip^] P F vin. become stuck, get caught in
something
nitram: [nit."Ram] P F adj. happy (of people)
nivi: ["ni.vi] P F n. sleeping hammock (general
term)
n: [nI] P F adverbial deriving affix
nal: [nI."Pal] P F adv. wastefully (derived from
al waste)
naw: [nI."Paw] P F adv. only (derived from aw
one)
nawtu: [nI."Paw.tu] P F adv. alone (as one person) (c.w. from aw one and tute person)
nawve: [nI."Paw.vE] P F adv. first (derived
from awve first)
nen: [nI."PEn] P F adv. making an informed
guess, acting on intuition (derived from en
guess)
neng: [nI."PEN] P F adv. equally, on the same level (derived from engeng level)
neoio: [nI."PE.o.i.o] P F adv. ceremoniously (derived from eoio ceremonious)
neveng: [nI."PE.vEN] P F adv. like a child, immaturely (derived from eveng child)
neyng: [nI."PEjN] P F adv. back, in response, in
answer (derived from eyng answer)
nia: [nI."PiP.a] P F adv. finally, at long last (derived from ia end)
nit: [nI."Pit^] P F adv. a bit, a small amount (abstract) (derived from it bit, a small amount)
no: [nI."PoP] P F adv. in a manner which is enjoyable, enjoyably (derived from o exciting)
nul: [nI."Pul] P F adv. more
nulul: [nI."Pul.Pul] P F adv. increasingly, more
and more (derived from ul increase)
nawnomum: [nI.aw."no.mum] P F adv. as
you know, as is known (casual speech
[naw."no.mum]) (derived from awn passive participle infix and omum know)
nayoeng: [nI.aj."wEN] P F adv. like us, as we do
(casual speech [naj."wEN]) (derived from ayo-

eng us (inclusive))
nfe: [nI."fEP] P F adv. badly (derived from fe
bad)
nfkeytongay: [nI.fkEj.to."Naj] P F adv. actually,
as a matter of fact (c.w. from tfkeytok situation and ngay true)
nfkrr: [nI."fkr] P F adv. lately, currently (deri"
ved from fkrr
this time)
nflrr: [nI."flr] P F adv. gently, tenderly (derived
from flrr "gentle)
nfmokx: [nI."fmok'] P F adv. jealously, enviously (derived from fmokx jealousy)
nfnu: [nI."fnu] P F adv. silently (derived from
fnu quiet)
nfrakrr: [nI."fRa.kr] P F adv. as always (derived
"
from frakrr always)
nftr: [nI."ftR] P F adv. to the left (derived
from ftr left)
nftue: [nI."ftu.E] P F adv. easily (derived from
ftue easy)
nftxan: [nI."ft'an] P F adv. so, to such an extent
(derived from ftxan so, to such an extent)
nftxavang: [nI."ft'a.vaN] P F adv. passionately,
with all heart (derived from ftxavang passionate)
nfwefwi: [nI."fwE.fwi] P F adv. by whistling, in
a whistling manner (derived from fwefwi
whistle)
nfyao: [nI."fja.Po] P F adv. in a manner (derived from fyao way)
nfyeyntu: [nI."fjEjn.tu] P F adv. like an adult,
maturely (derived from fyeyntu adult)
nhawmpam: [nI."hawm.pam] P F adv. noisily
(derived from hawmpam noise)
nhawng: [nI."hawN] P F adv. too, excessively
(derived from hawng overabundance)
nhay: [nI."haj] P rr adv. next (derived from hay
next)
nhek: [nI."hEk^] P F adv. strangely, oddly (derived from hek be curious, odd) (sentence, not
manner, adverbial)
nhpey: [nI."hI.pEj] P F adv. hesitantly (derived
from hpey hesitate)
nhoan: [nI."ho.an] P F adv. comfortably (derived from hoan comfort)
nhoet: [nI."ho.Et^] P F adv. widely, pervasively
(derived from hoet vast, broad, expansive)
nhol: [nI."hol] P F adv. few, not many (derived
from hol few)

19

nhona: [nI."ho.na] P F adv. endearingly, sweetly


(derived from hona endearing)
nkrp: [nIk.".RIp^] P F adv. steadily (derived
from ke rp not move) lit.: without letting
it move
nkong: [nIk."PoN] P F adv. slowly (derived
from kong slow)
nkanu: [nI."ka.nu] P F adv. intelligently, in a
smart way (derived from kanu smart)
nkeftxo: [nI.kE."ft'o] P F adv. unfortunately,
sadly (derived from keftxo unhappy)
nkelkin: [nI.kEl."kin] P F adv. unnecessarily
(derived from kelkin unnecessary)
nkemweypey: [nI.kEm."wEj.pEj] P F adv. impatiently (derived from ke not and lemweypey patient)
nklonu: [nIk.lo."nu] P F adv. firmly, steadfastly,
faithfully (derived from ke lonu not let go)
lit.: without releasing it
nkmar: [nIk."maR] P F adv. in the right season,
opportunely (derived from kmar in season)
nksman: [nIk."sman] P F adv. wonderfully (derived from kosman wonderful)
nksran: [nIk."sRan] P F adv. in a mediocre manner (derived from kesran mediocre)
nktungzup: [nIk.tuN."zup^] P F adv. carefully,
firmly (derived from ke tungzup not drop)
lit.: without letting it fall
nkx: [nIk'] P F n. gravel
nkxap: [nI."k'ap^] P F adv. threateningly (derived from kxap threat)
nkxem: [nI."k'Em] P F adv. vertically (derived
from kxem be vertical)
nlam: [nI."lam] P F adv. apparently (derived
from lam seem)
nlaw: [nI."law] P F adv. clearly (derived from
law clear)
nli: [nI."li] P F adv. in advance (derived from li
already)
nlkeftang: [nIl.kE."ftaN] P F adv. continuously,
incessantly, without stopping (c.w. from luke
without and ftang stop)
>
nltsan: [nIl."tsan] P F adv. well (derived from
sltsan good)
nlun: [nI."lun] P F adv. of course, logically,
following common sense
nmal: [nI."mal] P F adv. trustingly, without hesitation (derived from mal trustworthy)

nmeyp: [nI."mEjp^] P F adv. weakly, loosely (derived from meyp weak)


nmun: [nI."mun] P F adv. again
nmwey: [nIm."wEj] P F adv. calmly, peacefully
(derived from mawey calm)
nmweypey: [nIm."wEj.pEj] P F adv. patiently
(derived from maweypey be patient)
nn: [nIn] P F vtr. look at
nNavi: [nI."naP.vi] P F adv. like the Navi,
Navi-ly (derived from Navi the People)
nnk: [nI."nk^] P F adv. by drinking, in a liquid
way (derived from nk drink)
nnn: [nI."nn] P F adv. less (derived from nn
decrease)
nnnn: [nI."nn.n] P F adv. decreasingly, less
and less (derived from nn decrease)
nngay: [nI."Naj] P F adv. truly (derived from
ngay true)
nngong: [nI."NoN] P F adv. lethargically, lazily
(derived from ngong lazy)
nno: [nI."no] P F adv. in detail, expansively, thoroughly
nnrra: [nI."nr.a] P F adv. proudly, with pride (derived from" nrra pride)
nnu: [nI."nu] P F adv. failingly, falteringly, in
vain, fruitlessly, not achieving the desired or expected end (derived from nui fail, falter)
nolo: [nI."o.loP] P F adv. (together) as members
of a clan (derived from olo clan)
nprrte: [nI."pr.tEP] P F adv. pleasurably, gladly,
with pleasure" (derived from prrte pleasurable)
npxay: [nI."p'aj] P F adv. many, manily (derived from pxay many)
npxi: [nI."p'i] P F adv. especially, pointedly, unambiguously (derived from pxi sharp)
npxim: [nI."p'im] P F adv. erectly, rightly (derived from pxim erect, upright)
nran: [nI."Ran] P F adv. basically, fundamentally,
in essence (derived from ran intrinsic character or nature)
nrangal: [nI."Ra.Nal] P F adv. wish (contrary to
fact, with perfective or imperfective subjunctive) (derived from rangal wish)
nronsrel: [nI."Ron.sREl] P F adv. in imagination,
by imagination (derived from ronsrelngop
imagine)
nslpey: [nI.sIl."pej] P F adv. hopefully (derived
from slpey hope)

20

nskien: [nI."ski.En] P F adv. to the right (derived from skien right)


nslele: [nI."slE.lE] P F adv. by swimming (derived from slele swim)
nsngi: [nI."sN.Pi] P F adv. originally, at first
(derived from sngi begin)
nsngum: [nI."sNum] P F adv. worryingly, fretfully (derived from sngum worry)
nsoha: [nI."soP.ha] P F adv. enthusiastically
(derived from soha be enthusiastic about)
nsoaia: [nI.so."a.i.a] P F adv. (together) as members of a family (derived from soaia family)
nsteng: [nI."stEN] P F adv. similarly (derived
from steng similar)
nsti: [nI."sti] P F adv. angrily (derived from sti
be angry)
nsung: [nI."suN] P F adv. besides, additionally,
furthermore (derived from sung add)
nswey: [nI."swEj] P F adv. optimally, best (derived from swey best)
nsyayvi: [nI."sjaj.vi] P F adv. by chance or coincidence (derived from syayvi luck)
nsyen: [nI."sjEn] P F adv. lastly (derived from
syen last)
nsyep: [nI."sjEp^] P F adv. tightly, in an iron grip
(derived from syep trap) lit.: like a trap
ntam: [nI."tam] P F adv. enough (derived from
tam suffice)
nteng: [nI."tEN] P F adv. too, also, as well, likewise (derived from teng same, equal)
ntengfya: [nI."tEN.fja] P F adv. as, same way as
(similar action) (derived from tengfya as, same way as (conj.))
ntkan: [nIt."kan] P F adv. purposefully, deliberately (derived from tkan aim, goal, purpose)
ntkanluke: [nIt."kan.lu.ke] P F adv. accidentally, unintentionally (c.w. from ntkan purposefully, deliberately and luke- without)
ntrrtrr: [nI."tr.tr] P F adv. on a daily basis, regu" " from trr day)
larly (derived
>
ntsim: [nI."tsim] P F adv. originally, in an original way, with originality (derived from tsim
source)
>
ntssy: [nI."tsI.syI] P F adv. by whispering, in a
whisper (derived from tssy whisper, v.)
>
ntson: [nI."tson] P F adv. dutifully, as an obligation (derived from tson duty, obligation)
>
ntsyl: [nI."tsjIl] P F adv. by climbing (derived
from tsyl climb)

ntut: [nI."tut^] P F adv. continually (derived


from tut continuation marker)
ntxan: [nI."t'an] P F adv. much (abstract), very
(derived from txan much)
ntxay: [nI."t'aj] P F adv. horizontally (derived
from txay be horizontal)
ntxi: [nI."t'i] P F adv. hurriedly, in a frenzied way
(derived from txi hurry)
ntxiluke: [nI."t'i.lu.kE] P F adv. unhurriedly, leisurely (c.w. from txi hurry and luke without)
nvingkap: [nI."viN.kap^] P F adv. by the way,
incidentally (derived from vingkap occur to
one, pop into ones mind)
nwan: [nI."wan] P F adv. secretly, in hiding, by
hiding (derived from wan hide)
nwawe: [nI.wa."wE] P F adv. meaningfully, significantly (derived from wawe meaning, significance)
nw: [nI."w] P F adv. on the contrary, conversely
nwte: [nI.w."tE] P F adv. disagreeably, begrudgingly (derived from wte argue)
nwin: [nI."win] P F adv. fast, quickly (derived
from win fast)
nwok: [nI."wok^] P F adv. loudly (derived from
wok loud)
nwotx: [nI."wot'] P F adv. all (of), in toto, completely (derived from wotx totality, whole)
nyawr: [nI."jawR] P F adv. correctly, rightly (derived from eyawr correct, right)
nyewla: [nI."jEw.la] P F adv. in a disappointing
fashion, in a way failing to meet expectations
(derived from yewla disappointment)
nyey: [nI."jEj] P F adv. directly, straight to the
point (derived from yey straight)
nyeyfya: [nI."jEj.fja] P F adv. straight ahead, in
a straight line (derived from yeyfya straight
line)
nyll: [nI."jl] P F adv. communally, in a communal
manner "(derived from yll communal)
nyo: [nI."joP^] P F adv. perfectly, flawlessly (derived from yo be perfect)
nyol: [nI."jol] P F adv. briefly, shortly (of time)
(derived from yol short (of time))
nyrr: [nI."jr] P F adv. naturally, without tam" or changing the nature (derived
pering with
from yrr natural)
nzawnong: [nI."zaw.noN] P F adv. safely (derived from awn passive participle infix and

21

zong save)
nokx: [nok'] P F vtr. give birth to
nong: [noN] P F vtr. follow, proceed after
nopx: [nop'] P F vtr. put away, store
nrr: [nr] P F vin. glow, be luminous
" .a]
nrra: ["nr
P F n. pride, feeling of pride
"
nu+: ["nu.] P F adp. beyond
nui: ["nu.i] P F vin. fail, falter, go astray, not obtain expected or desired result
nulkrr: [nul."kr] P F adv. longer (time) (derived
"
from krr time)
nulnew: [nul."nEw] P F vtrm. prefer (ii) (derived from new want)
nume: ["nu.mE] P F vin. learn

numeyu: ["nu.mE.ju] P F n. student (derived


from nume learn)
>
numtseng: ["num.tsEN] P F n. school (c.w. from
nume learn and tseng place)
>
numtsengvi: ["num.tsEN.vi] P F n. classroom, division of a school (derived from numtseng
school)
numultxa: [nu.mul."t'a] P F n. class (for instruction) (c.w. from nume learn and ultxa meeting)
numultxatu: [nu.mul."t'a.tu] P F n. classmate,
member of a class (derived from numultxa
class (for instruction))
nutx: [nut'] P F adj. thick

Ng
nga: [Na] P F pn. you
nga: [NaP] P F vtr. contain
ngam: [Nam] P F n. echo
ngampam: ["Nam.pam] P F n. rhyme (c.w. from
ngam echo and pam sound)
ngampam si: ["Nam.pam si] P F vin. rhyme (derived from ngampam rhyme)
>
ngatsyp: ["Na.tsjIp^] P F pn. little you, you little
(derived from nga you)
ngawng: [NawN] P F n. worm
ngay: [Naj] P F adj. true
ngaytxoa: [Naj."t'o.a] P F intj. sorry, my apologies (acknowledgment of guilt and regret) (c.w.
from ngey your and txoa forgiveness)
ngn: [N."Pn] P F vin. suffer mentally or
emotionally, be miserable
ngng: [NN] P F n. stomach
ngzk: ["N.zIk^] P F adj. difficult, hard
ngenga: [NE."Na] P F pn. you (honorific (honourific) form) (derived from nga you)
ngep: [NEp^] P F n. navel

nget: [NEt^] P F adj. smell of decaying wood and


leaves, dank (non-animal decay)
ngeyn: [NEjn] P F adj. tired
ngian: [Ni."an] P F,SW adv. however
ngim: [Nim] P F adj. long (physical length)
ngimpup: [Nim."pup^] P F n. length (derived
from ngim long and pup short)
ngip: [Nip^] P F n. space, open or borderless area
ngoa: ["No.a] P F n. mud
ngong: [NoN] P F adj. lethargic, lacking sufficient
energy, lazy
ngop: [Nop^] P F vtr. create
ngopyu: ["Nop.ju] P F n. creator (derived from
ngop create)
ngrr: [Nr] P F n. root
"
ngrrpongu:
[Nr.po.Nu] P F n. grassroots move"
ment (c.w. from
ngrr root and pongu party)
ngul: [Nul] P F adj. grey, drab
ngulpin: ["Nul.pin] P F n. grey (derived from
ngul grey, drab)
nguway: ["Nu.waj] P F n. howl, viperwolf cry (derived from way song)

O
oe: ["o.E] P F pn. I, me

oeyktng: [o."Ejk.tIN] P F vtr. explain (why) (ii)


(c.w. from oeyk cause and tng give)

oeng: ["wEN] P F pn. we two, us two (dual inclusive), you and I (derived from oe I)
ohakx: [o."hak'] P F adj. hungry
>
oetsyp: ["wE.tsjIp^] P F pn. little me, little I (de- ohe: ["o.hE] P F pn. I (deferential or ceremonial
rived from oe I)
form)
oeyk: [o."Ejk^] P F n. cause

osss: [o."sss] LA intj. angry snarl, watch it!


22

osss si: [o."sss si] P F vin. hiss (derived from


osss angry snarl)
okup: ["o.kup^] P F n. milk
olo: [o."loP] P F n. clan
oloeyktan: [o.lo."PEjk.tan] JC n. clan leader
(c.w. from olo clan and eyktan leader)
omum: [o."mum] P F vtr. know (stress moves
to first syllable with infixation)

onlor: [on."loR] P F adj. good-smelling (c.w. from


ontu nose and lor pleasant to the senses)
>
ontsang: ["on.tsaN] P F n. nose ring (c.w. from
ontu nose and tsang piercing)
ontu: ["on.tu] JC n. nose
onv: [on."vP] P F adj. bad-smelling (c.w. from
ontu nose and v unpleasant to the senses)

P
pao: ["pa.Po] P F n. side
pak: [pak^] P F part. disparagement
pam: [pam] P F n. sound
pamrel: [pam."REl] P F n. writing (c.w. from
pam sound and rel image)
pamrelfya: [pam."REl.fja] P F n. spelling (derived from pamrel writing and fyao way)
pamrel si: [pam."REl "si] P F vin. write (derived
from pamrel writing)
pamrelsiyu: [pam."rEl.si.ju] P F n. writer (derived from pamrel writing)
pamrelvi: [pam."REl.vi] P F n. letter (phonetic
symbol) (derived from pamrel writing)
>
pamtseo: ["pam.tsE.o] P F n. music (c.w. from
pam sound and tseo art)
>
pamtseongopyu: [pam.tsE.o."Nop.ju] P F n. music creator, composer (c.w. from pamtseo music and ngopyu creator) eg. James Horner
>
pamtseo si: ["pam.tsE.o "si] P F vin. play music
(with fa for instrument played) (derived from
pamtseo music)
>
pamtseotu: ["pam.tsE.o.tu] P F n. musician (derived from pamtseo music)
pan: [pan] P F n. third, one third
pate: ["pa.tE] ZS v. get to a place, arrive
pawm: [pawm] P F v. ask
pay: [paj] P F n. water, liquid
payfya: ["paj.fja] P F n. stream (c.w. from pay
water and fyao way)
payva: ["paj.I.va] P F n. drop of water (derived
from pay water and lva drop)
paynga: ["paj.NaP] P F adj. moist, humid, damp
(derived from pay water and nga contain)
payoang: [paj."o.aN] P F n. fish (c.w. from pay
water and ioang animal)
paysena: ["paj.sE.na] P F n. water container (c.w.
from pay water and shena container)

paysmung: ["paJ.smuN] P F n. water carrier (c.w.


from pay water and smung transportation
device)
phem: ["p.hEm] P F vin. arrive
pngkxo: [pN."k'o] P F vin. chat, converse, have a conversation
pngkxoyu: [pN."k'o.ju] P F n. chatter, converser (derived from pngkxo chat)
pngkxoyu lekoren: [pN."k'o.ju lE.ko."REn]
P F n. lawyer (c.w. from pngkxoyu chatter
and lekoren lawlike)
pnu: ["p.nu] P F n. promise
pnutng: ["p.nu.tIN] P F vtr. promise (a thing
to someone) (ii) (c.w. from pnu promise and
tng give)
pe+: [pE] P F affix inter. marker
peun: ["pE.Pun] P F vtr. decide
pefnel: [pE."fnEl] P F inter. which kind variant of
fnepe
pefya: [pE."fja] P F inter. how variant of fyape
pefyinepang: [pE.fjin.Ep."PaN] P F inter. how
complex? (derived from fyinepang degree of
complexity) variant of fyinepangpe
pehem: [pE."hEm] P F inter. what (action) variant of kempe (c.w. from kem action, deed)
pehrr: [pE."hr] P F inter. when variant of krrpe
(c.w. from" krr time)
pekxinum: [pE."k'in.um] P F inter. how tight,
loose? (derived from ekxinum tightness,
looseness)
pelu: [pE."lI.Pu] P F inter. what (word, utterance) variant of lupe
pelun: [pE."lun] P F inter. why variant of lumpe
peng: [pEN] P F vtr. tell
peseng: [pE."sEN] P F inter. where variant of
tsengpe
peslosnep: [pE.slo."snEp^] P F inter. what width,
how wide? (derived from snep narrow) vari-

23

ant of slosneppe
pesomwew: [pE.som."wEw] P F inter. what temperature? (derived from somwew temperature)
pesu: [pE."su] P F inter. who variant of tupe
peu: [pE."u] P F inter. what (thing) variant of
upe
pewn: [pEwn] P F n. neck
pey: [pEj] P F vin. wait, wait for
piak: [pi."ak^] P F adj. open, clear (for cloudless
skies)
piak si: [pi."ak^ si] P F vin. open (derived from
piak open)
pil: [pil] P F n. facial stripe
pizayu: ["pi.za.ju] P F n. ancestor
pmtxan: [pIm."t'an] P F inter. how much variant of hmtxampe
pwopx: [pI."wop'] P F n. cloud
>
pwopxtsyp: [pI."wop'.tsjIp] P F n. nebula (derived from pwopx cloud) lit.: little cloud
pllngay: [pl."Naj] P F vin. admit (derived from
" and ngay true)
plltxe speak
plltxe: [pl."t'E] P F v. speak
plltxeyu: " [pl."t'E.ju] P F n. speaker (derived
" speak)
from plltxe
po: [po] P F pn. he, she
poan: [po."an] P F pn. he (no plural form: use
(ay)fo) (derived from po he, she)
poe: [po."E] P F pn. she (no plural form: use
(ay)fo) (derived from po he, she)

polpxay: [pol."p'aj] P F inter. how many (c.w.


from holpxay number and pe how)
pom: [pom] P F vtr. kiss
pongu: ["po.Nu] P F n. group of people, party (derived from po he/she) ofp.
prrku: ["pr.ku] P F n. womb (c.w. from prrnen
" kelku home)
baby and
prrkxentrrkrr: [pr.k'En.tr.kr] Skxawng n. day ti"
" "
me smoking pleasure,
vibrating
tongue (Navi
idiom) (c.w. from prrte pleasurable, kxener
smoke, trr day and krr time)
prrnen: ["pr.nEn] P F n. infant, baby
"
prrnesyul: ["pr.nE.sjul] P F n. bud (c.w. from
prrnen baby" and syulang flower)
prrsmung: ["pr.smuN] P F n. baby carrier (c.w.
from prrnen" baby and smung transportation
device)
prrte: ["pr.tEP] P F adj. pleasurable (of an activi"
ty)
prrwll: ["pr.wl] P rr n. moss (c.w. from prrnen
"
baby and" ewll
plant)
pukap: ["pu.kap^] P F num. six
pum: [pum] P F pn. one (place-holder pronoun
referring to a previously mentioned noun
or pronoun)
pup: [pup^] P F adj. short (physical length)
puve: ["pu.vE] P F adj. sixth (ordinal) (derived
from pukap six)

Px
pxan: [p'an] P F adj. worthy
pxask: ["p'a.sIk^] P F intj. screw that!, no way!
(vulgar)
pxasul: ["p'a.sul] P F adj. fresh, appealing as food
pxaw: [p'aw] P F adp. around
pxawngip: ["p'aw.Nip^] P F n. environment (c.w.
from pxaw around and ngip space)
pxawpa: ["p'aw.pa] P F n. perimeter, circumference, border (c.w. from pxaw around and
pao side)
pxawpxun: ["p'aw.p'un] P F n. armband (c.w.
from pxaw around and pxun arm)
pxay: [p'aj] P F adj. many (used with singular
or plural noun forms)
pxayopin: ["p'aj.o.pin] P F adj. colorful, multicolored, variegated (c.w. from pxay many and

opin color)
pxek: [p'Ek^] P F vtr. kick, shove
pxel: [p'El] P F adp. like, as
pxelo: ["p'E.lo] P F adv. thrice, three times (derived from pxe+ trial marker and alo time)
pxen: [p'En] P F n. functional clothing (item of)
pxesrram: [p'E.sr."am] P F n., adv. three days ago
(derived from" trr day)
pxesrray: [p'E.sr."aj] P F n., adv. three days from
now (derived" from trr day)
pxey: [p'Ej] P F num. three
pxeyve: ["p'Ej.vE] P F adj. third (ordinal) (derived from pxey three)
pxi: [p'i] P F adj. sharp (as a point)
pxim: [p'im] P F adj. erect, upright

24

pximaw: [p'i."maw] P F adp. right after (c.w.


from maw after (time) and pxi sharp)
pxiset: [p'i."sEt^] P F adv. right now (c.w. from
set now and pxi sharp)
pxisre+: [p'i."sRE] P F adp. right before (c.w. from
sre before (time) and pxi sharp)
pxiswawam: [p'i.swaw."am] P F adv. just a moment ago (c.w. from swaw moment and am
past)
pxiswaway: [p'i.swaw."aj] P F adv. in just a second from now (c.w. from swaw moment and
ay future marker)

pxiyern: [p'i."jEP.RIn] P F adv. immediately (not


as soon as pxiswaway) (c.w. from yern soon
and pxi sharp)
pxm: [p'Im] P F adv. often
pxmuni: [p'I.mun.P"i] P F vtr. divide, cut into
parts (c.w. from hapx part and muni cut)
pxor: [p'oR] P F vin. explode
pxorpam: ["p'oR.pam] P F n. ejective consonant
(c.w. from pxor explode and pam sound)
pxun: [p'un] P F n. arm
pxuntil: ["p'un.til] P F n. elbow (c.w. from pxun
arm and til joint)

R
ral: [Ral] P F n. meaning
ralnga: ["Ral.NaP] P F adj. meaningful, instructive, something from which a lesson can be learned (c.w. from ral meaning and nga contain)
ralpeng: [Ral."pEN] P F vtr. interpret (ii) (c.w.
from ral meaning and peng tell)
ram: [Ram] P F n. mountain
>
ramtsyp: ["Ram.tsjIp^] P F n. hill (derived from
ram mountain)
ramunong: [Ra."mu.noN] P F n. well
ran: [Ran] P F n. intrinsic character or nature, essence, constititution; basic nature of something
resulting from the totality of its properties; often best translated as personality
rangal: ["Ra.Nal] P F vin. wish
raspu: [Ra."spuP] P F n. leggings (used in war)
rawke: ["Raw.kE] P F intj. alarm cry, call to defense
rawm: [Rawm] P F n. lightning (general term)
rawmpxom: ["Rawm.p'om] P F n. thunder and
lightning (derived from rawm lightning and
rrpxom thunder)
rawn: [Rawn] P F vtr. replace, substitute
r: [R."P] P F part. do not (for negative imperatives, commands only)
reo: ["RE.Po] P F n. head
rel: [REl] P F n. image, picture
rel arusikx: ["rEl a.ru."sikx] P F n. movie, film,
video (c.w. from rel picture and rikx move)
>
reltseo: ["REl.tsE.o] P F n. visual art (c.w. from
rel image and tseo art)
>
reltseotu: ["REl.tsE.o.tu] P F n. artist (visual)
(derived from reltseo visual art)
reng: [REN] P F adj. shallow (physically) nfp.

rengop: ["rE.Nop^] P F vtr. design (finer detail)


(c.w. from renu pattern and ngop create)
renten: ["REn.tEn] P F n. goggles, (made from insect wings, carved from wood, etc)
renu: ["RE.nu] P F n. pattern
renulke: ["RE.nul.kE] P F adj. irregular, random
(derived from renu pattern and luke without)
rewon: ["RE.won] P F n. morning
rey: [REj] P F vin. live
reyeng: [REj."PEN] P F n. the Balance of Life (derived from rey live)
reyfya: ["REj.fja] P F n. way of living, culture (c.w.
from rey live and fyao path, way)
reykol: [REj."kol] P F vtr. play music, make to sing
(poetic) (derived from rol sing and eyk
causitive infix)
reym: [REjm] P F n. dry land
reypay: ["REj.paj] P F n. blood (c.w. from rey live
and pay water)
rikx: [Rik'] P F vin. move, shift position
rim: [Rim] P F adj. yellow
rimpin: ["Rim.pin] P F n. yellow (derived from
rim yellow)
rina: [Ri."naP] P F n. seed (derived from atokirina seeds of the great tree)
rr: ["RIP.IR] P F n. reflection
rr si: ["RIP.IR si] P F vin. reflect, imitate (derived from rr reflection)
rk: [RIk^] P F n. leaf
rkean: ["RI.kE.an] P F adj. leaf green (c.w. from
rk leaf and ean green)
rn: [RIn] P F n. wood
ro+: [Ro] P F adp. at (locative)

25

roa: ["Ro.Pa] P F vin. be impressive, inspire awe


or respect
rofa: ["Ro.fa] P F adp. beside, alongside
rol: [Rol] P F v. sing
rolun: [Ro."lun] P F intj. Eureka! Ive found it!
rong: [RoN] P F n. tunnel
ronguway: [Ro."Nu.waj] P F vin. howl (derived
from nguway howl)
ronguwayyu: [Ro."Nu.waj.ju] P F n. howler (derived from ronguway howl)
ronsem: ["Ron.sEm] P F n. mind
ronsrel: ["Ron.sREl] P F n. something imagined
(derived from ronsrelngop imagine)
ronsrelngop: ["Ron.sREl.Nop^] P F vtr. imagine, envision (c.w. of ronsem mind, rel

picture, ngop create, casual pronunciation


["Ron.sREw.Nop^] )
ropx: [Rop'] P F n. hole (going clear through an
object)
rou: ["Ro.u] P F vin. be, or get drunk (example
use: rou fa pxir)
rum: [Rum] P F n. ball
run: [Run] P F vtr. find, discover
rurur: [Ru."RuR] P F n. water that is aeriated while flowing among the rocks of a very gradually
sloping stream (countable)
rusey: [Ru."sEj] P F adj., n. alive, living, living
thing (c.w. from rey live and us active participle infix)
rutxe: [Ru."t'E] P F intj. please

S
sanok: ["saP.nok^] P F n. mother (from
saatenuk C )
sanu: ["saP.nu] P F n. mum, mommy (affectionate form of sanok mother)
>
sanutsyp: ["saP.nu.tsjIp^] P F n. little mommy
(used for young girls) (derived from sanu
mommy)
sasem: ["saP.sEm] P F n. parent or set of parents
(derived from sanok mother and sempul
father)
saa: ["sa:] LA intj. threatening cry
salew: [sa."lEw] P F v. proceed, go
salewfya: [sa."lEw.fja] P F n. direction, course
(derived from salew proceed and fyao path)
san: [san] P F adv. saying, quote
sang: [saN] P F adj. warm
sar: [saR] P F vtr. use
sat: [sat^] P F pn. that (lenited form of tsat)
sau: [sa."u] LA intj. exclamation upon exertion,
urgh
saylahe: [saj."la.hE] P F adv. et cetera (derived
from s alahe and others) (contraction)
sayrp: ["saj.RIp^] P F adj. handsome, good looking
ofp. (male)
sanla: [s."Pan.la] P F n. yearning (derived
from anla yearn for)
seoio: [s."PE.o.i.o] P F n. ceremony, ritual, rite
(derived from eoio ceremonious)
seoio si: [s."PE.o.i.o si] P F vin. take part in
a ceremony, perform a ritual (derived from
seoio ceremony)

sipu: [s."Pi.pu] P F n. something humorous


(derived from ipu humorous)
so: ["s.Po] P F n. tool, utensil
sfeul: [s."fE.Pul] P F n. worsening (specific instance) (derived from feul worsen)
sfl: [s."fl] P F n. success (an instance of succeeding) (derived from fl succeed)
sfmi: [s."fmi] P F n. attempt (derived from
fmi try, attempt)
sfngo: [s."fNoP] P F n. requirement, demand
(derived from fngo require)
sfpl: [s."fpIl] P F n. idea (derived from fpl
think)
sftxulu: [s.ft'u."lI.Pu] P F n. speech, oration
(derived from ftxulu orate, give speech)
sfyep: [s."fjEp^] P F n. handle (derived from
fyep hold in the hand)
shena: [s."hE.na] P F n. container, vessel, carrier (derived from hena carry)
skanom: [s."ka.nom] P F n. something acquired, an acquisition, a possession (derived from
kanom acquire)
slang: [s."laN] P F n. an exploration or investigation (derived from lang investigate, explore)
slatem: [s."la.tEm] P F n. change (instance
of), edit, modification (derived from latem
change)
sltxayn: [s.l."t'ajn] P F n. defeat, an instance of defeat (derived from ltxayn defeat)

26

smok: [s."mok^] P F n. a suggestion (derived


from mok suggest)
smunge: [s."mu.NE] P F n. transportation tool
or device (derived from munge take, bring)
Note: In compounds, the and e drop, yielding smung
smyam: [sm."yam] P F n. hug, embrace (derived from meyam hug)
sngn: [s.N."Pn] P F n. bout of suffering;
episode of depression (derived from ngn
suffer mentally or emotionally)
sngop: [s."Nop^] P F n. creation (derived from
ngop create)
snrr: [s."nr] P F n. glow, an instance of glowing;
" lamp (derived from nrr glow)
light source,
snui: [s."nu.i] P F n. failure (particular instance
of failure) (derived from nui fail, falter)
snume: [s."nu.mE] P F n. teaching, instruction
(derived from nume learn)
snumvi: [s."num.vi] P F n. lesson (derived
from snume teaching)
somum: [s."o.mum] P F n. (piece of) information (derived from omum know)
splltxe: [s.pl."t'E] P F n. statement
"
splltxevi: [s.pl."t'E.vi] P F n. comment (deri"
ved from splltxe
statement)
spom: [s."pom] P F n. kiss (derived from
pom kiss)
srawn: [s."Rawn] P F n. replacement, substitute, something that replaces something else (derived from rawn replace)
srengop: [s."rE.Nop^] P F n. design (a particular instance of designing) (derived from
rengop design)
sroa: [s."Ro.Pa] P F n. feat, accomplishment,
great deed
sroa si: [s."Ro.Pa si] P F vin. do great deeds
(derived from sroa great deed)
sseyto: [s.sEj."to] P F n. butchering tool (derived from seyto butcher (in the sense of separating or processing the carcass of a dead animal))
sslpey: [s.sIl."pEj] P F n. hope (particular instance) (derived from slpey hope)
sspxin: [s."sp'in] P F n. disease, sickness, illness (derived from spxin sick)
>
sspxintsyp: [s."sp'in.tsjIp^] P F n. minor ailment (derived from sspxin illness)

ssrtx: [s."sRt'] P F n. annoyance (derived


from srtx annoy)
ssrn: [s."sRIn] P F n. lent or borrowed thing
(derived from srn temporarily transfer from
one to another)
sstarsm: [s."staR.sIm] P F n. collection (put
together intentionally by a person) (derived
from starsm gather, collect)
ssuln: [s."su.lIn] P F n. hobby, pleasureyielding activity (derived from suln be busy
(positive sense))
ssyep: [s."sjEp^] P F n. trap (derived from
syep trap)
stare: [s."ta.RE] P F n. connection, relationship
(derived from tare connect, relate to)
staron: [s."ta.Ron] P F n. hunt (derived from
taron hunt)
>
stsanul: [s."tsan.Pul] P F n. improvement
(specific instance) (derived from tsanul improve)
>
stssy: [s."tsI.syI] P F n. whisper (derived
from tssy whisper)
>
stswayon: [s."tswaj.on] P F n. flight (an instance of flying) (derived from tswayon fly)
>
stsyl: [s."tsjIl] P F n. climbing event, a climb
(derived from tsyl climb)
swsul: [s."w.sul] P F n. a competition (derived from wsul compete)
>
swsultsyp: [s."w.sul.tsjIp^] P F n. a contest (derived from swsul a competition)
swte: [s.w."tE] P F n. point of contention,
source of argument, thing disputed (derived
from wte argue)
swngay: [s.wI."Naj] P F n. proof (particular
instance) (derived from wngay proof )
swntxu: [s.wIn."t'u] P F n. a showing, an exhibition (derived from wntxu show)
sykx: [s."Jk'] P F n. snub (derived from
ykx not notice, ignore, snub)
szrp: [s."z.RIp^] RL,P F n. face lead, rein
(derived from zarp pull)
seayl: [sE."Pajl] P F n. an individual tall, thin waterfall that pours down a sheer high cliff, or off
of a floating mountain (countable)
sekrr: ["sE.kr] P F n. present (c.w. from set now
"
and krr time)
sempu: ["sEm.pu] P F n. daddy (affectionate
form of sempul father)
sempul: ["sEm.pul] P F n. father

27

set: [sEt^] P F adv. now


sevin: [sE."vin] P F adj. pretty ofp. (female)
sey: [sEj] P F n. cup or bowl minimally modified
from naturally occuring resources
seykxel: [sEj."k'El] P F adj. strong (emotionally,
spiritually, not physical), confident
seyn: [sEjn] P F n. chair, stool, bench; any tool or
device to facilitate sitting (derived from so
tool and heyn sit)
seyri: ["sEj.Ri] JC n. lip
>
seysonltsan: [sEj.so.nIl."tsan] P F intj. well done! (derived from hasey soli nltsan accomplished well)
seyto: [sEj."to] P F vtr. butcher (in the sense of
separating or processing the carcass of a dead
animal)
si: [si] P F auxiliary verb, postpositional nonbound verb do, make deriving affix
sim: [sim] P F svin. be near
s: [sI] P F conj. and (connects two things, can
be attached as s: for clauses use ulte and)
sk: [sIk^] P F adv. unquote
slpey: [sIl."pEj] P F vin. hope (with tsn for thing
hoped, unless in independent clause) (ii) (c.w.
from sltsan good and pey wait)
slronsem: [sIl."Ron.sEm] P F adj. clever, smart
(thing) (c.w. from sltsan good and ronsem
mind)
>
sltsan: [sIl."tsan] P F adj. good (of its kind), well
done
sn: [sIn] P F adp. on, onto
skaa: [ska."Pa] P F vtr. destroy
skepek: ["skE.pEk^] P F adj. formal
skiempa: ["ski.Em.pa] P F n. right side (c.w.
from skien right and pao side)
skien: ["ski.En] P F adj. right (not left)
sko+: [sko] P F adp. something as, in the capacity
of, or in the role of, something else
skxakep: ["sk'a.kEp^] P F adj., adv. probable, probably
skxawng: [sk'awN] P F n. moron, idiot
skxir: [sk'iR] P F n. wound
skxir si: ["sk'iR "si] P F vin. wound (derived
from skxir wound)
>
skxirtsyp: ["sk'iR.tsjIp^] P F n. cut, bruise, minor
wound (derived from skxir wound)
skxom: [sk'om] P F n. chance, opportunity
>
slatsu: ["slaP.tsu] P F vtr. describe

slan: [slan] P F vtr. support (emotional, social or


personal support) ofp.
slantire: [slan.ti."RE] P F n. inspiration (c.w. from
slan support and tirea spirit)
slantire si: [slan.ti."RE si] P F vin. inspire (derived from slantire inspiration)
slayk: [slaJk^] P F vtr. brush, comb
sl: [sl] P F conj. but
slkop: ["sl.kop^] P F adv. but also (c.w. from
sl but and kop also)
slr: [slR] P F n. cave
slele: ["slE.lE] P F vin. swim
sleyku: [slEj."ku] P F vtr. produce (derived from
slu become and eyk causative infix)
sloa: ["slo.a] P F adj. wide
sloan: [slo."an] P F vtr. pour
slosnep: [slo."snEp^] P F n. width (derived from
snep narrow)
slosneppe: [slo."snE.pE] P F inter. what width,
how wide? (derived from snep narrow) variant of peslosnep
slu: [slu] P F vin. become (noun predicate with
ne in ambiguous constructions)
smar: [smaR] P F n. prey, hunted thing
smon: [smon] P F vin. be familiar, be known
(with dative)
snao: ["sna.Po] P F n. set, group, pile, clump,
stand nfp.
snafplfya: [sna."fpIl.fja] P F n. philosophy (c.w.
from snao group and fplfya way of thinking) lit.: a group of mindsets
snanumultxa: [sna.nu.mul."t'a] P F n. course (as
a collection of classes) (derived from numultxa class (for instruction))
snapamrelvi: [sna.pam."REl.vi] P F n. alphabet
(derived from pamrelvi letter (phonetic symbol))
snatanh: [sna.tan."hI] P F n. constellation (c.w.
from snao clump and tanh star) lit.: a
clump of stars
>
snatanhtsyp: [sna.tan."hI.tsjIp] P F n. star
cluster (c.w. from snao group and tanh(tsyp) star)
snatxrem: [sna."t'.REm] P F n. skeleton (c.w.
from snao group and txrem bone) lit.: set
of bones
snay: [sna."jI] P F n. staircase, series of step-like
levels (derived from y level, step)

28

snaytu: ["snaj.tu] P F n. loser (derived from


snaytx lose)
snaytx: [snajt'] P F vtr. lose
snm: [snm] P F vin. rot, decay, degrade over
time
snep: [snEp^] P F adj. narrow
snew: [snEw] P F vtr. constrict, tighten
snewsye: ["snEw.sjE] P F adj. weird, spooky (c.w.
from snew tighten, constrict and syeha breath)
sney: [snE."j] P F pn. his own, her own, its own
(derived from sno his self, her self, its self )
sngap: [sNap^] P F vtr. sting
sngi: ["sN.Pi] P F vim. begin, start
sngikrr: ["sN.Pi.kr] P F n. beginning, starting
"
time (c.w. from sngi
begin and krr time)
>
sngitseng: ["sN.PI.tsEN] P F n. beginning,
starting position, initial location (c.w. from
sngi start and tseng place)
sngiyu: ["sN.Pi.ju] P F n. beginner (derived
from sngi begin)
sngel: [sNEl] P F n. garbage, trash, rubbish
>
sngeltseng: ["sNEl.tsEN] P F n. rubbish place, garbage dump (c.w. from sngel garbage and
tseng place)
sngum: [sNum] P F n. worry
sngum si: [sNum si] P F vin. worry (derived
from sngum worry)
>
sngumtsim: ["sNum.tsim] P F n. worrisome matter, source of worry (c.w. from sngum worry
and tsim source)
sngunga: ["sNu.NaP] P F adj. worrisome,
troubling (derived from sngum worry)
sno: [sno] P F pn. his self, her self, its self (reflexive, genitive form sney)
snokfyan: ["snok.fjan] P F n. personal belongings
rack (c.w. from sno his self, her self, its self
and kurfyan hamper or suspended rack)
snolup: ["sno.lup^] P F n. personal style or aesthetic, presence (c.w. from sno self and lupra
style)
snomo: ["sno.mo] P F n. private space that one can
retreat to (c.w. from sno his or her self and
mo space)
snonivi: ["sno.ni.vi] P F n. single-person hammock (c.w. from sno his/her self and nivi sleeping hammock)
snonrra: [sno."nr.a] P F n. self-pride (negative
"
connotation) (c.w.
from sno his/her self and

nrra pride)
snumna: ["snu.mI.na] CP adj. dim ofp. (refers
to a dim person)
soha: ["soP.ha] P F vtr. be enthusiastic about,
show enthusiasm for, be excited about (Note:
Being enthusiastic is always transitive in
Navi -PF)
soaia: [so."a.i.a] P F n. family (irregular genitive
form soai)
sok: [sok^] P F adj. recent
som: [som] P F adj. hot
somwew: [som."wEw] P F n. temperature (derived from som hot and wew cold)
somwewpe: [som."wEw.pE] P F inter. what temperature? (more common) (derived from
somwew temperature)
sop: [sop^] P F vin. travel
sopyu: ["sop.ju] P F n. traveller (derived from
sop travel)
sosul: [so."sul] P F adj. pleasant smell of nearby
running water, rain, moist vegetation
spaw: [spaw] P F vtr. believe
sp: [sp] P F v. jump
sppeng: [sp."pEN] P F vin. restore oneself (metaphorically) (derived from speng restore)
spee: [spE."PE] P F vtr. capture
speetu: [spE."PE.tu] P F n. captive (derived
from spee capture)
speng: [spEN] P F vtr. restore
spono: ["spo.no] P F n. island
spule: ["spu.lE] P F vtr. propel
spulmokri: [spul."mok.Ri] P F n. telephone (derived from spule propel and mokri voice)
spulyaney: [spul.ja."nEj] P F n. canoe paddle
(c.w. from spule propel and yaney canoe)
spuwin: ["spu.win] P F adj. old, former nfp.
spxam: [sp'am] P F n. mushroom, fungus
spxin: [sp'in] P F adj. sick
srak(e): ["sRak(E)] P F part. inter. marker for yes
or no questions
sran: [sRan] P F part., intj. yes (colloquial)
srane: ["sRa.nE] P F part., intj. yes
sraw: [sRaw] P F adj. painful
sr: [sR] P F n. cloth; a piece of cloth woven on a
loom
srtx: [sRt'] P F vtr. annoy, bother
sre+: [sRE] P F adp. before (time)
sre: [sREP] P F n. tooth

29

srefey: [sRE."fEj] P F vtr., vin. expect (c.w. from


sre+ before and pey wait)
srefpl: [sRE."fpIl] P F vtr. assume (derived from
sre+ before and fpl think)
srefwa: ["sRE.fwa] P F conj. before (derived from
sre+ before and fwa that)
srekamtrr: [sRE."kam.tr] P F n. the time before
noon (c.w. from sre "before and kxamtrr midday)
srekamtxon: [sRE."kam.t'on] P F n. before midnight (c.w. from sre before and kxamtxon
midnight)
srekrr: [sRE."kr] P F adv. before, already, ahead of
"
time (c.w. from
sre before and krr time)
srer: [sRER] P F vin. appear, materialize, come into
view
sresea: [sRE.sE."Pa] P F vtr. prophetize, prophesize, prophesy, predict (c.w. from sre+ before
and tsea see)
sresrrong: [sRE.sr."PoN] P F n. before dawn (c.w.
from sre before" and trrong dawn)
sretonong: [sRE.ton."PoN] P F n. dusk, evening
before sunset (c.w. from sre before and txonong night-fall)
srew: [sREw] P F vin. dance
srey: [sREj] P F n. version
srn: [sRIn] P F vtr. transfer from one to another
(rarely used without prefix)
srok: [sRok^] P F n. bead (decorative)
sru: [sRuP] P F vtr. crush, trample
srung: [sRuN] P F n. help, assistance
srunga: ["sRu.NaP] P F adj. helpful (derived
from srung help) nfp.
srung si: ["sRuN "si] P F vin. help (derived from
srung help)
srungsiyu: ["sRuN.si.ju] P F n. assistant, helper
(derived from srung help)
>
srungtsyp: ["sRuN.tsjIp^] P F n. helpful hint, tip
(derived from srung help)
starsm: ["staR.sIm] P F vtr. gather, collect
stawm: [stawm] P F vtr. hear
>
stawmtswo: ["stawm.tswo] P F n. (sense of) hearing (derived from stawm hear)
stn: ["stP.nI] P F vtr. catch
steftxaw: [stE."ft'aw] P F vtr. examine, check
steng: [stEN] P F adj. similar
steyki: [stEj."ki] P F vtr. anger, make someone angry (derived from sti be angry and eyk
causative infix)

sti: [sti] P F vin. anger (intransitive), be angry


sto: [sto] P F vtrm. refuse (to do something)
stum: [stum] P F adv. almost
stxeli: ["st'E.li] P F n. gift
stxenu: ["st'E.nu] P F n. offer (c.w. from stxeli
gift and lonu release)
stxenutng: ["st'E,nu,tIN] P F vtr. offer (derived
from stxenu offer, n.)
stxong: [st'oN] P F adj. strange, unfamiliar, unknown
suln: ["su.lIn] P F svin. be busy (positive sense),
be engrossed in something one finds especially
pleasant and energizing (derived from n be
busy)
sum: [sum] P F n. shell (from the ocean)
sumsey: ["sum.sEj] P F n. drinking vessel made
of shell (c.w. from sum shell and sey cup or
bowl minimally modified from naturally occurring resources)
sung: [suN] P F vtr. add
sunu: ["su.nu] P F vin. be pleasing or likeable,
bring enjoyment
sur: [suR] P F n. taste, flavor
susyang: [su."sjaN] P F adj. fragile, delicate
sutx: [sut'] P F vtr. track, follow
swaw: [swaw] P F n. moment
>
swawtsyp: ["swaw.tsjIp^] P F n. little moment,
second (derived from swaw moment)
swaynivi: ["swaj,ni,vi] P F n. family hammock
(c.w. from soaia family and nivi sleeping
hammock) Note: soaia contracts to sway
swek: [swEk^] P F n. bar, rod, pole
swey: [swEj] P F adj. best
sweylu: ["swEj.lu] P F v. should (derived from
swey best and lu is)
swir: [swi."R] P F n. creature
swizaw: [swi."zaw] P F n. arrow
swizawsena: [swi."zaw.sE.na] P F n. quiver (attached to ikrans saddle) (c.w. from swizaw
arrow and shena carrier)
swoa: ["swo.a] P F n. intoxicating beverage, or
spirits
swoasey: ["swo.a.sEj] P F n. kava bowl (constructed from seed pods, used for drinking intoxicating beverages), hand-sized (c.w. from swoa
intoxicating beverage or sprits" and sey cup
or bowl minimally modified from naturally occurring resources)

30

swoasey ayll: ["swo.a.sEj a."jl] P F n. large soci"


al kava bowl (c.w. from swoasey
kava bowl
(constructed from seed pods, used for drinking
intoxicating beverages) and yll communal)
swok: [swok^] P F adj. sacred
swotu: ["swo.tu] P F n. sacred place
syam: [sjam] P F vtr. to smell (intentionally)
syanan: ["sja.nan] P F n. a single drop or series of
smaller waterfalls occurring sequentially along
a stream or series of pools (countable)
syaw: [sjaw] P F vin. call
syay: [sjaj] P F n. fate
syayvi: ["sjaj.vi] P F n. luck, chance (derived
from syay fate)
sy: ["sj.P] P F adj. bitter
syeha: ["sjE.ha] P F n. breath
syeha si: ["sjE.ha si] P F vin. breathe (derived
from syeha breath)
syen: [sjEn] P F adj. last, final
syep: [sjEp^] P F vtr. trap

syeprel: [sjEp."REl] P F n. camera (c.w. from syep


trap and rel image)
syo: [sjo] P F adj. light (physical weight),
lightweight
syon: [sjon] P F n. feature, trait, attribute, characteristic, point, aspect, facet, property
syor: [sjoR] P F vin. relax, chill out
syulang: ["sju.laN] P F n. flower
syura: [sju."Ra] P F n. energy (physical or spiritual)
syuratan: [sju."Ra.tan] P F,JC n. bioluminescence
(c.w. from syura energy and atan light)
syusmung: ["sju.smuN] P F n. food tray (c.w.
from syuve food and smung transportation
device)
syuve: ["sju.vE] P F n. food (collective noun, cannot be pluralised)
syuvekel: ["sju.vE.kEl] P F n. famine (derived
from syuve food)

T
ta: [ta] P F adp. from (locative), from (temporal
sense with other time words)
taem: [ta."PEm] P F adv. from above
taleng: ["taP.lEN] P F n. skin
talengean: ["taP.lE.NE.an] P F adj. skin blue
(c.w. from taleng skin and ean blue)
tafkip: [ta."fkip^] P F adp. from up among (c.w.
from ta from and fkip up among)
tafral: [ta."fRal] P F adv. therefore, because of that
takip: [ta."kip^] P F adp. from among (c.w. from
ta from and kip among)
takrra: [ta."kr.a] P F conj. since (temporal) vari" (c.w. from krr time and ta from)
ant of akrrta
takuk: ["ta.kuk^] P F vtr. strike
talun: [ta."lun] P F adp. because of, due to
talun(a): [ta."lun(a)] P F conj. because, from the
reason (c.w. from ta from and lun reason)
tam: [tam] P F vin., intj. that will suffice, that
will do, OK
tam tam: ["tam "tam] M intj. calm, be content,
there there
tangek: ["ta.NEk^] P F n. trunk (of a tree)
tanh: [tan."hI] P F n. star, bioluminescent freckle
tare: ["ta.RE] P F vtr. connect, relate to, have a relationship with

tarnioang: ["taR.ni.o.ang] P F n. predator animal


(c.w. from taron hunt and ioang animal)
taron: ["ta.Ron] JC,P F vtr. hunt
taronyu: ["ta.Ron.ju] JC,P F n. hunter (c.w. from
taron hunt and yu agent suffix)
>
taronyutsyp: ["ta.Ron.ju.tsjIp^] P F n. little hunter (derived from taronyu hunter)
tatep: ["ta.tEp^] P F vtr. lose track, lose awareness of something
tatlam: [tat."lam] P F adv. apparently (derived
from lam seem)
taw: [taw] P F n. sky
taweyk(a): [ta."wEjk(a)] P F conj. because, based
on the cause
tawng: [tawN] P F vin. duck, dive
tawsyuratan: [taw.sju."Ra.tan] P F,LN n. aurora (c.w. from taw sky and syuratan
(bio)luminescence)
tftxu: [t."ft'u] P F vtr. weave
tftxuyu: [t."ft'u.ju] P F n. weaver (derived
from tftxu weave and yu agent suffix)
ttxaw: [t."t'aw] P F vin. return
te: [tE] JC part. used in full names
tel: [tEl] P F vtr. receive
telem: [tE."lEm] P F n. cord
tem: [tEm] P F vin. shoot

31

temrey: [tEm."REj] P F n. survival (derived from


emrey survive)
teng: [tEN] P F adj. same, equal
tengfya: ["tEN.fja] P F conj. as, same way as (situational similarity) (c.w. from teng same, equal
and fyao path)
tengkrr: [tEN."kr] P F conj. while, same time as
" same, equal and krr time)
(c.w. from teng
teri: [tE."Ri] P F adp. about, concerning
terkup: ["tER.kup^] P F vin. die
teswotng: [tE."swo.tIN] P F vtr. grant (ii) (c.w.
from tng give)
tete: ["tE.tE] P F adj. dull (as a blade)
tewng: [tEwN] P F n. loincloth
tewti: ["tEw.ti] P F intj. wow, expression of surprise and pleasure
teya: [tE."ja] P F adj. full
teya si: [tE."ja "si] P F vin. fill (with dative of
thing filled) (derived from teya full)
teynga: ["tEjN.a] P F n. that answer (contraction
of teyng a)
teyngla: ["tEjN.la] P F n. that answer (agentive)
(contraction of teyngl a)
teyngta: ["tEjN.ta] P F n. that answer (patientive)
(contraction of teyngit a)
teyr: [tEjR] P F adj. white
teyrpin: ["tEjR.pin] P F n. white (derived from
teyr white)
tiam: ["ti.am] P F vtr. count
til: [til] P F n. joint, hinge
tinan: ["ti.nan] P F n. reading (derived from inan read)
tirea: [ti."RE.a] P F n. spirit
tireafyao: [ti."RE.a.fja.Po] P F n. spirit path (c.w.
from tirea spirit and fyao path)
tireaioang: [ti."RE.a.i.o.aN] P F n. spirit animal
(c.w. from tirea spirit and ioang animal)
tireapngkxo: [ti."RE.a.pN.k'o] P F v. commune (c.w. from tirea spirit and pngkxo chat)
tal: [tI.".Pal] P F n. wastefulness (derived from
al waste)
tawm: [tI."Pawm] P F n. camping (derived
from awm camp)
tawm si: [tI."Pawm "si] P F vin. camp (derived
from awm camp)
tawpo: [tI."Paw.po] P F n. individuality (negative connotation), selfishness (derived from
awpo one individual)

tefu: [tI."PE.fu] P F n. feeling (derived from


efu feel)
tem: [tI."PEm] P F n. the art of cooking (derived
from em cook)
teylan: [tI."PEj.lan] P F n. friendship (derived
from eylan friend)
teyng: [tI."PEjN] P F n. answer, response (derived from eyng answer)
tia: [tI."PiP.a] P F n. ending, conclusion (derived from ia end)
tiavay: [tI."PiP.a.vaj] P F adv. until the end
(c.w. from ia end and vay until)
tipu: [tI."Pi.pu] P F n. humor (derived from
ipu humorous)
to: [tI."PoP] P F n. fun, excitement (derived
from o exciting)
tong: [tI."PoN] P F n. blooming, unfolding (derived from ong bloom)
teyktan: [tI."Ejk.tan] P F,JC n. leadership (derived from eyktan leader)
tfeul: [tI."fE.Pul] P F n. worsening (in the general
or abstract sense) (derived from feul worsen)
tfkeytok: [tI."fkEj.tok^] P F n. state, condition,
situation (derived from fkeytok exist)
tfl: [tI."fl] P F n. success (in general) (derived
from fl succeed)
tflrr: [tI."flr] P F n. gentleness, tenderness (deri" flrr gentle)
ved from
tfmetok: [tI."fmE.tok^] P F n. test (derived from
fmetok test)
tfmi: [tI."fmi] P F n. attempt (derived from fmi
attempt)
tfnu: [tI."fnu] P F n. quiet, silence (derived from
fnu quiet)
tfnunga: [tI."fnu.NaP] P F adj. quiet (derived
from fnu quiet) nfp.
tftang: [tI."ftaN] P F n. stopping, the glottal stop
(derived from ftang stop)
tftang si: [tI."ftaN si] P F vin. stop (someone or
something) (derived from tftang stopping)
tftia: [tI.fti".a] P F n. study (derived from ftia
study)
tftia kifkey: [tI.fti".a ki."fkE.j] P F n. science,
the study of the physical world (c.w. from tftia study and kifkey world)
tftiatu: [tI.fti".a.tu] P F n. researcher (derived
from tftia study)
tftiatu kifkey: [tI.fti"a.tu k."fkEJ.J] P F n.
scientist (c.w. from tftiatu researcher and

32

kifkey world)
tftxavang: [tI."ft'a.vaN] P F n. passion (derived
from ftxavang passionate)
tftxey: [tI."ft'Ej] P F n. choice (derived from ftxey choose)
tftxulu: [tI.ft'u."lI.Pu] P F n. speech-making,
public speaking (derived from ftxulu orate,
give speech)
tfyawntxu: [tI.fja.wIn."t'u] P F n. guidance
(derived from fyawntxu guide)
tfyeyn: [tI."fjEjn] P F n. ripeness, maturity, full
fruition (derived from fyeyn ripe, mature)
thawl: [tI."hawl] P F n. preparations, plan (derived from hawl prepare)
thawnu: [tI."haw.nu] P F n. protection (derived
from hawnu protect, shelter)
thawnu si: [tI."haw.nu "si] P F vin. protect (derived from thawnu protection)
thpey: [ti."hI.pEj] P F n. hesitation (derived
from hpey hesitate)
thona: [tI."ho.na] P F n. cuteness, adorableness
(derived from hona endearing)
tkn: [tIk."PIn] P F n. free time, the absence of business (derived from n be busy)
tkakpam: [tI.kak."pam] P F n. deafness (derived from kakpam deaf )
tkakrel: [tI.kak."REl] P F n. blindness (derived
from kakrel blind)
tkan: [tI."kan] P F n. aim, goal, purpose, target
(derived from kan aim)
tkangkem: [tI."kaN.kEm] P F n. work (derived
from kem action, deed)
tkangkem si: [tI."kaN.kEm "si] P F vin. work
(derived from tkangkem work)
tkangkemvi: [tI."kaN.kEm.vi] P F n. project, piece of work (derived from tkangkem work)
tkanu: [tI."ka.nu] P F n. intelligence (derived
from kanu smart)
tkawng: [tI."kawN] P F n. evil (derived from
kawng bad)
tkeftxo: [tI.kE."ft'o] P F n. sadness (derived
from keftxo unhappy)
tkeftxonga: [tI.kE."ft'o.NaP] P F adj. sad (derived from keftxo unhappy) nfp.
tkelu: [tI."kE.lu] P F n. lack (derived from ke
not and lu be)
tkenong: [tI."kE.noN] P F n. example (derived
from kenong model)

tketeng: [tI."kE.tEN] P F n. difference (c.w. from


ke not and teng same)
tkin: [tI."kin] P F n. need (derived from kin
need)
>
tktseri: [tIk."tsE.Ri] P F n. unawareness, lack of
notice (derived from tseri note, notice)
tkusar: [tI.ku."saR] P F n. teaching (the act) (derived from kar teach)
tkxey: [tI."k'Ej] P F n. incorrectness, mistakeness
(derived from kxeyey mistake)
tkxey si: [tI."k'Ej "si] P F vin. mess up, foul, do
wrong (derived from tkxey incorrectness)
tkxm: [tI."k'Im] P F n. commanding, ordering,
assigning tasks (derived from kxm command, order, assign tasks)
tkxm si: [tI."k'Im si] P F vin. be above someone in a heirarchy, be someones superior (derived from tkxm commanding, ordering, assigning tasks)
tlam: [tI."lam] P F n. appearance (derived from
lam seem)
tlang: [tI."laN] P F n. exploration (derived from
lang investigate, explore)
tlatem: [tI."la.tEm] P F n. change (abstract concept) (derived from latem change)
tlen: [tI."lEn] P rr n. event, happening (derived
from len happen)
tlor: [tI."loR] P F n. beauty (derived from lor
beautiful)
tm: [tIm] P F adj. low
tmal: [tI."mal] P F n. trustworthiness (derived
from mal trustworthy)
tmeem: [tI."mE.PEm] P F n. harmony (general
sense) (derived from meem harmonious)
tmeyp: [tI."mEjp] P F n. weakness (derived
from meyp weak)
tmllan: [tI.ml."Pan] P F n. acceptance (derived
from mllan" accept)
tmok: [tI."mok^] P F n. abstract idea of a suggestion (derived from mok suggest)
tmungwrr: [tI.muN."wr] P F n. exception (derived from mungwrr "except)
tmungwrr si: [tI.muN."wr si] P F vin. make an
" tmungwrr excepexception (derived from
tion)
tmuntxa: [tI.mun."t'a] P F n. mating, marriage
(derived from muntxa mated)
tmweypey: [tIm."wEj.pEj] P F n. patience (derived from maweypey be patient)

33

tmwi: [tIm."wi.] P F n. fairness, justice (derived from mui proper, fair, right, justified)
tmy: ["tIm.jI] P F n. low level (c.w. from tm low
and y level)
tn: [tIn] P F n. activity that keeps one busy (derived from n be busy)
tnawri: [tI."naw.Ri] P F n. talent (derived from
nawri talented)
tnew: [tI."nEw] P F n. desire (derived from new
want)
tng: [tIN] P F vtr. give
tngay: [tI."Naj] P F n. truth (derived from ngay
true)
tngzk: [tI."N.zIk^] P F n. difficulty, problem
(derived from ngzk difficult)
tng lawr: [tIN lawR] P F vin. sing wordlessly, give out a tune or melody (derived from lawr
melody)
tng mikyun: ["tIN "mik.jun] P F vin. listen (derived from tng give and mikyun ear)
tng nari: ["tIN "na.Ri] P F vin. look (derived
from tng give and nari eye)
tngong: [tI."NoN] P F n. lethargy, laziness (derived from ngong lazy)
tngop: [tI."Nop^] P F n. abstract idea of a creation
(derived from ngop create)
>
tng tseng: ["tIN "tsEN] P F vin. back down, give ground (derived from tng give and tseng
ground)
tng zekw: ["tIN "zEk.w] P F vin. touch (intentionally) (derived from tng give and zekw
finger)
tno: [tI."no] P F n. thoroughness, attention to detail
tnomum: [tI."no.mum] P F n. curiosity (derived
from newomum be curious)
tnui: [tI."nu.i] P F n. failure (abstract concept)
(derived from nui fail, falter)
toeyktng: [tI."o.Ejk.tIN] P F n. explanation (derived from eyk cause (root)) (Pronounced
[tI."wEjk.tIN] in casual speech)
tohakx: [tI.o."hak'] P F n. hunger (derived from
ohakx hungry)
tomum: [tI."o.mum] P F n. knowledge (derived
from omum know)
tpawm: [tI."pawm] P F n. question (derived
from pawm ask)
tphem: [tI."p.hEm] P F n. arrival (derived
from phem arrive)

tpngkxo: [tI.pN."k'o] P F n. conversation, discussion (derived from pngkxo chat)


>
tpngkxotsyp: [tI.pN."k'o.tsjIp^] P F n. little
conversation (derived from tpngkxo conversation)
tpeun: [tI."pE.Pun] P F n. decision (derived
from peun decide)
tprrte: [tI."pr.tEP] P F n. pleasure (derived
from prrte"pleasurable)
tralpeng: [tI.Ral."pEN] P F n. translation, interpretation (derived from ral meaning and
peng tell)
tran: [tI."Ran] P F vin. walk
trawn: [tI."Rawn] P F n. replacement, the act of
replacing (derived from rawn replace)
trengop: [tI."rE.Nop^] P F n. design (the act or art
of designing (derived from rengop design)
trey: [tI."REj] P F n. life (derived from rey live)
trol: [tI."Rol] P F n. song (vocal) (derived from
rol sing)
tronsrel: [tI."Ron.sREl] P F n. imagination (derived from ronsrelngop imagine)
tskaa: [tI.ska."Pa] P F n. destruction (derived
from skaa destroy)
>
tslatsu: [tI."slaP.tsu] P F n. description (derived
from slatsu describe)
tslan: [tI."slan] P F n. support (emotional, social
or personal support) (derived from slan support) ofp.
tsnaytx: [tI."snajt'] P F n. loss (derived from
snaytx lose)
tsoha: [tI."soP.ha] P F n. enthusiasm, having a
good attitude (derived from soha be entusiastic about)
tsom: [tI."som] P F n. heat (derived from som
hot)
tsop: [tI."sop^] P F n. journey (derived from sop
travel)
tspee: [tI.spE."PE] P F n. capture (derived from
spee capture)
tspxin: [tI."sp'in] P F n. the state of being ill, sickness (derived from spxin sick)
tsraw: [tI."sRaw] P F n. pain (derived from sraw
painful)
tsraw seyki: [tI."sRaw sEj."ki] P F vtr. hurt (someone or something) (c.w. from tsraw pain
and seyki make (causative))
tsraw si: [tI."sRaw "si] P F vin. hurt, be painful
(derived from tsraw pain)

34

tsresea: [tI."sRE.sE.Pa] P F n. prophecy (derived


from sresea prophetize)
tsteftxaw: [tI.stE."ft'aw] P F n. examination (derived from steftxaw examine)
tsti: [tI."sti] P F n. anger (derived from sti be
angry)
tsung: [tI."suN] Lance n. addition, post script
(P.S.) (derived from sung add)
tsyor: [tI."sjor] P F n. relaxation (derived from
syor relax)
ttaron: [tI."ta.Ron] P F n. hunting (derived from
taron hunt)
tterkup: [tI."tER.kup^] P F n. death (in abstract
sense) (derived from terkup die)Death is inevitable."
>
ttsanul: [tI."tsan.Pul] P F n. improvement (in
the general or abstract sense) (derived from
tsanul improve)
>
ttseri: [tI."tsE.Ri] P F n. awareness, notice (derived from tseri note, notice)
>
ttslam: [tI."tslam] P F n. understanding, intelligence (derived from tslam understand)
>
ttstew: [tI."tstEw] P F n. courage, bravery
>
ttstewnga: [tI."tstEw.NaP] P F adj. courageous,
brave (derived from ttstew courage, bravery) nfp. (e.g. a brave deed)
>
ttstunwi: [tI."tstun.wi] P F n. kindness (derived
from tstunwi kind)
>
ttsunslu: [tI."tsun.slu] P F n. possibility (derived from tsunslu may, be possible)
>
ttsyr: [tI."tsjR] P F n. rejection (derived from
tsyr reject)
ttusaron: [tI.tu."sa.Ron] P F n. hunting (derived
from taron hunt)
ttxanew: [tI."t'a.nEw] P F n. greed (derived
from txanew greedy)
ttxen: [tI."t'En] P F n. awakeness, the state of waking (derived from txen awake)
ttxen si: [tI."t'En si] P F vin. to wake, to waken,
wake up (derived from ttxen awakeness)
ttxula: [tI."t'u.la] P F n. construction, constructed thing (derived from txula build)
ttxur: [tI."t'uR] P F n. strength, power (derived
from txur strong)
tvawm: [tI."vawm] P F n. darkness (derived
from vawm dark)
tvng: [tI."vN] P F n. thirst (derived from
vng thirsty)

tvek: [tI.vEP."kI] P F n. hatred (derived from


vek hate)
twan: [tI."wan] P F n. obfuscation, cover up (derived from wan hide)
twsul: [tI."w.sul] P F n. competition (derived
from wsul compete)
twte: [tI.w."tE] P F n. dispute, argument (derived from wte argue)
twew: [tI."wEw] P F n. coldness, cold (derived
from wew cold)
twngay: [tI.wI."Naj] P F n. proof, proving (abstract) (derived from wngay prove)
twusem: [tI.wu."sEm] P F n. fighting (derived
from wem fight)
tyawn: [tI."jawn] P F n. love (derived from
yawne beloved)
tyawr: [tI."jawR] P F n. correctness (derived
from eyawr correct)
tykx: [tI."Jk'] P F n. lack of notice, snubbing
(derived from ykx not notice, ignore, snub)
tyo: [tI."yoP^] P F n. perfection (derived from
yo be perfect)
tyora: [tI.jo"RaP] P F n. victory, a win (derived
from yora win)
tyusom: [tI.ju."som] P F n. eating (the act) (derived from yom eat)
to: [to] P F part. comparative marker than (behaves like an adp.)
tok: [tok^] P F vtr. be at, occupy a space
tokx: [tok'] P F n. body
tolel: [to."lEl] P F intj. Eureka! I found it! I understand! (synonym: tslolam)
toltem: [tol."tEm] P F vtr. shoot
tompa: ["tom.pa] P F n. rain
tompakel: ["tom.pa,kel] P F n. drought (derived
from tompa rain)
tompameyp: [tom.pa."mEjp^] P F n. drizzle (derived from tompa rain and meyp weak)
tomperw: ["tom.pER.wI] P F n. sleet (derived
from tompa rain and herw snow)
tompva: ["tom.pI.va] P F n. raindrop (derived
from tompa rain and lva drop)
tor: [toR] P F adj. last, ultimate, terminal (derived
from toruk last shadow)
toruk makto: ["to.Ruk^ "mak.to] JC n. toruk rider (c.w. from toruk leonopteryx and makto
ride)
trr: [tr] P F n. day
"

35

trrawve: [tr."Paw.vE] P F n. Sunday (c.w. from


" awve first)
trr day and
trrong: [tr."PoN] P F n. dawn, sunrise (c.w. from
"
trr day and
ong unfold)
trrongmaw: [tr."PoN.maw] P F n. dawn after
"
sunrise (c.w. from
trrong dawn and maw after)
trram: [tr."am] P F adv. yesterday (derived from
trr day" and ham previous)
trray: [tr."aj] P F adv. tomorrow (derived from
" and hay next)
trr day
trrkive: [tr."ki.vE] P F n. Saturday (c.w. from trr
day and" kive seventh)
trrmrrve: [tr."mr.vE] P F n. Thursday (c.w. from
" mrrve
"
trr day and
fifth)
trrmuve: [tr."mu.vE] P F n. Monday (c.w. from
" muve second)
trr day and
trrpeve: [tr."pE.vE] P F inter. which day (derived
from trr" day and pe interrogative marker
and ve ordinal number marker)
trrpuve: [tr."pu.vE] P F n. Friday (c.w. from trr
day and "puve sixth)
trrpxeyve: [tr."p'Ej.vE] P F n. Tuesday (c.w. from
trr day and" pxeyve third)
>
trrtsve: [tr."tsI.vE] P F n. Wednesday (c.w. from
" tsve fourth)
trr day and

trrtxon: [tr.t'on] P F n. the day and night cycle of


Pandora" (c.w. from trr day and txon night)
tukru: [tuk."Ru] P F n. spear
tul: [tul] P F vin. run
tumpin: ["tum.pin] P F n. red, orange (derived
from tun red, orange)
tun: [tun] P F adj. red, orange
tung: [tuN] P F v. allow
tungzup: [tuN."zup^] P F vtr. drop (c.w. from
tung allow and zup fall)
tup: [tup^] P F conj. instead of, rather than
tupe: ["tu.pE] P F inter. who variant of pesu
tut: [tut^] P F part. continuation marker
tut: [tu."tE] P F n. female (person) (derived from
tute person)
tutan: [tu."tan] P F n. male (person) (derived
from tute person)
tute: ["tu.tE] P F n. person
tuteo: ["tu.tE.o] P F pn. somebody, someone (derived from tute person)
tutsena: ["tut.sE.na] P F n. stretcher (c.w. from
tute person and shena carrier)
tuvom: [tu."vom] P F adj. greatest of all, exceedingly great
tuvon: ["tu.von] P F v. lean

Ts
>
tsau: ["tsa.Pu] P F dem. that (thing) (c.w. from
tsa that and u thing)
>
tsafya: [tsa."fja] P F adv. that way, like that (c.w.
from tsa- that and fyao way)
>
tsa-hey: ["tsa."hEj] ZS intj. expression of warning
or frustration, crap!, ah, hell!
>
tsaheyl si: [tsa."hEjl "si] P F vin. bond with,
establish a neural connection (derived from
tsaheylu bond)
>
tsaheylu: [tsa."hEj.lu] JC,P F n. bond (neural connection)
>
>
tsakem: ["tsa.kEm] or [tsa."kEm] P F dem. that
(action) (derived from tsa- that and kem action)
>
tsakrr: [tsa."kr] P F adv. then, at that time, that
" from tsa- that and krr time)
time (derived
>
tsakrrvay: [tsa."kr.vaj] P F adv. until then, in the
meantime (c.w." from tsakrr then and vay up
to)
>
tsal: [tsal] P F pn. that, it (transitive subject)

>
tsalsungay: [tsal.su."Naj] P F adv. nevertheless,
even so
>
tsam: [tsam] P F n. war
>
tsamopin: ["tsa.mo.pin] P F n. warpaint (c.w.
from tsam war and opin color)
>
tsampongu: ["tsam.po.Nu] P F n. war party (c.w.
from tsam war and pongu party)
>
tsamsiyu: ["tsam.si.ju] P F n. warrior (derived
from tsam si make war and yu agent suffix)
>
tsanul: ["tsan.Pul] P F vin. improve, get better
(c.w. from sltsan good and ul increase)
>
tsang: [tsaN] P F n. a piercing
>
tsankum: ["tsan(N).kum] P F n. advantage, benefit, upside, gain (c.w. from tsanul improve,
get better and kum result)
>
tsankumnga: ["tsan(N).kum.NaP] P F adj. advantageous (derived from tsankum advantage, benefit, upside, gain)
>
tsapalute: [tsap."Pa.lu.tE] P F n. apology

36

>
tsapalute si: [tsap."Pa.lu.tE "si] P F vin. apologise (apologize) (derived from tsapalute apology)
>
tsapo: ["tsa.po] P F pn. that one (for people only)
(c.w. from tsa that and po he/she)
>
tsaria: ["tsa.Ri.a] P F pn., sbd. that (c.w. from
tsau-ri that (topical) and a subordinator)
>
tsat: [tsat^] P F pn. that, it (as object)
>
tsata: ["tsa.ta] P F pn., sbd. that (c.w. from
tsau-t that (patientive) and a subordinator)
> >
> >
tsatseng: [tsa."tsEN] or ["tsa.tsEN] P F dem., n.
there, that place (c.w. from tsa that and tseng
place)
>
tsatu: ["tsa.tu] P F dem. that person (c.w. from
tsa that and tute person)
>
tsaw: [tsaw] P F dem., pn. that, it (as intransitive
subject)
>
tsawa: ["tsa.wa] P F pn., sbd. that (c.w. from
tsau that (subjective) and a subordinator)
>
tsawke: ["tsaw.kE] P F n. sun
>
tsawl: [tsawl] P F adj. big (in size), tall ofp.
>
tsawlh: [tsawl."hIP] P F n. size (c.w. from tsawl
big (in size) and hi small (in size))
>
tsawl slu: ["tsawl "slu] P F vin. grow (c.w. from
tsawl big and slu become)
>
tsawlultxa: [tsawl.ul."t'a] P F n. large gathering,
conference (c.w. from tsawl big and ultxa meeting)
>
tsawsngem: [tsaw."sNEm] P F adj. muscular (derived from tsawl big and tsngem muscle)
>
ts: [tsP] P F v. squirt
>
tse: [tsE] P F part. well (conversation starter)
>
tsea: [tsE."Pa] P F vtr. see (physical sense)
>
>
tseatswo: [tsE."Pa.tswo] P F n. (sense of) sight,
vision (derived from tsea see)
> >
tseltsul: ["tsEl.tsul] P F n. whitewater rapids
(countable, but only rarely)
>
tsenga: ["tsE.Na] P F conj. where, place where (derived from tseng place)
>
tseng(e): ["tsEN(E)] P F n. place
>
tsengo: ["tsE.No] P F pn. somewhere (derived
from tseng place)
>
tsengpe: ["tsEN.pE] P F inter. where variant of
peseng
>
tseo: ["tsE.o] P F n. art
>
tseotu: ["tsE.o.tu] P F n. artist (generic term) (derived from tseo art)
>
tseri: ["tsE.Ri] P F vtr. note, notice
>
tsewtx: [tsEwt'] P F adj. dirty

>
tsim: [tsim] P F n. source
>
tsk: [tsIk] P F adv. suddenly, without warning
>
tslpey: [tsIl."pEj] P F n. hope (abstract idea) (derived from slpey hope)
>
tsng: [tsIN] P F num. four
>
tssy: ["tsI.syI] P F vin. whisper
>
tsve: ["tsI.vE] P F adj. fourth (ordinal) (derived
from tsng four)
>
tskalep: ["tska.lEp^] P F n. crossbow
>
tsko: [tsko] P F n. bow (weapon)
>
tsko swizaw: ["tsko swi."zaw] P F n. bow and arrow (c.w. from tsko bow and swizaw arrow)
>
>
tskxaytsyp: ["tsk'aj.tsjIp^] P F n. hail (derived
from tskxepay ice)
>
tskxe: [tsk'E] P F n. rock, stone
>
tskxekeng: ["tsk'E.kEN] P F n. training, exercise
>
tskxekeng si: ["tsk'E.kEN "si] P F vin. exercise,
train (derived from tskxekeng training)
>
tskxepay: ["tsk'E.paj] P F n. ice (derived from
tskxe stone and pay water)
>
tskxevi: ["tsk'E.vi] P F n. pebble, small stone polished smooth by natural forces (derived from
tskxe rock, stone)
>
tslam: [tslam] P F vtr. understand
>
tsleng: [tslEN] P F adj. false
>
tslolam: [tslo."lam] P F intj. get it, I understand
(derived from tslam understand and ol
perfective aspect infix)
>
tsmi: [tsmi] P F n. nectar
>
tsmisnrr: ["tsmi.snr] P F n. bladder lantern, nectar lantern (c.w." from tsmi nectar and nrr
glow)
>
tsmm: [tsmIm] P F n. track, trace (of animal or
person)
>
tsmuk: [tsmuk^] P F n. sibling
>
tsmukan: ["tsmu.kan] P F n. brother (derived
from tsmuk sibling)
>
tsmuke: ["tsmu.kE] P F n. sister (derived from
tsmuk sibling)
>
tsmuktu: ["tsmuk.tu] P F n. sibling (derived
from tsmuk sibling)
>
tsngal: [tsNal] P F n. cup
>
tsngan: [tsNan] P F n. meat
>
tsngawpay: ["tsNaw.paj] P F n. tears (c.w. from
tsngawvk cry and pay water)
>
tsngawpayvi: ["tsNaw.paj.vi] P F n. teardrop
(c.w. from tsngawvk cry and pay+vi water,
with partitive marker)
>
tsngawvk: ["tsNaw.vIk^] P F vin. cry, weep

37

>
tsngem: [tsNEm] P F n. muscle
>
tsn: [tsnI] P F sbd. that (function word) (with
subjunctive verb in dependant clause)
>
tson: [tson] P F n. obligation, duty, imposed requirement
>
tsong: [tsoN] P F n. valley
>
tsongropx: ["tsoN.Rop'] P F n. hole, cavity, excavation with a bottom (visible or presumed) (c.w.
from tsong valley and ropx hole)
> >
tsongtsyp: ["tsoN.tsjIp] P F n. dimple (derived
from tsong valley)
>
tsonta: ["tson.ta] P F conj. to (with kxm) (derived from tson obligation, duty, imposed requirement) (contraction of tsonit a)
>
tsop: ["tso.pI] P F n. lung
>
tspang: [tspaN] P F vtr. kill
>
tsranten: ["tsRan.tEn] P F vin. matter, be of importance
>
tsray: [tsRaj] P F n. village
>
tsrei: ["tsRE.Pi] P F vtr. throw
>
tsrul: [tsRul] P F n. nest; protected area serving as
the home of Pandoran fauna
>
tstal: [tstal] P F n. knife
>
tstalsena: ["tstal.sE.na] P F n. knife sheath (c.w.
from tstal knife and shena carrier)
>
tstew: [tstEw] P F adj. brave ofp.
>
tstu: [tstu] P F adj. closed, shut, overcast (for
cloudy skies)
>
tstunwi: ["tstun.wi] P F adj. kind, thoughtful,
considerate
>
tstu si: ["tstu "si] P F vin. close (derived from
tstu closed)
>
tstxo: [tst'o] P F n. name
>
tstxolu: ["tst'o.lI.Pu] P F n. noun (c.w. from
tstxo name and lu word)
>
tsuo: ["tsu.Po] P F n. ability
>
tsuksm: ["tsuk.sIm] P F n. chin

>
>
tsuktswa: [tsuk."tswaP] P F adj. forgettable (derived from tswa forget)
>
tsukyom: [tsuk."jom] P F adj. edible (derived
from yom eat)
>
tsulf: [tsul."f] P F n. mastery
>
tsulf si: [tsul."f "si] P F vin. master (derived
from tsulf mastery)
>
tsulftu: [tsul."f.tu] P F n. master of an art,
craft, or skill, expert (derived from tsulf
mastery)
>
tsulftunay: [tsul.f.tu."naj] P F n. near-master
(derived from tsulftu master)
>
tsun: [tsun] P F vim. can, be able
>
tsunslu: ["tsun.slu] P F vin. may, be possible
(c.w. from tsun be able and slu become)
>
tsurokx: [tsu."Rok'] P F vin. rest
>
tswa: [tswaP] P F vtr. forget
>
tswayon: ["tswaj.on] P F vin. fly
>
tswin: [tswin] P F n. queue, braid
>
>
tswintsyp: ["tswin.tsjIp^] P F n. little queue (derived from tswin queue)
>
tsyafe: ["tsja.fE] P F adj. mild, moderate, comfortable
>
tsyal: [tsjal] P F n. wing
>
tsyr: [tsjR] P F vtr. reject
>
tsyey: [tsjEj] P F n. snack, light meal
>
tsyeym: [tsjEjm] P F n. treasure; something rare
and of great value
> >
tsyeytsyp: ["tsjEj.tsjIp^] P F n. tiny bite (derived from tsyey snack, light meal)
>
tsyl: [tsjIl] P F vtr. climb, scale (pulling entire
body up)
>
tsyo: [tsjo] P F n. flour
>
tsyokx: [tsjok'] P F n. hand
>
tsyosyu: ["tsjo.sju] P F n. food made from flour
(c.w. from tsyo flour and syuve food)

Tx
txa: [t'aP] P F adj. hard
txal: [t'al] P F n. back (of the body)
txampay: [t'am."paj] P F n. sea, ocean (c.w. from
txan much and pay water)
txampx: [t'am."p'I] P F n. majority, most, large
part (derived from txan much)
txan: [t'an] P F adj. much
txanatan: ["t'a.na.tan] P F adj. bright, vivid (c.w.
from txan much and atan light)

txanew: ["t'a.nEw] P F adj. greedy (c.w. from txan much and new want)
txanfwerw: [t'an."fwER.wI] P F n. blizzard (derived from txan much and hufwe+herw
wind+snow)
txankrr: [t'aN."kr] P F adv. for a long time (c.w.
" and krr time)
from txan much
txanlal: ["t'an.lal] P F adj. ancient, very old (c.w.
from txan much and lal old)

38

txanroa: [t'an."Ro.Pa] P F vin. be famous (c.w.


from txan much and roa inspire awe or respect)
txantompa: [t'an."tom.pa] P F n. rainstorm, heavy rain (c.w. from txan much and tompa
rain)
>
txantsan: ["t'an.tsan] P F adj. excellent
>
txantslusam: ["t'an.tslu.sam] P F adj. wise (c.w.
from txan much and tslusam understand)
>
txantstew: ["t'an.tstEw] P F n. hero (c.w. from
txan much and tstew brave)
txantur: ["t'an.tuR] P F adj. powerful (c.w. from
txan much and txur strong)
txantxew: [t'an."t'Ew] P F n. maximum (c.w.
from txan much and txew limit, border, end)
txantxewvay: [t'an."t'Ew.vaj] P F adv. maximally (derived from txantxew maximum)
txanwawe: [t'an.wa."wE] P F adj. personally meaningful, significant (c.w. from txan much
and wawe significance)
txasom: ["t'a.som] P F adj. very hot (derived
from txan much and som hot)
txatx: [t'at'] P F n. bubbles
txawew: ["t'a.wEw] P F adj. very cold (derived
from txan much and wew cold)
txay: [t'aj] P F vin. be horizontal, lie flat
txayo: ["t'a.jo] P F n. field, open terrain, plain
txrem: ["t'.REm] P F n. bone
txelan: [t'EP."lan] P F n. heart
txekxumpay: [t'E."k'um.paJ] P F n. magma, lava (derived from texp fire and kxumpay
viscous liquid)
txele: ["t'E.lE] P F n. matter (subject)
txen: [t'En] P F adj. awake
txep: [t'Ep^] P F n. fire
txepva: ["t'E.pI.va] P F n. ash, cinder (derived
from txep fire and lva flake)
txepram: [t'Ep."Ram] P F n. volcano (c.w. from
txep fire and ram mountain)
>
txeptseng: ["t'Ep.tsEN] P F n. place where a fire
is burning or has burned (c.w. from txep fire
and tseng place)
>
txeptsyp: ["t'Ep.tsjIp^] P F n. dear or cute little
fire (derived from txep fire)
txepvi: ["t'Ep.vi] P F n. spark (derived from txep
fire)

txew: [t'Ew] P F n. edge, brink, limit, border, end


txewk: [t'Ewk^] P F n. club (weapon)
txewluke: ["t'Ew.lu.kE] P F adj. endless, boundless, without limit (c.w. from txew limit, border and luke without)
txewm: [t'Ewm] P F adj. scary, frightening
txewnga: ["t'Ew.NaP] P F adj. having a limit, not
without bounds, finite (c.w. from txew limit
and nga contain)
txey: [t'Ej] P F v. halt
txi: [t'i] P F n. hurry, hurriedness, frenzy
txin: [t'in] P F adj. main, primary
txintn: ["t'in.tIn] P F n. occupation, primary role
in society (c.w. from txin main and tn activity that keeps one busy)
txm: [t'Im] P F n. butt, rear end, ass
txng: [t'IN] P F vtr. leave, abandon
txo: [t'o] P F conj. if
txoa: ["t'o.a] P F n. forgiveness
txokefyaw: ["t'o.kE.fjaw] P F conj. if not, or else,
otherwise (c.w. from txo-ke-fyao-aw if not
one path)
txon: [t'on] P F n. night
txonong: [t'on."PoN] P F,P rr n. night-fall, sunset, dusk, gloaming (c.w. from txon night and
ong unfold)
txonongmaw: [t'on."PoN.maw] P F n. twilight,
the time before dark, after sunset (c.w. from txonong sunset and maw after)
txonam: [t'o."nam] P F adv. last night (derived
from txon night and ham previous)
txonay: [t'o."naj] P F adv. tomorrow night (derived from txon night and hay next)
txonkrr: ["t'on.kr] P F adv. at night (c.w. from
txon night and" krr time)
txopu: ["t'o.pu] P F n. fear
txopu si: ["t'o.pu "si] P F vin. be afraid (derived
from txopu fear)
txukx: [t'uk'] P F adj. deep (physically)
txula: ["t'u.la] P F vtr. build, construct
txum: [t'um] P F n. poison
txumnga: ["t'um.NaP] P F adj. poisonous (derived from txum poison and nga contain)
txur: [t'uR] P F adj. strong (physically)
txurtel: ["t'uR.tel] P F n. rope (c.w. from txur
strong and telem cord)

39

U
uk: [uk^] P F n. shadow (derived from toruk last
shadow)
ukxo: [u."k'o] P F adj. dry
ulte: ["ul.tE] P F conj. and (clausal conjunction)
ultxa: [ul."t'a] P F n. meeting
ultxarun: [ul."t'a.Run] P F vtr. encounter, meet
by chance (ii) (c.w. from ultxa meeting and
run find)
ultxa si: [ul."t'a "si] P F vin. meet with someone
intentionally (use hu with) (derived from ultxa meeting)
ultxatu: [ul."t'a.tu] P F n. meeting participant
(derived from ultxa meeting)
um: [um] P F adj. loose
unil: ["u.nil] JC n. dream
unil si: ["u.nil si] P F vin. dream (derived from
unil dream)
uniltrantokx: [u.nil.tI."Ran.tok'] JC,P F n. avatar, dreamwalker body (c.w. from uniltranyu
dreamwalker and tokx body)
uniltrantokxolo: [u.nil.tI."Ran.tok'.o.loP] P F
n. clan, or group of avatars (c.w. from uniltrantokx avatar, dreamwalker body and olo
clan)

uniltranyu: [u.nil.tI."Ran.ju] P F n. dreamwalker


(c.w. from unil dream and tranyu walker)
>
uniltsa: ["u.nIl.tsa] P F vtr. dream of, dream
about (derived from unil dream and tsea
see)
unyor: [un."joR] P F adj. sweetly aromatic (a flowery or aromatic woody sort of smell; may also
refer to some spices used in Navi cooking)
uo: ["u.o] P F adp. behind
uran: ["u.Ran] P F n. boat
utral: ["ut.Ral] P F n. tree
>
utraltsyp: ["ut.Ral.tsjIp^] P F n. bush (derived
from utral tree)
utu: ["u.tu] P F n. forest canopy
utumauti: ["u.tu.ma.u.ti] P F n. banana fruit
(c.w. from utu canopy and mauti fruit) (lit.
canopy fruit)
uvan: [u."van] P F n. game
uvan letokx: [u."van lE."tok'] n. physical or
athletic game, sport (c.w. from uvan game
and letokx physical)
uvan si: [u."van "si] P F vin. play (a game) (derived from uvan game)

V
var: [vaR] P F vim. to persist in a state, to continue to perform an action
vawm: [vawm] P F adj. dark
vawmpin: ["vawm.pin] P F n. dark color (derived from vawm dark)
vawt: [vawt^] P F adj. solid, not hollow
vay: [vaj] P F adp. up to
vaykrr: [vaj."kr] P F conj. until (c.w. from vay
" time)
up to and krr
v: [vP] P F adj. unpleasant to the senses, noisome
vng: [vN] P F adj. thirsty
vpam: ["v.pam] P F n. noise. ugly or unpleasant sound, screech (derived from v unpleasant to the senses and pam sound)
vek: [vEP."kI] P F vtr. hate
veo: ["vEP.o] P F n. order (as opposed to disorder
or chaos), organization
vefya: ["vE.fja] P F n. system, process, procedure,
approach (c.w. from veo order, organization

and fyao way, manner)


velek: ["vE.lEk^] P F vin. give up, surrender, concede defeat
velke: ["vEl.ke] P F adj. chaotic, messy, disorganized, in shambles (c.w. from veo order, organization and luke without)
venga: ["vE.NaP] P F adj. organized, on top of
things (c.w. from veo order, organization
and nga contain)
venu: ["vE.nu] P F n. foot
venzek: ["vEn.zEk^] P F n. toe (c.w. from venu
foot and zekw finger)
vewng: [vEwN] P F vtr. look after, take care of, be
responsible for
vey: [vEj] P F n. food made from animal origin,
flesh
vezeyko: [vE.zEj."ko] P F vtr. put in order, organize (derived from vezo be in order)
vezo: [vE."zo] P F vin. be in order, be organized
(c.w. from veo order and zo be as it should

40

be)
vin: [vin] P F vtr. request, ask for
vingkap: ["viN.kap^] P F vtr. occur to one, pop
into ones mind
vir: [vi."R] P F v. spread, proliferate
vitra: [vit."Ra] P F n. soul
vll: [vl] P F vin., vtr. indicate, point at
"
vol: [vol] P F num. eight
volve: ["vol.vE] P F adj. eighth (ordinal) (derived
from vol eight)
vospx: [vo."sp'I] P F n. month (derived from
vospx twelfth and zst of a year)

vospxam: [vo.sp'I."am] P F n. last month (derived from vospx month)


vospxay: [vo.sp'I."aj] P F n. next month (derived from vospx month)
vrrn: ["vr.In] P F svin. be busy (negative sen"
se): be tired
out and overwhelmed by an activity thats keeping one busy (derived from n
be busy)
vrrtep: ["vr.tEp^] P F n. demon
vul: [vul] P" F n. branch (of a tree)
vur: [vuR] P F n. story
vurvi: ["vuR.vi] P F n. summary, synopsis (derived from vur story)

W
walak: ["wa.lak^] P F adj. energetic, active
wan: [wan] P F vtr. hide
wawe: [wa."wE] P F n. meaning, importance, significance
way: [waj] P F n. song (ancient, ceremonial)
way a plltxe: [waj a pl.t'E] P F ph. spoken poem
(as a melodic recital) "(derived from way sing
(ceremonial register))
way a rol: [waj a Rol] P F ph. sung poem (derived from way sing (ceremonial register))
way aylu: [waj. ajlI.Pu] P F ph. words of a
poem or lyrics of a song (derived from way
sing (ceremonial register))
way si: ["waj "si] P F vin. sing (derived from
way song)
waytelem: ["waj.tE.lEm] P F n. song cord (c.w.
from way song and telem cord)
w+: [w] P F adp. against (as in: fight against)
wsul: ["w.sul] P F vin. compete
wte: [w."tE] P F vtr. argue, dispute
wtu: ["w.tu] P F n. opponent (derived from
w- against)
wtx: [wt'] P F vtr. be bad at
weay: ["wE.Paj] P F adj. sour
wem: [wEm] P F vin. fight
wempongu: ["wEm.po.Nu] P F n. squad, military clan, battle party (c.w. from wem fight and

pongu group)
wew: [wEw] P F adj. cold
weyn: [wEjn] P F vtr. draw, illustrate
win: [win] P F adj. fast
win spi: ["win s."pi] P F vin. hurry (c.w. from
win fast and spi do (reflexive))
win si: ["win "si] P F vin. rush something, make
something fast (derived from win fast)
wip: [wip^] P F adj. salty
wiya: ["wi.ja] ZS intj. expression of warning or
frustration, damn!
wngay: [wI."Naj] P F vtr. prove (derived from
wntxu show and ngay true)
wntxu: [wIn."t'u] P F vtr. show
wo: [wo] P F vtr. reach for
wok: [wok^] P F adj. loud
wokau: [wok."a.u] JC,P F n. pendulum drum
(c.w. from wok loud and au drum)
wotx: [wot'] P F n. totality, whole
wrrpa: ["wr.pa] P F n., adv. outside
"
wrrzau: [wr."za.Pu] P F vin. come out, emerge
(derived "from wrrpa outside and zau come)
wum: [wum] P F adv. approximately, roughly
wur: [wuR] P F adj. cool, chilly
>
wutso: ["wu.tso] P F n. dinner, served meal

41

Y
ya: [ja] P F n. air
yafkeyk: ["ja.fkEjk^] P F n. weather (derived
from fkeytok exist)
yak: [jak^] P F n. fork, branch, point of divergence
yak si: [jak^ si] P F vin. diverge, change direction, go astray (derived from yak point of divergence)
yaney: [ja."nEj] P F n. canoe
yapay: ["ja.paj] P F n. mist, fog, steam (c.w. from
ya air and pay water)
yawne: ["jaw.nE] P F adj. beloved
yawnetu: ["jaw.nE.tu] P F n. loved one (derived
from yawne beloved)
yawntu: ["jawn.tu] P F n. loved one (derived
from yawne beloved)
yawnyewla: [jawn."jEw.la] P F n. broken heart,
broken heartedness (c.w. from yawne beloved
and yewla disappointment)
yawo: [ja."wo] P F vin. take off, launch (c.w.
from ya air and wo reach for)
yayayr: [ja."jajR] P F n. confusion
yayayrnga: [ja."jajR.NaP] P F adj. confusing (derived from yayayr confusion)
>
yayayrtsim: [ja."jajR.tsim] P F n. something confusing, source of confusion (c.w. from yayayr
confusion and tsim source)
yaymak: ["jaj.mak^] P F adj. foolish, ignorant
yayo: ["ja.jo] P F n. bird (c.w. from ya air and
ioang animal)
>
yayotsrul: ["ja.jo.tsRul] P F n. birds nest (c.w.
from yayo bird and tsrul nest)
ykx: [Jk'] P F vtr. not notice, ignore, snub
yn: [jn] P F vtr. fasten, tie down
ye: [jE] P F adj. satisfied, content, satiated, full
yekrr: ["jEP.kr] P F adv. early (derived from
yern soon "and krr time)
yern: ["jEP.RIn] P F adv. soon
yehakx: ["jE.hak'] P F adj. satisfied from hunger,
full (derived from ye full and ohakx hungry)
yem: [jEm] P F vtr. put, place
yemfpay: [jEm."fpaj] P F n. dipping, immersion
(into liquid) (c.w. from yem put and pay water)
yemfpay si: [jEm."fpaj "si] P F vin. dip into
liquid (derived from yemfpay dipping)
yemstokx: ["jEm.stok'] P F vtr. put on (clothing), don (c.w. from yem sn put on and to-

kx body)
yengwal: [jEN."wal] P F n. sorrow
yevng: ["jE.vN] P F adj. satisfied from thirst by
drink, feeling quenched, slaked (derived from
ye satisfied and vng thirsty)
yewla: ["jEw.la] P F n. disappointment, emotional
let-down, failed expectation
yey: [jEj] P F adj. straight
yeyfya: ["jEj.fja] P F n. straight line (derived
from yey straight and fyao path)
y: [jI] P F n. shelf, ledge, level, step, rung (Can also be used metaphorically to refer to the level of anything scalable - anything that can
have levels or degrees, highs and lows, water level, temperature, talent, anger, etc.)
ym: [jIm] P F vtr. bind
yll: [jl] P F adj. communal
"
ylltxep: ["jl.t'Ep^] P F n. communal fire or fire pit
" yll communal and txep fire)
(c.w. from
yo: [jo] P F n. surface
yo: [joP^] P F svin. be perfect, flawless
yoko: ["joP.ko] P F n. circle (derived from yo
perfect and koon ring)
yoa: ["jo.a] P F adp. in exchange for
yol: [jol] P F adj. short (of time)
yom: [jom] P F vtr. eat
yomtng: ["jom.tIN] P F vin. feed (with dative object) (ii) (c.w. from yom eat and tng give)
yomyo: ["jom.jo] P F n. plate, (for food) (c.w.
from yom eat and yo table, elevated utilitarian surface (colloquial form of fyanyo))
yomyo lerk: ["jom.yo lE."rIk^] P F n. leaf plate
(c.w. from yomyo plate (for food) and lerk
leafy)
yora: [jo."RaP] P F vtr. win
yoratu: [jo."RaP.tu] P F n. winner (derived from
yora win)
yrr: [jr] P F adj. wild, natural (something in its
"
original,
unmodified, untampered-with natural
state)
yrrap: ["jr.ap^] P F n. storm (derived from ya air
"
and hrrap
danger)
yuey: ["ju.Ej] P F adj. beautiful (inner beauty)
ofp.
yune: ["ju.nE] P F vtr. listen to (intentionally)
yur: [juR] P F vtr. wash

42

Z
zarp: [za."P.RIp^] P F vtr. pull (derived
from rp move)
zau: ["za.Pu] P F vin. come
zam: [zam] P F num. sixty four
zamunge: [za."mu.NE] P F vtr. bring (derived
from munge bring)
zapx: [za."p'I] P F n. front (part or section) (derived from hapx part)
zare: [za."REP] P F n. forehead, brow (c.w. from
zapx front and reo head)
zasrn: [za."sRIn] P F vtr. borrow (derived from
srn temporarily transfer from one to another)
zawng: [zawN] P F vin. scream
zawprrte: [zaw."pr.tEP] P F vin. be enjoyable
" come and prrte pleasu(derived from zau
rable)
zawr: [zawr] P F n. animal call
zfi: ["z.fi] P F adj. modified, interfered with, no
longer in a natural state
zekw: ["zEk.w] P F n. finger
zel: [zEl] P F adv. then (counterfactual use)
zene: ["zE.nE] P F vim. must
zenke: ["zEN.kE] P F vim. must not (ii) (c.w.
from zene must and ke not)
zerok: ["zE.Rok^] P F vtr. remember
zeswa: ["zE.swa] P F n. grass
zeswavi: ["zE.swa.vi] P F n. blade of grass (derived from zeswa grass)
zet: [zEt^] P F vtr. treat (emotionally), display an
attitude towards

zey: [zEj] P F adj. special, distinct


zeyko: [zEj."ko] P F vtr. heal, fix (derived from
zo be well and eyk causative infix)
zir: [ziR] P F n. touch, feel, texture
zm: [zIm] P F vtr. feel (not intentionally)
zmauyu: [zI."ma.Pu.ju] P F n. newcomer, someone who has just arrived on the scene
>
zmtswo: ["zIm.tswo] P F n. (sense of) touch (derived from zm touch)
zskrr: ["zI.sI.kr] P F n. season (derived from
zst year and" krr time)
zst: ["zI.sIt^] P F n. year
zstay: ["zI.sIt.aj] P F n. next year (derived from
zst year)
zo: [zo] P F svin. be well, be intact, be as it should
be, work correctly or as nature intended
zong: [zoN] P F v. save, defend
>
zongtseng: ["zoN.tsEN] P F n. safe place, refuge
(c.w. from zong save and tseng place)
zoplo: [zop."lo] P F n. offence, insult
zoslu: ["zo.slu] P F vin. heal, become well, get fixed (ii) (c.w. from zo be well and slu become)
zum: [zum] P F n. object, thing (physical or tangible)
zun: [zun] P F conj. if (counterfactual use)
zup: [zup^] P F vin. fall
zusawkrr: [zu."saw.kr] P F n. future (c.w. from
" krr time)
zusau coming and

43

The Number System

The following are charts of Navi numbers, which are adjectives that modify nouns in their
singular form, like awa tute. Note that it is not a decimal, but an octal system. Underlining
indicates where the stress ought to fall. The numbers 8 and 9 are included for terrestrial number
reference, such as in phone numbers. They do not signify the value of 8 or 9.
Note that when using numbers in conversational Navi, Dr. Frommer has introduced a
grammatical rule, called the Koren Holpxay, or the Number Principle, which states that
in referring to the same entity, express number only once per clause. For example, the sentence You
two are teachers. in Navi would be Menga lu karyu. and the sentence They are teachers.
would be Fo lu karyu..

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0
kew
aw
mune
pxey
tsng
mrr
pukap
kin

Navi Numbers: 0 39
1
2
3
vol
mevol
pxevol
volaw
mevolaw
pxevolaw
vomun mevomun pxevomun
vopey
mevopey
pxevopey
vosng mevosng pxevosng
vomrr mevomrr pxevomrr
vofu
mevofu
pxevofu
vohin
mevohin
pxevohin

Navi Numbers: 40 63
5
6
7
mrrvol
puvol
kivol
mrrvolaw
puvolaw
kivolaw
mrrvomun puvomun kivomun
mrrvopey
puvopey
kivopey
mrrvosng puvosng kivosng
mrrvomrr puvomrr kivomrr
mrrvofu
puvofu
kivofu
mrrvohin
puvohin
kivohin

x1
aw
mune
pxey
tsng
mrr
pukap
kin

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

4
tsvol
tsvolaw
tsvomun
tsvopey
tsvosng
tsvomrr
tsvofu
tsvohin

Ordinal Numbers
Number + -ve

8
volve
awve
9 volawve
muve 10 vomuve
pxeyve 11 vopeyve
tsve
12
vosve
mrrve 13 vomrrve
puve
14 vofuve
kive
15 vohive

More Navi Numbers:


combining
x8
x64
x512
-aw
vol
zam
vozam
-mun
mevol mezam mevozam
-pey
pxevol pxezam pxevozam
tsvozam
tsvol
tszam
-sng
-mrr
mrrvol mrrzam mrrvozam
puvol
puzam
puvozam
-fu
-hin
kivol
kizam
kivozam

44

x4096
zazam
mezazam
pxezazam
tszazam
mrrzazam
puzazam
kizazam

zamtsvosng

Example Number
zam + tsvo + sng 64 + 48 + 4

100

Non-Navi Numbers
8 eyt 9
nayn

Time

Here is a list of the Pandoran times of the day, as well as names made for the terrestrial week.
Stress is again shown with underlining.
Trrtxon
trrong
trrongmaw
rewon
srekamtrr
kxamtrr
kxamtrrmaw
hangir
kaym
sretonong
txonong
txonongmaw
txon
srekamtxon
kxamtxon
kxamtxomaw
txon
sresrrong
trrong

dawn
after dawn
morning
before noon
noon
after noon
early afternoon
late afternoon
before nightfall
nightfall
after nightfall
night
before midnight
midnight
after midnight
night
before dawn
dawn

Days of the Terrestrial Week


Sunday
trrawve
Monday
trrmuve
Tuesday
trrpxeyve
Wednesday
trrtsve
Thursday
trrmrrve
Friday
trrpuve
Saturday
trrkive

Navi Loan Words

ngls: ["PIN.lI.sI] P F n. English language (loa- kunsp: ["kun.sIp^] P F n. gunship (loaned from
ned from Eng. English)
Eng. gunship)
Rrta: ["Pr.ta] P F,P rr prop.n. Earth (loaned lupuk: ["lI.Pu.puk^] P F n. dictionary (loaned
" Earth)
from Navi / Eng. word book)
from Eng.
Losntsyeles: [los."antsJE.lE.sI] P F pn. Los
Europa: [E.u."Ro.pa] P F prop.n. Europe (loaned
Angeles (loaned from "Eng. Los Angeles)
from Greek Europe)
>
matsa: [ma.tsa] P F n. matsa, crackers (loaned
ewro: ["Ew.Ro] P F n. euro (loaned from Eng. eufrom Hebrew matsa)
ro)
nFranse: [nI."fRan.sE] P F adv. French (loaned
>
hamets: [ha.mE.tsI] P F n. leavened bread (loafrom French Franais)
ned from Hebrew chametz)
nToitsye: [nI."to.i.tsjE] P F adv. German (loaned from German Deutsche)
Jakesully: [ZEjk'su:li] M n. moron, toruk mak>
"
toyu (loaned from Eng. Jake Sully) (not nor- nTsyungwen: [nI."tsjuN.wEn] P F adv. Zhongwen (loaned from Mandarin Chinese
mally allowable under Navi phonotactic
Zhongwen)
rules)
45

Pari: [pa.Ri] P F prop.n. Paris (loaned from


French Paris)
paynpll: ["paj.n.pl] P F n. pineapple (loaned
"
from Eng. pineapple)
psketpol: [p.skEt.pol] P F n. basketball (loaned from Eng. basketball)
>
pts: ["p.tsI] P F n. badge (loaned from Eng.
badge)
plok: [pI."lok^] P F n. blog (loaned from Eng.
blog)
post: ["po.stI] P F n. (forum/blog) post (loaned
from Eng. post)
puk: [puk^] P F n. book (loaned from Eng. book)
>
puktsyp: ["puk.tsjIp^] P F n. pamphlet, booklet
(derived from puk book)
pxir: [p'iR] P F n. beer (loaned from German bier)
skxaypxe: ["sk'aj.p'E] P F n. Skype (loaned from
English Skype)
Sweriye: [swERijE] P F prop.n. Sweden (loaned
from Swedish Sverige)
tawsp: ["taw.sIp^] P F n. sky-ship (loaned from
Eng. ship)
treyn: [+tI."REjn] P F n. train (loaned from Eng.
train)

>
Toitslan: ["to.i.tslan] P F prop.n. Germany (loaned from German Deutschland)
>
Toitsye: ["to.i.tsjE] P F adj. German (language)
(loaned from German Deutsch)
toktor: ["tok.toR] P F n. doctor (loaned from
Eng. doctor)
>
tsynel: [tsj.nEl] P F n. TV channel (loaned
from Eng. channel)
>
tsyrf: [tsjI.R.fI] P F n. giraffe (loaned from
Eng. giraffe)
>
tsyoklt: ["tsjok.lIt^] P F n. chocolate (loaned
from Eng. chocolate)
txolar: ["t'o.lar] P F n. dollar (loaned from Eng.
dollar)
wep: [wEp^] LN n. web (as in world wide web,
www) (loaned from Eng. web)
>
weptseng: ["wEp.tsEN] LN n. website (loaned
from Eng. / Navi web place)
wou: ["wo.u] P F svin. be amazing, fascinating
(slang) (loaned from Eng. whoa)
Yeysu: [jEj.su] P F prop.n. Jesus (loaned from
Italian Jesu)
Yuesey: [ju.E.sEj] P F prop.n. U.S.A. (loaned
from Eng. U.S.A.)

46

Navi Proper Nouns

Akwey: [ak."wEj] JC prop.n. male Navi


Amhul: [am."hul] P F prop.n. female Navi
Ateyitan: [a.tEj.i.tan] JC prop.n. son of Ateyo
(derived from Ateyo male name and itan
son)
Ateyo: [a."tE.jo] JC prop.n. male Navi
ayRam aLusng: [aj."Ram a.lu."sIN] P F prop.n.
the Floating Mountains (c.w. from ram
mountain and lng hover)
ayVitray Ramunong: [aj.vit."Ra.j Ra."mu.noN]
JC prop.n. Well of Souls (c.w. from vitra soul
and ramunong well)
nst: ["n.sIt^] P F prop.n. male Navi
Entu: ["En.tu] P F prop.n. male Navi
Eytukan: ["Ej.tu.kan] JC prop.n. male leader of
the Omatikaya
Eywa: ["Ej.wa] JC prop.n. world spirit, Gaia (derived from Proto-Indo-European *aiw) RL
Eywaeveng: [Ej.wa."PE.vEN] JC,P F prop.n.
Pandora (informal pronunciation [Ej."wE.vEN])
(c.w. from Eywa Gaia and eveng child)
Iknimaya: ["ik.ni."ma.ja] JC prop.n. Stairway to
Heaven, the rite of passage for young Navi
staw: [I."staw] P F prop.n. male Navi
Kamun: ["ka.mun] P F prop.n. male Navi (affectionate form Kamtsyp)
Kelutral: ["kEl.ut.Ral] P F prop.n. Hometree (c.w.
from kelku home and utral tree)
Lona: [lI.Po.na] G,P F prop.n. a clan
Loak: ["lo.ak^] P F prop.n. male Navi
Moat: ["mo.Pat^] JC prop.n. tsahk of the Omatikaya (also pronounced Moat)
Moatite: [mo.Pat.Pi.tE] JC prop.n. daughter of
Moat (derived from Moat a woman and ite
daughter)
Navi: ["naP.vi] P F prop.n. the People, indigenous Pandoran sentient race
Newey: [nE."wEj] P F prop.n. female Navi

Neytiri: [nEj.ti.Ri] JC prop.n. female Navi of the


Omatikaya
Ninat: [ni.nat^] JC prop.n. female singer of the
Omatikaya
Omatikaya: [o.ma.ti."ka.ja] JC prop.n. Blue
Flute Clan
Otranyu: [ot."Ran.ju] JC prop.n. name
Peyral: [pEj."Ral] P F prop.n. female of the Omatikaya
Ralu: ["Ra.lu] P F prop.n. male Navi
Rini: ["Ri.ni] P F prop.n. female Navi
Rongloa: ["RoN.lo.a] JC prop.n. a clan
Seze: ["sE.zE] ZS prop.n. Neytiris banshee
Silwanin: [sil.wa.nin] JC prop.n. Neytiris sister
Sorewn: [so."REwn] P F prop.n. female Navi
Swotulu: ["swo.tu.lu] P F prop.n. sacred river
(derived from swotu sacred place)
Tawtute: ["taw.tu.tE] P F prop.n. Sky-person,
human (c.w. from taw sky and tute person)
>
Tsahk: ["tsa.hIk^] JC prop.n. matriarch, high
priestess, interpreter
>
Tsenu: ["tsE.nu] P F prop.n. female Navi
>
Tskaha: ["tska.ha] JC prop.n. a tribe or clan
>
Tsutey: [tsuP."tEj] JC prop.n. male of the Omatikaya
>
Tsumongwi: [tsu.moN.wi] JC prop.n. original
name for the Omatikaya
Tuke: ["tu.kE] P F prop.n. female Navi
Txew: ["t'E.wI] P F prop.n. male Navi
Txilte: ["t'il.tE] P F prop.n. female Navi
Uniltaron: [u.nil."ta.Ron] P F prop.n. Dream
Hunt (c.w. from unil dream and taron hunt)
Utral Aymokriy: ["ut.Ral aj."mok.Ri.j] JC,P F
prop.n. Tree of Voices (c.w. from utral tree
and mokri voice)(from utraya mokri)
Varu: ["vaP.Ru] P F prop.n. male Navi
Vitrautral: [vit."Ra.ut.Ral] P F prop.n. Tree of
Souls (c.w. from vitra soul and utral tree)

47

Flora and Fauna

Flora
ampirikx: ["Pam.pi.Rik'] P F n. leaf pitcher plant
(c.w. from ampi touch and rikx move)
o: ["P.Po] P F n. pitcher plant
elewll: ["PE.lEP.wl] P F n. thorny paw, cactus
"
(derived from ewll
plant)
anheyu: [a.nI."hE.ju] P F n. fibonacci, blue spiral
plant (c.w. from ean blue and heyu spiral)
apxangrr: [a."p'a.Nr] P F n. delta tree (c.w. from
"
apxa large and ngrr
root)
atokirina: [a.to.ki."Ri.naP] JC n. seeds of the great tree
awaiei: [a.wa.i."E.i] P F n. banshee of paradise
eanean: ["E.an."E.an] P F n. cheadle, herbaceous
plant (c.w. from ean blue)
eyaye: [E."ja.jE] P F n. warbonnet
fkxakewll: ["fk'a.kE.wl] P F n. itch plant (c.w.
" ewll plant)
from fkxake itch and
flefle: ["flE.flE] P F n. Sols delight, magnetotrophic
plant
fngapsutxwll: ["fNap.sut'.wl] P F n. metalfollowing plant (c.w. from" fngap metal and
sutx follow)
fwkwll: ["fw.kI.wl] P F n. mantis orchid (c.w.
from fwk mantis" and ewll plant)
hrumwll: [hI."Rum.wl] P F n. puffer plant
"
kllpxiwll: [kl."p'i.wl] P F n. lionberry (c.w. from
"
"
kllte ground and pxiwll sharp plant)
kxaylte: ["k'ajl.tE] P F n. cillaphant (derived
from kxayl high)
loreyu: [lo."RE.ju] P F n. helicoradian, beautiful
spiral (c.w. from lor beautiful and heyu spiral)
mnyu: ["mIn.ju] P F n. turner, twisted lily (derived from mn turn)
mulpxar: [mul."p'aR] P F n. roosterhead plant
paliwll: ["paP.li.wl] P F n. direhorse pitcher plant
(c.w. from pali" direhorse and ewll plant)
>
pamtseowll: ["pam.tsE.o.wl] P F n. cat ear, mu"
sic plant (c.w. from pamtseo
music and ewll
plant)
paywll: ["paj.wl] P F n. water plant, dapophet
" water and ewll plant)
(c.w. from pay
penghrrap: [pEN."hr.ap^] P F n. binary sunshine,
fringed lamp (c.w." from peng tell and hrrap
danger)

pxayzekw: [p'aj."zEk.w] P F n. spiny whips


(c.w. from pxay many and zekw finger)
pxiut: ["p'i.ut^] P F n. razor palm, sharp tree (c.w.
from pxi sharp and utral tree)
pxiwll: ["p'i.wl] P F n. hermit bud plant (c.w.
" and ewll plant)
from pxi sharp
pxorna: ["p'oR.naP] P F n. episoth, exploding seed
(c.w. from pxor explode and rina seed)
pxornalor: ["p'oR.naP."loR] P F n. sari, beautiful
exploding seed plant (c.w. from pxorna exploding seed and lor beautiful)
rawp: [Rawp^] P F n. bladder polyp
rumut: ["Rum.ut^] P F n. ball tree (c.w. from rum
ball and utral tree)
seze: ["sE.zE] P F,ZS n. blue flower
smaoe: [sma."o.E] P F n. phalanxia, heavily thorned plant
sngukx: [sNuk'] P F n. grub plant
somtlor: ["som.tI.loR] P F n. popsicle, hot beauty
(c.w. from som hot and tlor beauty)
syeptute: ["sjEp.tu.tE] P F n. hyneman, person
trapper (c.w. from syep trap and tute person)
tautral: ["ta.ut.Ral] P F n. sky tree (c.w. from taw
sky and utral tree)
>
tawtsngal: ["taw.tsNal] P F n. panopyra, sky cup
(c.w. from taw sky and tsngal cup)
thawnuwll: [tI."haw.nu.wl] P F n. spartan, protection plant (c.w. from" thawnu protection
and ewll plant)
tompawll: ["tom.pa.wl] P F n. geode, rain plant
" and ewll plant)
(c.w. from tompa rain
torukspxam: ["to.Ruk.sp'am] P F n. octoshroom,
great leonopteryx fungus (c.w. from toruk
great leonopteryx and spxam mushroom)
>
tsawlapxangrr: ["tsawl.a.p'a.Nr] P F n. unidelta
tree, lit. tall large root (c.w." from tsawl big
and ngrr root)(for short, tsawlapx)
>
tstxaa: ["tst'a.Pa] P F n. canalyd
>
tsyorinawll: [tsjo.Ri."naP.wl] P F n. cycad, flour
" seed and ewll
seed plant (c.w. from rina
plant)
txllu: ["t'l.Pu] P F n. hookagourd
"
txumpaywll: ["t'um.paj.wl] P F n. scorpion
" (c.w. from txum
thistle, poison water plant
poison and paywll water plant)

48

>
txumtswll: [t'um."tsP.wl] P F n. Baja tickler, vrumut: ["v.Ru.mut^] P F n. vein pod (c.w.
" from ts squirt
from v unpleasant and rum ball)
poison-squirting plant (c.w.
and ewll plant)
yomhang: [jom."hIP.aN] P F n. small animal/insect eater, dakteron (c.w. from yom eat
and hang insect)
vfewll: ["v.fE.wl] P F n. Centipede, bad-smell
plant (c.w. from" v unpleasant and fahew yomioang: [jom.i."o.aN] P F n. chalice plant (c.w.
from yom eat and ioang animal)
smell)

Fauna
>
angtsk: ["PaN.tsIk^] P F n. hammerhead
eltungawng: ["El.tu.NawN] P F n. brainworm
(c.w. from eltu brain and ngawng worm)
fkio: ["fki.o] P F n. tetrapteron
fpxafaw: ["fp'a.faw] P F n. medusa
fwampop: ["fwam.pop^] P F n. tapirus
fwk: ["fw.kI] P F n. mantis
ikran: ["ik.Ran] JC n. banshee
ikranay: [ik.Ra."naj] JC/P F n. forest banshee
kaliweya: [ka.liP.wE.ja] ASG n. species of poisonous arachnid
kenten: ["kEn.tEn] P F n. fan lizard
nantang: ["nan.taN] JC,P F n. viperwolf Caniferratus costatus, striped armored wolf
pali: ["paP.li] P F n. direhorse

palulukan: [pa.lu."lu.kan] JC n. thanator (colloquial [pa."lu.kan])


>
palulukantsyp: [pa.lu."lu.kan.tsjIp^] JC,P F n.
little thanator (derived from palulukan tha>
nator) (colloquial [pa."lu.kan.tsjIp^])
riti: ["Ri.ti] JC n. stingbat
syaksyuk: [sjak."sjuk^] P F n. prolemuris
talioang: ["tal.i.o.aN] JC n. sturmbeest (derived
from ioang animal)
teylu: ["tEj.lu] JC n. beetle larva
toruk: ["to.Ruk^] JC n. great leonopteryx, last shadow
yerik: ["jE.Rik^] P F n. hexapede
zize: [zi."zEP] P F n. hellfire wasp

49

Useful Phrases

These are some useful phrases. Often the word order can be changed, although the morphemes are probably invariable. Weve included these not only to show instances where a phrase
encapsulates a single semantic meaning, but also to illustrate set common constructions. For
this reason we have also included some single words again here. Most of these are taken from
Dr. Frommers blog at Naviteri.org. Theyve been included in no specific conversational order,
but rather alphabetically.
awa swawtsyp: [] P F ph. just a tiny moment, hold on a bit
efu ohakx: ["PE.fu o."hak'] P F ph. be hungry
ivong nkong: [] P F ph. slow is fine
n nga fyape nfkrr: [] P F ph. whats been keeping you busy lately?
aytele a ngey hapxm kifkey lu fyape?: [] P F ph. How are things in your part of the world?
txle pa(lu)lukanur: [."t'.lE pa."lu.ka.nuR] P F ph. Navi idiom: txle si palulukanur tsn
smarit livonu; Ask a thanator to release its prey, its a foregone conclusion
etrpa syayvi: ["Et.RI.pa "sjaj.vi] P F ph. good luck
Eywa ngahu: ["Ej.wa "Na.hu] P F,JC ph. goodbye, Eywa (be) with you
fpor syaw fko staw: [] P F ph. this is staw
fnu, ma evi. Sanur leru hawtsyp. Tsivurokx ko.: [] P F ph. Quiet, young one. Mommy is taking
a nap. Let her rest.
ftia oel lfyati leNavi no nwotx: [] P F ph. studying Navi is a ton of fun for me!
ftxey...fuke: [ft'Ej fu."kE] P F ph. whether...or (derived from ftxey whether and fuke or not)
fwa kan ke tam; zene swizawit livonu.: [] LN,P F ph. Navi proverbial phrase: To aim is not
enough; one must release the arrow.; Intent is not enough; its action that counts.
fwk ke fwefwi: ["fw.kI kE "fwE.fwi] P F ph. Navi idiom: a mantis doesnt whistle, its against
someones or somethings nature
fyape fko syaw ngar?: ["fja.pE fko sjaw NaR] P F ph. what are you called, what is your name
hayalo ta oe (oeta): [ha."ja.lo ta "o.E ("wE.ta)] P F ph. next time from me
hayalovay: [ha."ja.lo.vaj] P F ph. until next time (c.w. from hayalo next time and vay- until)
irayo: [i."Ra.jo] P F intj. thanks, thank you
kaltx: [kal."t'I] P F intj. hello (casual)
kaltx sivi, ma staw: [] P F ph. say hello, staw
ka wotx: [ka wot'] P F ph. generally, for the most part (literally: across the totality)
kea tkin: ["kE.a tI."kin] P F ph. no need (for thanks)
kefya srak: [kE."fja "sRak^] P F ph. isnt that so? right? no?
ke...kawit: [kE kaw."Pit^] P F ph. not...at all (derived from ke not and kawit at all)
kem amui, kum afe: [] P F ph. Navi proverbial phrase: Proper action, bad result (Said when
something that should have turned out well didnt)
kenten m kumpay: ["kEn.tEn mI "k'um.paJ] P F ph. Navi idiom: (like) a fan lizard in gel, a
sense of being in an environment where youre prevented from acting naturally or doing what you
want to do
ke pxan: [kE p'an] P F ph. Im not worthy
ke tare: [kE "ta.RE] P F ph. Its irrelevant; It doesnt matter
ke tslolam: [] P F ph. I didnt get that, I didnt understand
ke zene win spivi: [] P F ph. take your time, dont rush
kyevame: [kI.jE."va.mE] P F intj. good-bye, see you again soon
krro krro: ["kr.o "kr.o] P F ph. at times, on occasion
" tmeyp
"
kunspri txana
lu tsyal a mn.: [] P F ph. The gunships main weakness is the rotor system.

50

>
kxetse s mikyun kop plltxe: ["k'E.tsE sI "mik.jun kop^ pl."t'E] LN,P F ph. Navi proverbial phrase:
"
the tail and ears also speak; body language is important
loreyu awnampi: [lo."RE.Ju Pawn."ampi] P F ph. Navi idiom: (like) a touched helicoradian, extreme shyness
ma frapo, ayngaru oey tsmukit alu Newey: [] P F ph. everybody, please allow me to introduce (to
you) my sister, Newey
makto zong: ["mak.to zoN] P F ph. take care, travel safely
ne kllte: ["nE "kl.tE] P F ph. get down (c.w. from ne to and kllte ground)
"
nga lpivawk nit
nul ko: [] P F ph. tell me a bit more about yourself
nga lpivawk nno ko: [] P F ph. tell me all about yourself
nga pesuhu kteng ntrrtrr: [] P F ph. who do you normally spend time with?
ngari solalew polpxaya zst: [] P F ph. how old are you?, how many years have you passed?
ngari txelan mawey livu: ["Na.Ri t'EP."lan ma."wEj li."vu] P F ph. dont worry, may your heart be
calm
ngaru lu fpom srak?: ["Na.Ru lu fpom sRak^] P F ph. How are you? are you well?
ngaru lu pefnetxintn ntrrtrr: [] P F ph. what is your primary role in society?
ngaru oey lertut: [] P F ph. allow me to introduce my colleague
>
ngaru tsulf: ["Na.Ru tsul."f] P F ph. to you the mastery
ngaru tut: ["Na.Ru tut^] P F ph. and to you? and you? (After a question with a dative subject)
nga yawne lu oer: [Na "jaw.nE lu wER] P F ph. I love you, you are beloved to me
nga zolau ftu peseng: [] P F ph. where did you come from?
ngenga lu tupe: [] P F ph. who are you?
>
ngey kxetse lu oeru: ["NEj. "k'E.tsE lu "wE.Ru] P F,JC ph. Navi idiom: your tail is mine!,
youre going down!
nlun ayioi aeoio ayeyktan lu lor frato: [] P F ph. Of course the ceremonial wardrobes of the
leaders are the most beautiful
nprrte: [nI."pr.tEP] P F adv. gladly, I did it with pleasure
" sray a txampayri sim, sl set kelku si m Helutral: []
oe olongokx m
P F ph. I was born in a
town near the ocean, but I now live in Hometree
oe irayo si ngaru: ["o.E i."Raj.o si "Na.Ru] P F ph. I give thanks to you, thank you
oel ngati kameie: [wEl "Na.ti "ka.mE.i.E] P F ph. I see you, hello (familiar)
oeri solalew zst apxevol: [] P F ph. I am 24 years old
oeru meuia: ["wE.Ru mE."u.i.a] P F ph. an honor to me, it was an honor
oeru syaw (fko) Txew: [] P F ph. my name is Txew
oeru teya si: ["wE.Ru tE."ja si] P F ph. fills me with satisfaction, joy
oeru txoa livu: ["wE.Ru "t'o.a li."vu] P F ph. please forgive me, may forgiveness be to me
oe tskxekeng si ssulnur alu tsko swizaw: [] P F ph. I practice my hobby, which is archery
oey txintn lu fwa stn fayoangit: [] P F ph. my central role in society is to catch fish
pefya nga fpl: [] P F ph. what do you think? (literally: how do you think?)
pum ngey: [pum "NE.j] P F ph. yours, I should thank you
rutxe lpivawk nit: [] P F ph. please talk a little bit about yourself
rutxe liveyn: [] P F ph. could you repeat that please?
rutxe tivng mikyun, ma frapo: [] P F ph. Your attention, please, everyone!
sfpl asteng tkan ateng: [] P F ph. Navi proverbial phrase: Great minds think alike!
seykxel s nitram: [sEj."k'El sI nit."Ram] P F ph. strong and happy!, congratulations
smon nprrte: [smon nI."pr.tEP^] P F ph. nice to know you
"
srake fnan ngal lfyati leNavi:
[] P F ph. are you good at Navi?
srake smon ngar oey meylan alu Entu s Kamun: [] P F ph. do you know my friends Entu and
Kamun?

51

srefereiey nprrte: [] P F ph. looking forward to it


srefwa sngap zize: [] P F ph. as quickly as possible (Navi idiom: before the hellwasp stings)
stum ke: [stum kE] P F ph. almost not (Note: Use instead of hardly, barely, or scarcely.)
taronyut yom smarl: ["ta.Ron.jut jom smaR.Il] P F ph. Navi idiom: the prey eats the hunter, a
totally botched situation, chaos
tefum oey: [tI."PE.fu.mI "wE.j] P F ph. in my opinion
tiavay krr: [tI."PiP.a.vaj "kr.] P F ph. forever, until the end of time
"
tori peu sunu ngar frato: []
P F ph. what is your favorite (favourite) way to have fun?
tknri kempe si nga: [] P F ph. what do you do in your free time?
tkangkemri varmrrn oe nwotx: [] P F ph. I was completely swamped at work
tkxey ngaru: [tI."k'Ej "Na.Ru] P F ph. youre wrong
tomumm oey: [tI."o.mum.mI wE.j] P F ph. to my knowledge
tyawr ngaru: [tI."jawR "Na.Ru] P F ph. youre right
tokx eo tokx: ["tok' "E.o "tok'] P F ph. face to face, in person
tsaluri alu X, ral lu upe: [] P F ph. what does X mean?
>
tstunwi: ["tstun.wi] P F adj. kind, that was kind of you to say
tsun mivkxu hkrr srak: [] P F ph. may I interrupt a moment?
tsun nga law sivi nit srak: [] P F ph. could you make that a bit clearer?, could you explain that
further?
txm aaw ke tsun hiveyn m tal mefaliy.: [] LN,P F ph. Navi proverbial phrase: One butt
cannot sit on the backs of two direhorses.; You cant take two positions or sit on the fence; you
need to decide.
>
txo ke nyo tsakrr nyol: [t'o kE nI."yoP tsa."kr nI."yol] P F ph. Navi proverbial phrase: If you
"
cant be flawless, at least be brief"
txon lefpom: [t'on lE."fpom] P F ph. good night, peaceful night
X-()ri peral: [] P F ph. what does X mean?
X nNavi (slu) pelu: [] P F ph. how do you say X in Navi?
Yewla!: ["jEw.la] P F conv. Bummer! Thats a shame! What a shame!
zau neng: ["za.Pu nI."PEN] P F ph. share an interest in common
zolau nprrte: [zol."a.Pu nI."pr.tEP] P F ph. come pleasurably, welcome
"

52

The Alphabet

Kemaweyan, Plumps, Prrton, and Tirea Aean came up with a uniquely Navi way of listing and
pronouncing the 33 phonemes (distinct sounds) in the language20 consonants, 7 vowels, 2
pseudo-vowels (ll, rr), and 4 diphthongs (aw, ay, ew, ey). Here is that list.

a
aw
ay

e
ew
ey
f
h
i

tFtang
A
AW
AY

E
EW
EY
F
H
I

The Alphabet
k
KeK
kx Kxekx
l
LeL
ll
Ll
m
MeM
n
NeN
ng NgeNg
o
O
p
PeP
px PxePx
r
ReR
rr
Rr

53

s
t
tx
ts
u
v
w
y
z

S
TeT
TxeTx
Ts
U
V
W
Y
Z

Inflections

Verbal Infixes
alm: [al.m] LN perfective past tense verbal infix in position 1 (PERF. PAST), derived from am +
ol: Oe tsngalmawvk. I wept.
aly: [al.j] LN perfective future tense verbal infix in position 1 (PERF. FUT.), derived from ay + ol:
Oe halyangham. I will have laughed.
am: [a.m] LN past tense verbal infix in position 1 (PAST.): Oe tswamayon. I flew.
arm: [aR.m] LN imperfective past tense verbal infix in position 1 (IMPF. PAST.), derived from am
+ er: Oe tsngarmawvk. I was weeping.
ary: [aR.j] LN imperfective future tense verbal infix in position 1 (IMPF. FUT.), derived from ay
+ er: Oe haryangham. I will be laughing.
asy: [a.sj] P F future tense with intention or determination verbal infix in position 1 (FUT. D .):
Oel tspasyang palulukanit. I will definitely kill the thanator.
>
ats: [a.ts] LN inferential, indicating uncertainty or indirect knowledge verbal infix in position
2 (INFR .): Oel tspatsang poanit. I killed him (I think.)
awn: [aw.n] P F passive participle verbal infix in position 1 (P. PART.): Oe tawnaron-a tte lu.
I am a hunted person.
ay: [a.j] LN future tense (predictive) verbal infix in position 1 (FUT.): Oel yerikit tayaron. I
will hunt the yerik.
ng: [.N] LN pejorative affect verbal infix in position 2 (PEJ .): Oe srngew. I dance (ugh!).
Optionally, when ng occurs before the vowel i, the vowel of the infix may be raised,
giving eng. For example, Fskxawngri tsapalute sengi oe.
p: [.p] P F reflexive verbal infix the pre-first position (REFL .): Oe stpeftxaw. I check myself.
ei: [E.i] LN laudative affect verbal infix in position 2 (LAUD .): Oe sreiew. I dance (hooray!).
er: [E.R] P F imperfective aspect verbal infix in position 1 (IMPF.): Oe terran. I am walking.
eyk: [Ej.k] P F causative verbal infix the pre-first position (CAUS .): Oel teykerkup pot. I caused
him to die.
ilv: [il.v] P F present perfective subjunctive verbal infix in position 1 (PRES . PER . SUBJ .): Oe new
tslilvam. I want to understand.
imv: [im.v] P F past subjunctive verbal infix in position 1 (PAST. SUBJ .): Oey swizaw nngay
timvakuk. May my arrow have struck true.
irv: [iR.v] P F present imperfective subjunctive verbal infix in position 1 (PRES . IMPF. SUBJ .): Oe
new tslirvam. I want to be understanding.
iv: [i.v] LN subjunctive mood verbal infix in position 1 (SUBJ .): Ngal new futa oe wivem. You
want this thing: for me to fight.
iyev: [i.jE.v] P F future subjunctive verbal infix in position 1 (FUT. SUBJ .): Oel kiyevame ngati.
I will see you.
lm: [Il.m] LN perfective recent past tense verbal infix in position 1 (PERF. REC . PAST.), derived
from m + ol: Oe tlmtxaw. I just now returned.
ly: [Il.j] LN perfective immediate future tense verbal infix in position 1 (PERF. IMM . FUT.), derived from y + ol: Oe hlyahaw. I will have slept soon.
m: [I.m] LN recent past verbal infix in position 1 (REC . PAST.): Oe tswmayon. I just flew.
rm: [IR.m] LN imperfective recent past tense verbal infix in position 1 (IMPF. REC . PAST.), derived
from m + er: Oe trmtxaw. I was just now returning.
ry: [IR.j] LN imperfective immediate future tense verbal infix in position 1 (IMPF. IMM . FUT.),
derived from y + er: Oe hryahaw. I will be sleeping soon.

54

sy: [I.sj] P F immediate future tense with determination verbal infix in position 1 (IMM . FUT. D .):
Oel tspsyang palulukanit. I will definitely kill the thanator soon.
y: [I.j] LN immediate future tense verbal infix in position 1 (IMM . FUT.): Oel yerikit tyaron.
I will hunt the yerik soon.
yev: [I.jE.v] P F future subjunctive verbal infix in position 1 (FUT. SUBJ .): Oel kyevame ngati.
I will see you.
ol: [o.l] P F perfective aspect verbal infix in position 1 (PERF.): Oe tolran. I walked (finished
action).
us: [u.s] LN active participle verbal infix in position 1 (A . PART.): Oe tusaron-a tte lu. I am a
hunting person.
uy: [u.j] P F honorific (honourific) or ceremonial verbal infix in position 2 (HON .): Naviy,
luyu hapx. You are part of The People.
Noun Case Inflections
: [] P F genitive suffix for nouns ending in a everything but a, , e, i and (variant of y)
(GEN .): Oel yom ikran yerikit. I eat the ikrans yerik.
it: [it^] P F patientive suffix for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (variant of t, ti) (PAT.): Oel taron yerikit. I hunt the yerik.
l: [Il] P F agentive case suffix for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel
(variant of l) (ERG .): Ikranl taron yerikit. The ikran hunts the yerik.
ri: [IRi] P F topical suffix for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (variant
of ri) (TOP.): Fskxawngri tsapalute sengi oe. I apologise for this moron.
l: [l] LN agentive case for nouns ending in a vowel (ERG .): Oel taron yerikit. I hunt the yerik.
r: [R] LN dative suffix for nouns ending in a vowel (variant of ru) (DAT.): eltur ttxen si
intriguing
ri: [Ri] P F topical for nouns ending in a vowel (TOP.): Ayngari zene hivum You must leave.
ru: [Ru] LN dative suffix for nouns ending in a vowel (variant of ur) (DAT.): Oel syuvet ngaru
tng. I give food to you.
t: [t^] LN patientive suffix for nouns ending in a vowel (variant of it, ti) (PAT.): Oel ngat kame.
I see you.
ti: [ti] LN patientive for pronouns and nouns (PAT.): Ngati taron torukl. The toruk hunts you.
ur: [uR] P F dative suffix for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (variant
of ru) (DAT.): Ayeylanur oey. To my friends.
y: [j] P F genitive for pronouns ending in a or e (casual speech) (GEN .): Ngey toruk sltsan lu.
Your toruk is good.
ya: [ja] P F,M vocative suffix for collective nouns: Mawey, Naviya. Calm, you Navi.
y: [j] LN genitive suffix for nouns ending in a a, , e, i and (variant of ) (GEN .): Oel yeiom
Neytiriy yerikit. I happily eat Neytiris yerik. (Causes vowel fronting of a in pronouns: may
look like ey)
Other Inflections
This is a list of Navi morphemes that can attach to the word that changes some aspect of
the meaning. Not all Navi inflections are productive. (pro.) indicates complete productivity,
where they can be applied to any of the subset of words that Dr. Frommer has indicated they
can modify, and would be canonical, even if unattested. They cannot be used on parts of speech
that arent specified. All of the verbal infixes and case markers above are entirely productive.

55

a: [a] P F (pro.) adjectival attribution and subordination marker: Oel txantsana ikranit aean
tswayon. I fly the excellent blue ikran.
an: [an] LN masculine suffix for certain nouns: Poan tftxuyu lu. He is a weaver.
ay+: [aj] P F (pro.) plural for nouns (PL .): Ay+horen fl. The rules succeed.
e: [E] P F feminine suffix for certain nouns: Poe taronyu lu. She is a hunter.
fay+: [faj] P F (pro.) these for nouns (THESE): Fayawkx tsawl lu. These cliffs are tall.
f: [fI] P F (pro.) this for nouns (THIS): Oel kame fnantangit. I see this viper-wolf.
fkeyk: [fkEjk^] P F (pro.) suffix for nouns meaning state, condition: Kilvanfkeyk lu fyape ftrr?
Whats the condition of the river today?
fne: [fnE] P F (pro.) kind, type for nouns (KIND): Fneutralpe tsau lu? What kind of tree is that?
fra: [fRa] P F (pro.) every deriving affix Oel kamame frapot. I saw everyone.
fray+: [fRaj] P F (pro.) all of these plural for nouns (ALL OF THESE): Frayhelutral lor lu. All of
these houses are beautiful.
kaw: [kaw] P F not one deriving affix Oe kawkrr ke kam. I never went.
kel: [kEl] P F (unpro.) creates a new noun that indicates a lack of the original noun: Tompakeltalun
zene tute Klforniay payit sivar nnn. Because of the drought, Californians have to use less
water.
lo: [lo] P F multiplicative number suffix for aw, mune, pxey: Awlo oe ramol. Once I sang.
me+: [mE] LN (pro.) dual for nouns (DU .): Oel new me+orati. I want two lakes.
munsna: [mun.sna] P F (pro.) pair for nouns (PAIR): munsnahawnven a pair of shoes
nay: [naj] P F (unpro.) creates a new noun that is related to the original by being a step down
in some relevant heirarchy - size, rank, accomplishment, etc.: . .
o: [o] P F (pro.) indefinite suffix, durative suffix: Oel kalmame tuteot ayzsto. I saw someone
for years.
pay+: [paj] P F (pro.) plural inter. marker: Paystalit ngal tsramei? What knives did you throw?
pe+: [pE] LN (pro.) affix inter. marker: pe+hrr nga lrrtok sayi. What time (when) will you smile?
pxe+: [p'E] P F (pro.) trial for nouns and pronouns (TRI .): Pxoeng Pxe+veng lu. We are three
children. (Note that e + e cannot be together, and so ellision occurs, and that oe is a pronoun
which often undergoes ellision)
sna: [sna] P F prefix group marker for nouns; pro. when referring to living things, unpro.
otherwise. : snanantang a pack of viperwolves Note: sna- indicates naturally occurring groups
or sets. Use sstarsm to indicate a collection intentionally put together by a person.
>
tsa: [tsa] P F (pro.) that for nouns (THAT): Oel tsea tsanantangit. I see that nantang.
>
tsay+: [tsaj] P F (pro.) those for nouns (THOSE): Tsayora txukx lu. Those lakes are deep.
>
tsyp: [tsjIp^] P F (pro.) diminutive suffix for nouns, pronouns: Zau ftseng, ma itetsyp.
Come here, little daughter.
ve: [vE] P F (pro.) ordinal suffix for numbers: Koren aawve trusey awsiteng. The first rule
of living together.
vi: [vi] P F partitive relationship marker: Oe nume m numtsengvi. I learn in the classroom.
Other Inflectional Morphology
These derivational morphemes are different than the inflectional morphemes (in technical
speak) above. In other words, the markers here dont just change the meaning - they change
the part of speech. Some of these, only Dr. Frommer can use in order to make a canonical word,
like t. Others are productive for certain subsets, like yu, which can go on any verb.
>
ketsuk: [kE.tsuk^] P F (pro.) not able to (do the verb prefixed) deriving affix Swaw lamu
ketsuktswa The moment was unforgettable

56

le: [lE] P F adjective deriving affix Poan lehrrap lu. He is dangerous.


nga: [NaP^] P F adjective deriving affix Akra apaynga lu. It is moist soil.
n: [nI] LN adverbial deriving affix Oe nNavi plltxe. I speak navi-ly. (Like a Navi.) (Pro. for
adjectives only, unproductive for other forms - otherwise modify nfyao with appropriate
adjective or relative clause)
s: [s] P F instrumental noun deriving affix Snumeri oe nume. I learn the teaching.
si: [si] LN postpositional verb deriving affix Oe kelku si Kelutralm. I live in Hometree. (lit. I
home make in Hometree.)
t: [tI] LN noun deriving affix Tngay sltsan lu. The truth is good.
t us: [tI us] P F (pro.) gerund (verbal noun) deriving affix Tkusar eltur ttxen si. Teaching
is interesting.
>
tsuk: [tsuk^] P F (pro.) able to (do the verb prefixed); widely productive, can be attached to virtually any transitive verb, although also useful on intransitive verbs; deriving affix Fioang
lu tsukyom. This animal is edible / can be eaten.
>
tswo: [tswo] P F (pro.) suffix that changes a verb to a noun indicating the ability to perform
the action of the verb: Pori wemtswo fratsamsiyur roloa ntxan. His ability to fight greatly
impressed all the warriors.
tu: [tu] P F person noun from non-verbal stem deriving affix Oe reltseotu lu. I am an artist.
yu: [ju] LN (pro.) agent noun deriving affix Oe kea skaayu ke lu. I am no destroyer.

57

Non-Frommerian Words

These are words that are not from Dr. Frommer: We have included them as they are in the
extant corpus, but they are not to be regarded as Navi words. They are, for the most part, spurious inventions for the Activists Survival Guide, Pandorapedia, or the Avatar Game. None
of these words were run by Dr. Frommer before being published, and the general consensus
is that they ought to be ignored. They are included here for those who would otherwise not
know what their definitions or derivations are. These words are not canonical, and their use
is highly discouraged. Many of them flout Navi inflectional rules or phonotactic constraints.
Some include illegal sounds, as illustrated below.
h [Ph], b [b], c [k], ch [tS], d [d], g [g], h [hP], ii [i:], j [Z], sh [S], uu [u:]
Amanti: [a.man.ti] G prop.n. female of the Tipani
Anurai: [a.nu.Ra.i] G prop.n. clan name
arlek: [arPlEk^] G n. a seed-bearing plant
Beydaamo: [bEjdaPamo] G prop.n. male warrior of the Tipani
chantu gorek nuuto: [tSanPtu gorPEk^nuuto]
ASG n. stone jar
chey: [tSEj] ASG n. possesions rack (derived from
Pah sivil chey rack)
Eywa ksey nivibrista: [Ejwa kPsEj niviPbriPsta] ASG n. hammock, from Eywa cradles
everyone
Eywa silivi maskit nivi: [Ejwa sPilivi masPkit^nivi] ASG Ewyas wisdom is revealed to all
of us
Eywa te _ tansey makta: [Ejwa tEP tanPsEj makPta] ASG n. ikran queue harness, lit.
the love of Eywas embrace is gifted to (personal
name)
feru mpreduk: [fEru mPpREduPk^] ASG n. basket
Fmilam: [fmi.lam] G prop.n. female of the Tipani
Grolryc: [gRoPlRjc] G prop.n. a series of caves
Hukato: [hu.ka.to] G prop.n. male of the Tipani
Ikalu: [i.ka.lu] G prop.n. male of the Tipani
iveh knivi sdir: [ivEh kPnivi sPdir] ASG n. baby sling
ksey nivi: [kPsEj nivi] ASG n. group sleep
Kaoli Tei: [ka.o.li. tE.i] G prop.n. the plains
of Goliath
>
Koo Tsura: [ko: tsu.Ra] G prop.n. a Tipani village
Kusati: [ku.sa.ti] G prop.n. female warrior of the
Tipani
Kyuna: [kjuna] G prop.n. female of the Anurai

lenayga: [lEnajPga] ASG n. slinger, predatory


animal
Lompo: [lom.po] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami
Lungoray: [lu.No.Raj] G prop.n. shaman of the
Tipani
mreshtuyu: [mPRESPtuju] or [mPREshPtuju]
ASG n. shield
Malimi: [ma.li.mi] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami
malmoks: [malmoks] G n. rings of stone
Marali: [ma.Ra.li] G prop.n. female of the Tipani
maskit nivi sanok: [masPkit^nivi saPnok^]
ASG mother loom
Maweytakuk: [ma.wEj.ta.kuk^] G prop.n. male
Navi
Mekanei: [mE.ka.nE.i] G prop.n. male of the Tipani
Mendala: [mEn.da.la] G prop.n. male of the Tipani
mereshti caupla: [mERESPti kauPpla] or
[meReshPti kauPpla] ASG n. banshee catcher,
bola, lit. nothing to see
meshkai huru: [mESPkai huRu] P N D n. cooking
pot
mreki ulito: [mREki uPlito] ASG n. fire pit
Mukata: [mu.ka.ta] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami
nahla bukne: [naPhla bukPnE] ASG n. direhorse lead, lit. face pull
Naalot: [na:.lot^] G prop.n. male of the Tipani
Neranak: [nE.RaP.nak^] G prop.n. female of the
Tawkami
>
niktchey: [niktPtshEj] or [niktPtSEj] ASG n.
small bit of food, packed lunch
nivi: [ni.vi] ASG n. hammock (informal), us (derived from Eywa ksey nivibrista Ewya
cradles everyone)

58

Nok: [nok^] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami


Oloniwin: [o.lo.ni.win] G prop.n. male elder of
the Tipani
Omati: [o.ma.ti] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami
omati sampta: [omati sPampta] ASG n. blue
flute
Onantu: [o.nan.tu] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami
Otamu: [o.ta.mu] G prop.n. male of the Tipani
Pah sivil chey: [pPah sPivil tSEj] ASG n. personal belongings rack
pxtxawng: [p't'awN] JC n. douchebag
Raiuk: [Ra.i.Puk^] G prop.n. male of the Anurai
Raltaw: [Ral.taw] G prop.n. male hunter of the
Tipani
Snume: [s.nu.mE] G prop.n. tsahk of the Tipani (derived from snume teaching)
Seyvaro: [sEj.va.Ro] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami
shah-tell: [Sah.tEl] ASG n. shuttle (loaned from
Eng. shuttle) (not normally allowable under
Navi phonotactic rules)
sushiri tacto sa: [suPshiri tPacto sa] or
[suPshiri tPacto sa] ASG n. toy ikran
suminsey hulleh: [suminPsEj hulEh] ASG slee"
ping outside of the group
sumin jiitluy: [sumin ZiitPluy] ASG n. leaf plate
Swawta: [swaw.ta] G prop.n. male of the Tipani
triti so jahmka: [tPRiti so Zahmka] ASG n. pendulum drum
Taantasi: [ta.Pan.ta.si] G prop.n. Tantalus,
rocky place on Pandora
Tan Jala: [tan jala] G prop.n. male of the Tipani
Tasun: [ta.sun] G prop.n. male hunter of the
Lona

Tawkami: [taw.ka.mi] G prop.n. a clan (c.w.


from taw sky and kame see)
Tilikaru: [ti.li.ka.Ru] G prop.n. a Tipani village
Tipani: [ti.pa.ni] G prop.n. a clan
ttakuk: [tI."ta.kuk^] G n. strike (derived from
takuk strike)
tmi natsey: [tmi natPsEj] ASG n. bladder lantern, from food here
>
Tsalaw: [tsaP.law] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami
>
Tsaro: [tsa.Ro] G prop.n. male of the Tipani
>
Tsmuke: [tsmu.kE] G prop.n. a Tipani village
txei: [t'E.i] G n. plain
uimi: [u.Pi.mi] ASG n. streamer, pendant
Uimi huyuticaya: [uPimi hujutikaja] ASG
prop.n. a clan
>
Ukamtsu: [u.kam.tsu] G prop.n. male of the Tipani
>
ulivi maritsey makdinito: [Ulivi mariPtsEj
makPdiniPto] ASG loom, lit. branches of the
tree look to each other for strength, or many
branches together are strong
ulutah inibsey mulsi: [uluPtah inibPsEy mulsi] ASG n. leaf plate
Umkansa: [um.kan.sa] G prop.n. a Tipani village
Unipey: [u.ni.pEj] G prop.n. female of the Tipani
utral utu mauti: [ut.Ral u.tu ma.u.ti] ASG n.
push fruit tree (c.w. from utral tree and utu
mauti push fruit)
utu mauti: [u.tu ma.u.ti] ASG n. banana fruit,
push fruit
Vaer Ramunong: [va.PE.R Ra.mu.noN] G
prop.n. Vaderas Hollow
Vayaha: [va.ja.ha] G prop.n. a Tipani village

59

The Changelog

Following is a brief record of the most recent revisions...


13.283 - Corrected IPA for splltxe and splltxevi. Pumps again. ;)
13.282 - Added derivatives of nguway
13.281 - Updated kan with vtrm. and vtr. definitions.
13.28 - Vocabulary added from naviteri.org, November 30, 2015
13.272 - Corrected mikv to add missing glottal stop. Blue Elf found that one.
13.271 - Corrected narv to add missing glottal stop. Thanks to Tanri for spotting it.
13.27 - Added pxawngip from naviteri.org, September 30, 2015 and palulukantsyp from
naviteri.org January 22, 2012
13.26 - Added plltxeyu from naviteri.org, August 30, 2015
13.251 - Corrected fekumnga as adj.
13.25 - Vocabulary added from naviteri.org, August 30, 2015
13.24 - Vocabulary added from naviteri.org, July 31, 2015. This addition contains words
previously seen in the ASG and Pandorapedia. From Paul: For those who may have seen
different versions of these terms: At the time the Activist Survival Guide was submitted
for publication, understanding of the Navi language was still developing. As a result,
the publication and Pandorapedia do not always reflect the agreed-upon definitions and
usage. Please consider the [words added with this update] the most current approved
versions."
13.234 - Vocabulary added from naviteri.org, June 23, 2015. Corrected stress on hoet.
13.233 - Tweaked definition for reltseotu to differentiate from tseotu.
13.232 - Added tseotu from naviteri.org.
13.231 - Added loan word weptseng, loaned from Eng. web, as www.
13.23 - Vocabulary added from naviteri.org, April 30, 2015. Updated definition of tngop
to reflect instrumental case.
13.22 - Vocabulary added from naviteri.org, March 31, 2015.
13.215 - Additional IPA corrections from eejmensenikbenhet.
13.214 - Corrected IPA for osss. Thanks to Vawmataw. Also some loan word corrections
from eejmensenikbenhet.
13.213 - Additional typos and derivation errors caught by EyeOfPython. Well spotted!
13.212 - Corrected part of speech for slosneppe. Thanks to eejmensenikbenhet for catching
that. Other minor formatting tweaks.
13.211 - Added sngop from naviteri.org, December 31, 2014. Thanks to Vawmataw for
spotting it.

60