ASSIGNMENT: SET-2

NAME: Chaitali A. Nayak ROLL NO.: 520920472 SEMESTER: FIRST (I) SUBJECT NAME: Business Communication SUBJECT CODE: MB0023

Q 1. Describe three specific situations at the workplace where positive non verbal communication could be used effectively to enhance verbal communication. Answer: Non-verbal communication: - It is defined as communication without words. It refers to any way of conveying meanings without the use of verbal language. The game of “dumb charades” is a perfect example. Non-verbal communication is generally unintentional, unlike verbal communication. All of us tend to communicate silently and unknowingly send signals and messages by what we do, apart from what we say. Gestures, facial expressions, posture and the way we dress, are all part of non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication can have a greater impact than verbal communication, since “how you say something” is sometimes more important than “what you say.” Although non-verbal communication can affect both our personal and business relationships, it is particularly important in the workplace. Non-verbal Communication is Powerful: Non-verbal communication helps us to form first impressions and make judgments of others. First impressions generally tend to be lasting impressions. Situation 1:- Once I had an interview. I wore professional suit that day. Time given to me was 8.30am but I went 8.00am. I was the first candidate for the interview. Hr Executive came and said me to seat within 5 minutes he conducted my personal interview. First I knocked the door and took permission to enter than I set in attention. He asked me some personal questions. I answered all with perfect eye contact and with confidence. He told me to wait. I wait 3 minute. Again he came and called for technical interview. My technical interview was also finish in 20 minutes. Again I met Hr executive, he told me 1 day to reply. When I back I saw 250 people for interview. After one day I got the mail mentioned that you are selected. Due to my nonverbal communication and positive attitude, I made good impression and he judged me that I am punctual, sincere and hard worker girl. Kinesics: –This is the most often studied and important area of non-verbal communication and refers to body movements of any kind. Different body movements can express inner states of emotion. Situation 2:- In my previous organization there are so many training and presentation organized. Once I prepared presentation to deliver. I start my presentation. First of all, I well come all by my hands movement than I start to give introduction to my presentation by perfect eye contact, hand and head movement. All trainee listen me carefully in peace. After completion of presentation I gave feedback form to all. All had written good feedback. Due to my nonverbal communication people took interest it enhanced and helped in my verbal communication. Non-verbal Communication Varies Across Cultures: While certain types of non-verbal behavior are universal, others may be different in different cultures.

Situation 3:- There are different rules regarding the appropriateness of the handshake in oriental and western cultures. Generally, in oriental cultures like India, any form of physical contact is not common and is interpreted as being intimate, while it is an accepted thing in western countries. Similarly, a nod of the head means yes in some cultures and no in other cultures. In this age of business communication across cultures, it is important for you to understand these differences, especially when doing business overseas. Failure to do this could lead to costly blunders.

Q 2. Lateral or horizontal communication is more important today than vertical communication. Do you agree or disagree? Justify your answer. Answer:- Yes I am agreeing due to following reason. Formal Communication Network – A formal communication network is one which is created by management and described with the help of an organizational chart. An organizational chart specifies the hierarchy and the reporting system in the organization. Therefore, in a formal network, information is passed on only

through official channels such as memos, bulletins and intranet (email within the organization). The organizational chart implies that information can flow in any of three directions – vertically, i.e., upward or downward, and horizontally. Informal communication, generally associated with interpersonal, horizontal communication, was primarily seen as a potential hindrance to effective organizational performance. Most discussions of informal communication emphasize how to manage organizational culture and climate to prevent informal and formal communications from being in opposition. D’Aprix (1996:39-40) developed a SAY/DO matrix– managers say one thing but do another–as a key explanation of how informal/formal communication issues can arise (see Figure). He locates ideal organizational communication in the High Say/High Do quadrant – indicating that there is sufficient communication and that management actions match their communications. An organization in the High Say/Low Do quadrant is most likely to have a culture in which informal and formal communications conflict.

Other discussions of informal communication have focused on diversity training as a mechanism for sensitizing staff to potential issues associated with informal (as well as formal) communication.2 Still others have emphasized conflict management as a strategy for dealing with Issues that arise from informal communication and interactions between workers. Vertical Communication: - Vertical communication occurs between hierarchically positioned persons and can involve both downward and upward communication flows. Downward communication is more prevalent than upward communication. Downward communication is most effective if top managers communicate directly with immediate supervisors and immediate supervisors communicate with their staff. A wealth of evidence shows that increasing the power of immediate supervisors increases both satisfaction and performance among employees. This was first discovered by Donald Pelz (1952) and is commonly referred to as the Pelz effect. He find out what types of leadership styles led to employee satisfaction (informal/formal, autocratic/participative, manage men oriented/ frontlineoriented). He found that what matters most is not the supervisor’s leadership style but whether the supervisor has power. One way to give supervisors power is to

communicate directly with them and to have them provide input to decisions. Ensuring that supervisors are informed about organizational issues/changes before staff in general, and then allowing them to communicate these issues/changes to their staff, helps reinforce their position of power. When the supervisor is perceived as having power, employees have greater trust in the supervisor, greater desire for communication with the supervisor, and are more likely to believe that the information coming from the supervisor is accurate Downward Communication: - This may be defined as information that flows from superiors to subordinates. The most common reasons for downward communication are for giving job instructions, explaining company rules, policies and procedures and giving feedback regarding job performance. Based on a survey of 30,000 employees conducted by the Opinion Research Corporation, Morgan and Schieman (1983) found that a majority of the workers felt their organization did not do a good job of downward communication. As seen in below Figure satisfaction levels were especially low at lower job levels.

Employee Satisfaction with Downward Communication A survey of 32,000 employees conducted by the International Association of Business Communication and the firm of Towers, Perrin, Forster, and Crosby, Foehrenbach and Rosenberg (1982) found somewhat higher satisfaction with downward communication: • 71 percent reported that their organization tried to keep employees well informed. • 65 percent agreed that they had been given sufficient information to perform their jobs. • 51 percent agreed that their organization’s downward communication was candid and accurate. They also found that employees want to hear more organizational news directly from the top executives .Finally, they found that the two topics of greatest interest to employees were future organizational plans and productivity improvements, a finding that seemingly conflicts with what

D’Aprix (1996) posits as the hierarchy of employees’ communication needs, as reflected in the pie chart in Figure below. This latter discrepancy could stem the fact that D’Aprix’s hierarchy of communication needs is theoretical, as opposed to being based on empirical research, and/or the fact that D’Aprix does not distinguish what employees what to hear from top executives versus what they want to hear from their immediate supervisor. Hierarchy of Employees’ Communication Needs

Although the content priorities of downward communication have not been definitively demonstrated, there is some level of certainty with respect to the best approach to downward Communication i.e. • Top managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors; • Immediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports; • On issues of importance, top managers should then follow-up by communicating with employees directly. Perhaps the most tried and true rule of effective downward communication is to: Communicate orally, then follow up in writing. Benefits and disadvantages:• • • That provides regular feedback will be beneficial if the feedback or review of performance is constructive. A constructive review is one where a manager “counsels” an employee, or advises him on how to improve his performance. Regular downward communication also creates a climate of transparency or openness, where information is passed on through official channels, rather than through rumors.

On the other hand, a destructive review that of “message overload” can destroy employee morale and confidence. This means that superiors many sometimes burden their subordinates with too many instructions, leading to confusion. Boosts employee morale, since it indicates that management is involved in their progress.

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Upward Communication: - This may be defined as information that flows from subordinates to superiors. Some of the reasons for upward communication include discussing work related problems, giving suggestions for improvement and sharing feelings about the job and co-workers. One consistent finding is that employee satisfaction with upward communication tends to be lower than their satisfaction with downward communication. Low levels of satisfaction with all the strategies commonly used to enhance upward communication, including employee surveys, suggestion programs, employee grievance programs, and employee participation programs such as quality circles and team meetings. Several management-based reasons for this lack of satisfaction, particularly that these strategies often do not involve two-way communication, are not packaged well, are poorly timed, and are apt to trigger defensiveness on the part of managers. In addition, McClelland (1988) found a number of employee-based reasons why upward communication tends to be poor, including: • • • Fear of reprisal – people are afraid to speak their minds Filters – employees feel their ideas/concerns are modified as they get transmitted upward Time – managers give the impression that they don’t have the time to listen to employees.

Benefits and disadvantage:• Problem-solving. Once a subordinate has brought a problem to his superior’s notice, chances are that the problem will not recur, since the subordinate learns from his superior how to tackle it the next time. Thus, his ability to solve new problems and therefore his managerial ability, improves. That could arise from upward communication is that valuable ideas and suggestions may sometimes come from lower level employees. Therefore organizations should encourage this kind of communication. Employees learn to accept the decisions of management and thereby work as a team. That it may lead to “handing down” of decisions by superiors. When subordinates frequently seek the superior’s guidance, the latter may adopt an authoritarian approach and merely give instructions, disregarding the subordinate’s opinion completely.

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Horizontal or Lateral Communication: - It may be defined as communication that takes place between co-workers in the same department, or in different departments, with different areas of responsibility.

Lateral communication involves communication among persons who do not stand in hierarchical relation to one another. Organizations have enhanced the importance of lateral communications; studies on lateral communication still lag behind those on vertical communication. One fairly limited study found rather high levels of satisfaction (85 percent) with lateral communication among human resource managers, but lateral communication across managers of dissimilar functional divisions, while often cited as a major source of organization dysfunction, has not been subject to much empirical research. It has been assumed that lateral communication at the worker level is less problematic, at least within a functional area. However, with the greater importance of teams, more attention is now being directed at communication between team members. Lateral communications between workers in different functional areas is also becoming a bigger concern as greater attention is being directed at increasing the speed of production through simultaneous, as opposed to sequential, work processes. And there is greater emphasis on communication across distributed workers and geographically separated work groups doing similar kinds of work in an attempt to promote learning and the sharing of expertise, best practices, and lessons learned. The reasons for this type of communication are for coordination of tasks, sharing of information regarding goals of the organization, resolving interpersonal or work related problems and building rapport. The biggest potential benefit of horizontal communication is the sense of teamwork that is created. Regular communication of this type ensures that all co-workers work together towards achieving a common goal in the overall interest of the organization. The biggest potential problem is that conflicts such as ego clashes are bound to arise, when co-workers at the same level communicate on a regular basis. In spite of these problems, horizontal or lateral communication has become more important in today’s business scenario than upward or downward communication. This is because the “organizational pyramid” indicating the different hierarchies or levels in an organization has flattened. This is illustrated by the diagrams given below.

The first diagram illustrates the previous organizational pyramid which was a “multi-layer” pyramid. In this type of pyramid, vertical, i.e., upward and downward communication still plays an important role. This is still the case in many traditionally run organizations today. However, this has been replaced by a “compressed” or flattened pyramid where the hierarchy has diminished, as shown in the second diagram. He or she can supervise and control more number of people than before. This in turn has led to greater “empowerment”, which means that even lower level employees are now being given decision making authority. Therefore, in the absence of several layers, there is greater lateral communication than before.

Q 3. Imagine that you have to make an oral presentation on the features of the EduNext portal to new students of the SMU MBA program. Prepare an outline of the presentation and specify the following – a) Purpose of the presentation b) Key idea c) Audience analysis d) Delivery style. Answer: OUTLINE: after completion of my presentation student aware about EduNext portal and its support. How to use it like login and what contains inside like model test paper, practice paper for each unit, online chat session for any query regarding any subject, assignment, impotent announcement, notice board etc. Steps in Making Oral Presentations: 1. Definition of the Purpose of the Presentation: Guideline on the features of the EduNext portal to new students of the SMU. 2. Development of the Key Idea: This will help to new SMU students. At the end of the presentation they are fully aware of the EduNext feature means how to use and how it will help to them. In each area and whenever they wish it can support. 3. Audience Analysis: it contains following: • Job Designations and Areas of Expertise: – I have to check who are suppose to attend my presentation and them level of knowledge because my students are MBA so probably they have done PGDBA, or graduation. So I have to make my presentation that include technical aspects and jargon, which they would be able to understand. If not, you may have to make the presentation simpler, or explain some of the terms elaborately. Preferred Style of Presentation: – I also have to know the personal preferences of my audience, with regard to the style of presentation that they are most comfortable with. So I may prefer a more informal or conversational style with some humor thrown in, to a more formal style. Others may like the presentation to be made at a slower pace. Demographic Characteristics of the Audience: – The gender, age, cultural background and economic status of the audience also need to be studied. Size of the Audience – I have also check that how many students are going attend my presentation because it will help me for presentation style, the time set aside for questions and answers, the size of visuals and so on. With a smaller group, the presentation could be made less formal, the time for questions and answers less and the visuals smaller, than for a larger group. The Level of Knowledge on the Subject – I need to know how familiar my audience is with the subject of the presentation. For that I have to

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thoroughly go through the EduNext portal. If the audience comprises of experts in that particular area, basic explanations may not be needed. On the other hand, if the level of familiarity is not so high, a lot of background information and explanation will be required. The Attitude of the Audience – The attitude of my listeners, both towards me as a speaker and towards the topic of the presentation, needs to be studied in advance. If the audience is prejudiced towards me for some reason, I may have to alter my style of presentation considerably. If the presentation happens to be on a sensitive topic, I may have to proceed very tactfully. This is especially true of presentations that aim to persuade.

Q 4. Write a letter to your distributor, conveying the bad news of one of your product lines being phased out or discontinued, offering some form of compensation in return. Answer: 5868 Maple Wood Street Fairfield, PA 37626 November 5th, 2009 Mr. Joseph Bicman 358 Noncook Road John's Town, PA 57323 Dear Mr. Bicman: I apologize for the mix-up of order #: 26429782. We have just implemented a new product system that still has a few days to be worked out, and old product will be discontinued from last week, but we did fix your order and sent it out this morning. For your trouble, we have enclosed a $500 gift certificate which can be used at any of our stores. Once again I would like to apologize for the mix-up in your order and any inconveniences this may have caused you. Sincerely, Chaitali Nayak Customer Service Manager

Q5. As a Sales Manager, prepare a one page report in memo format addressed to the VP Marketing, providing sales updates for a newly launched FMCG product.

Steps In Report Preparation 1. Planning the report – The first question to be asked before gathering information and writing the report, is regarding the type of report that is required. We classified reports into four main types, based on the purpose, the audience to whom they are addressed and the frequency of the report. Secondly, it must be remembered that most reports are required by management to solve a problem, or to make a decision. Therefore, the basis, or starting point for a report is a problem. Reports are written after a problem is analyzed and a solution to the problem is found. The problem may be of a day-to-day nature, such as determining which brand of overhead projector to recommend for purchase. Or, the problem may be a negative one, such as sales of the company showing a decline. In any case, the problem is the single fundamental issue to be addressed in the report and should be clearly determined, right at the outset. Once the problem has been defined, it must be broken up into sub issues or sub problems, by asking the questions” what”,” why”, “when”, “where” and ” who?”. Asking the above questions determines the exact scope of the study and reduces the problem to a workable size. The next step in planning the report is to do an “audience analysis“. We have seen that reports may be addressed to internal or external audiences of an organization. Some of the questions to be asked about the audience, or the reader of the report are –

Is the audience internal or external to the organization?

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Who is the specific audience or reader? - for example, top management, customers or the government? Reports written for the government and for top management should be more formal than for other audiences. Is the audience known to you? What is the level of knowledge of the audience? Is the topic familiar to the reader? If the report is of a technical nature and the reader is a layperson, the technical terms may need detailed explanation. What is the level of interest of the reader? If the report has been solicited or authorized, the reader’s level of interest will be high. On the other hand, if the report is voluntary or unsolicited, it may have to sustain reader interest.

The tone, length, complexity and degree of formality of the report will depend largely on the reader’s characteristics. For example, reports addressed to peers would adopt a more conversational tone, while reports on company policies and procedures addressed to subordinates would adopt an emphatic tone. 2. Selecting a Method to Solve the Problem– After defining the problem and doing an audience analysis, a method has to be selected to collect the necessary information to solve the problem. Broadly, information may be gathered using secondary research methods, such as books, magazines, newspapers, internet and other available sources, or through primary research methods, such as surveys that provide first hand information. 3. Gathering and Organizing Data - Once the method of gathering information has been selected, the actual process of gathering the information begins. Since this is time consuming and expensive, only information that is relevant to the report and the study must be gathered. The raw data should be evaluated for its usefulness and organized in a form that is meaningful to understand. Tables, charts, graphs and summaries should be used to do this. 4. Arriving at a Conclusion – Once the information has been checked for its validity and reliability, it must be interpreted and conclusions drawn. Correct interpretation of the data is needed for the success of the report. Sound conclusions cannot be made if the interpretation of the data is faulty. A common mistake made in the interpretation of data is the tendency of the researcher to use subjective judgments, instead of objective reasoning based on facts. 5. Writing the Report – The actual process of writing the report should begin only after a satisfactory solution to the problem has been found. As pointed out earlier, a well written report that contains a bad answer is worse than a badly written report that contains a good answer. Certain procedures for writing should be followed:• • • • • Set a date for completion of the report and get started earlyStart with an easy section Write quickly, with the intention of rewriting Set aside uninterrupted writing time Review and rewrite where necessary

Reports should also be written in a convincing manner, so that the reader accepts them as valid and reliable. Some suggested techniques of conviction include the following – • • • State facts in an objective manner Provide expert opinions Use documentation

Q 6. Case Study: Problems with Email communication StratAssemble, leading developer of web-based project and detail management services that improve communication and increase productivity, has released a white paper chronicling the growing problems associated with email--"Can Your Business Survive Email?" The paper recounts the history of email, its changing role in business, and the emergence of new Web 2.0 collaboration tools, such as StratAssemble's PlanDone, that offer new and better ways for companies to manage their workflow. Email usage drains workplace resources and hinders the timely completion of projects of all types. Given today's fast pace of business, communication in realtime and keeping staff on the same page are crucial to staying ahead. Yet delays caused by using email to coordinate business-critical data between individuals, departments, and remote locations actually slow productivity. Top 10 critical email problems:

1. Lack of security 2. Attachment problems 3. Reliability problems 4. Spam clutter 5. Document version confusion 6. Scattered data 7. Unclear project direction 8. Project status confusion 9. Next step priority uncertainty 10. Lack of accountability "Email has become a barrier to effective communication and productivity. StratAssemble's PlanDone encourages participation from everyone involved with a project's outcome and is available anytime and anywhere," said StratAssemble founder AJ Wacaser. "As email problems escalate, the PlanDone solution will become the method of choice for managing day-to-day operations of companies everywhere."

Transferring project and task functions from email to PlanDone's interactive platform helps teams build on each other's work. Ideas and opinions are shared, documented, and refined in constructive ways. Two powerful tools--priority ranking and deadline analysis--help staff focus precisely on first things first each day, ensuring last-minute changes and course corrections don't turn into unmanageable business fires. Unlike most other software, PlanDone supports both individual styles and team methods rather than forcing everyone to conform to one rigid system. StratAssemble's motto is "Work smarter. Live happier!" We believe in team creativity and sharing ideas, and are passionate about the collaborative process. Our purpose is to enable and inspire our customers to better manage their knowledgebase and workforces by providing a simple, open platform where every staff member can assemble, participate and contribute--revolutionizing corporate communications and strategic planning. Questions 1. Evaluate email communication as a tool for internal communication, based on the facts mentioned in the case. Answer:

Internal communications is the process where the business owners interact with the employers to know what they feel about the company. Employee can communicate with each other for work done. By organizing internal communication systems within the company, owners of the company provide the opportunity to its staff members or employees to share their opinions regarding the workings of the business. That improves communication and increase productivity, reduces papers work. This is because e-mail is instantaneous and allows you to send messages that others can pick up at their convenience. Besides, e-mail also makes it possible to send messages to people anywhere. While the other forms of written communication are highly formal in nature, e-mail is more informal and spontaneous. It is therefore easier to write an e-mail message than it is to write a business letter or a report, where greater attention has to be paid to the language, style and tone. Since e-mail is quick, easy to use and spontaneous, it can also help to improve personal relationships in the workplace

2. How will you adapt email communication to overcome some of the problems mentioned in this case? Answer: we can use plandone software to over come the problems mentioned in this case because it reduce papers, its changing role in business, and the emergence of new Web 2.0 collaboration tools, such as StratAssemble's PlanDone, that offer new and better ways for companies to manage their workflow. Transferring project and task functions from email to PlanDone's interactive platform helps teams build on each other's work. Ideas and opinions are shared, documented, and refined in constructive ways. Two powerful tools 1. Priority ranking 2. Deadline analysis, help staff focus precisely on first things first each day, ensuring last-minute changes and course corrections don't turn into unmanageable business fires. Unlike most other software, PlanDone supports individual styles and team methods rather than forcing everyone to conform to one rigid system. StratAssemble's motto is "Work smarter. Live happier!" We believe in team creativity and sharing ideas, and are passionate about the collaborative process. Our purpose is to enable and inspire our customers to better manage their knowledgebase and workforces by providing a simple, open platform where every staff member can assemble, participate and contribute--revolutionizing corporate communications and strategic planning.

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