You are on page 1of 26

Enzyme Kinetics

Rate of Enzyme Catalysis vs Substrate Concentration


For many enzymes, the rate of
catalysis, V, varies with the
substrate concentration, [S].
V is defined as the number of
moles of product formed per
second.
At a fixed concentration of
enzyme, V is almost linearly
proportional to the initial
increasing concentration of [S].
At very high [S], V is independent
of [S].

The Michaelis-Menten Approach to Enzyme Kinetics


(Leonor) Michaelis and (Maud) Menten devised a model for the kinetics of enzymecatalyzed reactions.
The model proposed is the one that accounts for the kinetic properties of many
enzymes:

An enzyme, E, combines with S to form an ES complex, with a rate constant k1. The ES
complex has two possible fates. It can dissociate to E and S, with a rate constant of k-1,
or it can proceed to form product, P, with a rate constant k2.
Michaelis and Menten made a derivation of these kinetic characteristics to arrive at the
Michaelis-Menten Equation:

Vinit =

Vmax [S]
KM + [S]

Mi chael is-Menten
equation

Michaelis-Menten Equation Derivation


For an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
E + S

k1
k-1

ES

k2

The rates of formation and breakdown of ES are


given by these equations
rate of formation of ES = k 1 [E][S]
rate of breakdown of ES = k

-1 [ES]

At the steady state


k1 [E][S] = k-1[ES] + k 2[ES]

+ k 2[ES]

Michaelis-Menten Equation Derivation (cont.)


When the steady state is reached, the concentration
of free enzyme is the total less that bound in ES
[E] = [E]T - [ES]

Substituting for the concentration of free enzyme and


collecting all rate constants in one term gives
([E]T - [ES]) [S]
[ES]

k-1 + k2

= KM

k1

Where KM is called the Michaelis constant

Michaelis-Menten Equation Derivation (cont.)


It is now possible to solve for the concentration of the
enzyme-substrate complex, [ES]
[E]T [S] - [ES][S]
= KM
[ES]
[E]T [S] - [ES][S] = KM [ES]
[E]T [S] = [ES](K M + [S])

Or alternatively

[E]T [S]
[ES] =
KM + [S]

Michaelis-Menten Equation Derivation (cont.)


In the initial stages, formation of product depends only on the
rate of breakdown of ES

Vinit = k 2 [ES]

k 2[E]T [S]
=
KM + [S]

If substrate concentration is so large that the enzyme is


saturated with substrate [ES] = [E]T

V init = V max = k 2 [E]T


Substituting k2[E]T = Vmax into the top equation gives

Vinit =

Vmax [S]
KM + [S]

Mi chael is-Menten
equation

The Meaning of KM or the Michaelis constant


Initial concentration of substrate at Vmax or at half saturation of E
with S
Ratio of the constants for the breakdown of ES to constants of its
[E]T [S] - [ES][S]
formation:
= KM
[ES]
[E]T [S] - [ES][S] = KM [ES]

A measure of the affinity of E for S: if k2 is <k-1 or k1, neglecting k2,


[E]T [S] = [ES](K M + [S])
therefore KM = k-1/k1
The lower the KM value, the more affinity has the enzyme for its
substrate

The [S]=
Meaning
KM orreduces
the Michaelis
constant
When
KM, the of
equation
to

V=

Vmax [S]
KM + [S]

Vmax [S]
[S] + [S]

Vmax
2

Linearizing The Michaelis-Menten Equation


It is difficult to determine Vmax experimentally
Vmax
[S]
The equation
of
Michaelis
and Menten
is for
V=
(an
equation
fora ahyperbola
hyperbola)

KM + [S]

The equation can be transformed into the equation for a


straight line by taking the reciprocal of each side

KM + [S]
Vmax [S]

KM
+
=
Vmax [S]

1
V

1
V

KM
+ 1
=
Vmax [S]
Vmax

[S]
Vmax [S]

Lineweaver-Burk Plot
1 form
1 + b, and is the
The Lineweaver-Burke
the
y = mx
1 = KMplot has
+

formula forVa straight


line
Vmax
[S]
V
max

a plot of 1/V versus 1/[S] will give a straight line with slope of
KM/Vmax and y intercept of 1/Vmax
such a plot is known as a Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal
plot
Double reciprocal plots can easily be understood and provide
recognizable pattern for the study of ENZYME INHIBITION

KLineweaver-Burk
M is the
dissociation
constant for ES; the
greater the value of
KM, the less tightly S
is bound to E

Vmax is the turnover


number

Plot (Contd)

Turnover Numbers
Vmax is related to the turnover number of enzyme:also
called kmax
cat

turnover_ number kcat


[ET ]

Number of moles of substrate that react to form product


per mole of enzyme per unit of time

Enzyme Inhibition
Reversible inhibitor: a substance that binds to an enzyme to inhibit it,
but can be released

competitive inhibitor: binds to the active (catalytic) site and


blocks access to it by substrate
noncompetitive inhibitor: binds to a site other than the active
site; inhibits the enzyme by changing its conformation
Irreversible inhibitor: a substance that causes inhibition that cannot be
reversed

usually involves formation or breaking of covalent bonds to or


on the enzyme

Competitive Inhibition
Substrate must compete with inhibitor for the active site;
more substrate is required to reach a given reaction
velocity
EI
I + E + S
ES
P

We can write a dissociation constant, KI for EI


EI

KI =

[E][I]
[EI]

Competitive Inhibition

Competitive
Inhibition
No inhibiti
on
y =

KM
Vmax
m

1
V

1
S

1
Vmax
b

In the presence of a competi tive i nhibi tor


1
V

KM
Vmax

1 +

[I]
KI

1
S

1
Vmax
b

In a Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plot of 1/V versus 1/[S], the


slope (and the x intercept) changes but the y intercept does not
change

A Lineweaver-Burke Plot for Competitive Inhibition

Noncompetitive Inhibition (Contd)


+S
Several equilibria are involved
E

-I

ES

-S
+I

-I
+S

EI

+I

ESI

-S

The maximum velocity Vmax has the form


V

max

Vmax
1 + [I]/KI

E + P

Noncompetitive Inhibition (Contd)

A Lineweaver-Burke Plot for Noncompetitive


Inhibition
Because the inhibitor does not interfere with binding of
substrate to the active site, KM is unchanged
Increasing substrate concentration cannot overcome
noncompetitive
inhibition
No inhibiti
on
1 = KM 1 + 1
V
S
Vmax
Vmax
y =
m x + b
In the presence of a noncompetitive inhibitor

1
V

KM
Vmax

1 +
m

[I]
KI

1
S

+
+

1
Vmax

1 +
b

[I]
KI

A Lineweaver-Burke Plot for Noncompetitive


Inhibition (Contd)

Other Types of Inhibition


Uncompetitive- inhibitor can bind to the ES complex but not to free
E. Vmax decreases and KM decreases.

Mixed- Similar to noncompetitively, but binding of I affects binding of


S and vice versa.

Uncompetitive Inhibition

Uncompetitive Inhibition

Summary
Effects Type
of reversible
inhibitors on kinetic
constants
of Inhibitor
Effect
Competitive (I binds to E only)

Raises KM; Vmax unchanged

Uncompetitive (I binds to ES only)

Lowers KM and Vmax

Non-competitive (I binds to E or to ES)

Lowers Vmax; KM unchanged