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Complex Variables 5.

2 Complex Sequences and Convergence


of Complex Series
A sequence of complex functions a list of numerated complex functions:
p1 ( z), p2 ( z), p3 ( z),....pn ( z),....

Examples:

pn ( z ) x n ;

pn ( z) sinh(nz);

pn ( z) sin(nz);...

DEFINITION (Convergence and Limit of a Complex Sequence) The infinite sequence


p1(z), p2(z), ..., pn(z), . . . converges and is said to have a limit P(z), for a value of z lying in
some region R, if given a constant > 0 we can find a number N such that
P( z ) pn ( z ) for all n N
We write that like

limn pn z Pz

EXAMPLE 1 For the sequence pn(z) = 1+e-nz, show that the limit is P(z) = 1 if x = Re(z) > 0.
Solution. Observe 0 1 1 e nz 1 e nz
or

e nz e nx

n N and Rez 0

e nx 1 ; n N and Rez 0 n x 1Log 1 N ( x, ) x 1Log 1

Complex Variables
Some useful properties. Let: pn z vn x, y iwx, y ; Pz V x, y iW x, y
Then:

And:

EXAMPLE 2 Using the last result

(ex)

find the limit of the sequence pn z 1 e

nz

1
1
n

Re z 0

Solution. The sequence rn(z) = 1+e-nz has a limit 1. The sequence qn(z) = 1+1/n has a
limit e1 . Thus pn z rn ( z)qn ( z) has a limit:
limn pn z limn rn ( z)qn ( z) 1 e e
2

Complex Variables
Complex sequences and their convergence.
Let uj(z) exists for each positive integer j and we define a series with infinite number of
terms:

Now we define a sequence of partial sums:

and

DEFINITION (Ordinary Convergence) If the sequence of partial sums [S1(z), S2(z),


S3(z),, Sn(z)] formed from the infinite series
has limit S(z) as n , we say
that the infinite series converges and has sum S(z). The set of all values of z for which
the series converges is called its region of convergence.
For z lying in this region, we write

If the sequence does not have a limit - the series diverges

Complex Variables
EXAMPLE 3 Show that
Solution. The nth partial sum: Sn z 1 z z 2 z 3 ... z n1
Observe:

1 zn
S n z zS n ( z ) 1 z 1 z S n z 1 z S n z
1 z
n
n
1
1 z
z
S z S n ( z )

1 z 1 z
1 z
n

Now we try

For the convergence we need


Or

For |z|<1 we have 1/|z| >1 and Log|1/z| > 0:


N

So, for n > N we have

When

S ( z ) S n z
z 1

Complex Variables
EXAMPLE 4 Use EXAMPLE 3 for
convergence.
Solution. Let z eiz we have:
Use
For the convergence we need

State the region of

eiz 1 e y 1 y 0

Let uj(z) = Rj(x,y) + iIj(x,y) and:

THEOREM 1 The convergence of both the real series


necessary and sufficient condition for the convergence of

If

and
,where

is a

and
converge to the functions R(x, y) and I(x, y), respectively, then
converges to S(z) = R(x, y) + iI(x,y). Conversely, if
converges to S(z) =
R(x, y) + iI(x, y), then
converges to R(x, y) and
converges to I(x, y).

Complex Variables
EXAMPLE 5 Consider the series
of
Find the sum.
Solution.
So,
Re(

And

which is the real part

1
) Re
iz
1 e

Use

Finally:

sinh y
1

2cosh y cos x 2
6

Complex Variables
THEOREM 2 (nth Term Test) The series
u n z 0 .
if nlim

diverges if lim un z 0 or, equivalently,

EXAMPLE 6 Use the theorem and show the series


Solution. Let un(z) = zn-1
If |z| =1

diverges for |z|>1.

So, for |z| > 1


DEFINITION (Absolute and Conditional Convergence) The series
absolutely convergent if the series
convergent.

is called

THEOREM 3 An absolutely convergent series converges in the ordinary sense.


THEOREM 4 The sum of an absolutely convergent series is independent of the order in
which the terms are added
THEOREM 5 Two absolutely convergent series can be multiplied together in the same
way as one multiplies two polynomials. The resulting series is absolutely convergent. Its
sum, which is independent of how the terms are arranged, is the product of the sums of
the two original series.
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Complex Variables
Two absolutely convergent in some region:

S z j 1 u j z and T z j 1 v j z
Product converges:
S z T z

j 1;i 1

u j z vi z u1 z v1 z u1 z v2 z u2 z v1 z u1 z v3 z u2 z v2 z u3 z v1 z ....

Cauchy product:
S z T z

c z ;
n n

cn z

j 1

THEOREM 6 (Ratio Test) For the series

u j z vn j 1 z

, consider

z lim

u j 1 z
u j z

Then:
a) the series converges if (z) < 1, and the convergence is absolute;
b) the series diverges if (z) > 1;
c) no information about the convergence of the series if the indicated limit fails to exist or
if (z) =1.
EXAMPLE 7 Use the ratio test and the nth term test to investigate the convergence of

Complex Variables
Solution. Observe:
So:
And
z lim

u j 1 z
u j z

2 z2

a) The series converges absolutely if


z 2 z 2 1 z

z 2 z 2 1 z

b) The series diverges


2

c) On |z|=1/2 : z 1 we observe
u j z

z 1

1
j 2 j 1

2j

2 j 1
j j 2j
j
2

The series diverges.


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