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Complex Variables & Transforms
Complex Analysis course Material
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Complex Variables & Transforms
Complex Analysis course Material
slides

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You are on page 1of 9

of Complex Series

A sequence of complex functions a list of numerated complex functions:

p1 ( z), p2 ( z), p3 ( z),....pn ( z),....

Examples:

pn ( z ) x n ;

pn ( z) sinh(nz);

pn ( z) sin(nz);...

p1(z), p2(z), ..., pn(z), . . . converges and is said to have a limit P(z), for a value of z lying in

some region R, if given a constant > 0 we can find a number N such that

P( z ) pn ( z ) for all n N

We write that like

limn pn z Pz

EXAMPLE 1 For the sequence pn(z) = 1+e-nz, show that the limit is P(z) = 1 if x = Re(z) > 0.

Solution. Observe 0 1 1 e nz 1 e nz

or

e nz e nx

n N and Rez 0

Complex Variables

Some useful properties. Let: pn z vn x, y iwx, y ; Pz V x, y iW x, y

Then:

And:

(ex)

nz

1

1

n

Re z 0

Solution. The sequence rn(z) = 1+e-nz has a limit 1. The sequence qn(z) = 1+1/n has a

limit e1 . Thus pn z rn ( z)qn ( z) has a limit:

limn pn z limn rn ( z)qn ( z) 1 e e

2

Complex Variables

Complex sequences and their convergence.

Let uj(z) exists for each positive integer j and we define a series with infinite number of

terms:

and

S3(z),, Sn(z)] formed from the infinite series

has limit S(z) as n , we say

that the infinite series converges and has sum S(z). The set of all values of z for which

the series converges is called its region of convergence.

For z lying in this region, we write

Complex Variables

EXAMPLE 3 Show that

Solution. The nth partial sum: Sn z 1 z z 2 z 3 ... z n1

Observe:

1 zn

S n z zS n ( z ) 1 z 1 z S n z 1 z S n z

1 z

n

n

1

1 z

z

S z S n ( z )

1 z 1 z

1 z

n

Now we try

Or

N

When

S ( z ) S n z

z 1

Complex Variables

EXAMPLE 4 Use EXAMPLE 3 for

convergence.

Solution. Let z eiz we have:

Use

For the convergence we need

eiz 1 e y 1 y 0

necessary and sufficient condition for the convergence of

If

and

,where

is a

and

converge to the functions R(x, y) and I(x, y), respectively, then

converges to S(z) = R(x, y) + iI(x,y). Conversely, if

converges to S(z) =

R(x, y) + iI(x, y), then

converges to R(x, y) and

converges to I(x, y).

Complex Variables

EXAMPLE 5 Consider the series

of

Find the sum.

Solution.

So,

Re(

And

1

) Re

iz

1 e

Use

Finally:

sinh y

1

2cosh y cos x 2

6

Complex Variables

THEOREM 2 (nth Term Test) The series

u n z 0 .

if nlim

Solution. Let un(z) = zn-1

If |z| =1

DEFINITION (Absolute and Conditional Convergence) The series

absolutely convergent if the series

convergent.

is called

THEOREM 4 The sum of an absolutely convergent series is independent of the order in

which the terms are added

THEOREM 5 Two absolutely convergent series can be multiplied together in the same

way as one multiplies two polynomials. The resulting series is absolutely convergent. Its

sum, which is independent of how the terms are arranged, is the product of the sums of

the two original series.

7

Complex Variables

Two absolutely convergent in some region:

S z j 1 u j z and T z j 1 v j z

Product converges:

S z T z

j 1;i 1

u j z vi z u1 z v1 z u1 z v2 z u2 z v1 z u1 z v3 z u2 z v2 z u3 z v1 z ....

Cauchy product:

S z T z

c z ;

n n

cn z

j 1

u j z vn j 1 z

, consider

z lim

u j 1 z

u j z

Then:

a) the series converges if (z) < 1, and the convergence is absolute;

b) the series diverges if (z) > 1;

c) no information about the convergence of the series if the indicated limit fails to exist or

if (z) =1.

EXAMPLE 7 Use the ratio test and the nth term test to investigate the convergence of

Complex Variables

Solution. Observe:

So:

And

z lim

u j 1 z

u j z

2 z2

z 2 z 2 1 z

z 2 z 2 1 z

2

c) On |z|=1/2 : z 1 we observe

u j z

z 1

1

j 2 j 1

2j

2 j 1

j j 2j

j

2

9

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