You are on page 1of 14


According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a runway is a "defined
rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for thelanding and takeoff of aircraft". Runways
may be a man-made surface (often asphalt, concrete, or a mixture of both) or a natural surface
(grass,dirt, gravel, ice, or salt).
A taxiway is



for aircraft at

an airport connecting runways with aprons, hangars, terminals and other facilities. They mostly
have a hard surface such as asphalt or concrete, although smaller general aviation airports
sometimes use gravelor grass.
Busy airports typically construct high-speed or rapid-exit taxiways to allow aircraft to leave the
runway at higher speeds. This allows the aircraft to vacate the runway quicker, permitting another
to land or take off in a shorter interval of time. This is usually accomplished by making the exiting
taxiway longer, thus giving the aircraft more space in which to slow down, before the taxiways'
upcoming intersection with another (perpendicular) taxiway, another runway, or the ramp/tarmac.

The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide
view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk
page. (June 2010)

Taxiway at Munich Airport

Normal Centerline A single continuous yellow line, 15 centimetres (6 in) to 30
centimetres (12 in) in width.

Enhanced Centerline The enhanced taxiway center line marking consists of a parallel
line of yellow dashes on either side of the taxiway centerline. Taxiway centerlines are
enhanced for 150 feet (46 m) before a runway holding position marking. The enhanced
taxiway centerline is standard[1] at all FAR Part 139 certified airports in the USA.

Taxiway Edge Markings Used to define the edge of the taxiway when the edge does not
correspond with the edge of the pavement.

Taxiway shoulder markings are yellow lines perpendicular to the taxiway edge. an apron. If the pavement is a light colour then the border is white with a black outer ring. or when necessary to supplement such signs. Black inscription centered on pink circle with black inner and white outer ring.  Taxi Shoulder Markings Taxiways. Continuous markings consist of a continuous double yellow line. spaced 15 centimetres (6 in) apart (edge to edge). They are positioned to the left of the taxiway centerline in the direction of taxiing. holding bays.  Surface Painted Taxiway Direction Signs Yellow background with a black inscription. from taxiway edge to pavement edge.  Surface Painted Location Signs Black background with a yellow inscription and yellow and black border. with each line being at least 15 centimetres (6 in) in width. e. spaced six or twelve inches (15 or 30 cm) apart. and extending across the width of the taxiway or runway. These markings are located on either side of the taxiway. . These lines are 15 feet (4.  Geographic Position Markings These markings are located at points along low visibility taxi routes (when Runway visual range is below 1200 feet (370 m)). Shoulders are not intended for use by aircraft. and aprons are sometimes provided with paved shoulders to prevent blast and water erosion. about 3 metres. with each line being at least 15 centimetres (6 in) in width. These markings are located on the right side of the centerline. these markings supplement location signs located alongside the taxiway and assist the pilot in confirming the designation of the taxiway on which the aircraft is located. These markings consist of a broken double yellow line. There are three locations where runway holding position markings are encountered: Runway holding position markings on taxiways. They consist of four yellow lines.  Runway Holding Position Markings These show where an aircraft should stop when approaching a runway from a taxiway. taxiways located in runway approach areas. spaced 15 centimetres (6 in) apart. They divide the taxiway edge from the shoulder or some other abutting paved surface not intended for use by aircraft. and may be unable to carry the aircraft load. provided when it is not possible to provide taxiway direction signs at intersections.  Dashed markings define the edge of a taxiway on a paved surface where the adjoining pavement to the taxiway edge is intended for use by aircraft.6 m) gaps. two solid and two dashed.g. runway holding position markings on runways.6 m) in length with 25 foot (7. The solid lines are always on the side where the aircraft is to hold. Where necessary.

Signs[edit] The signs can often be combined. There are two classes of signage at airports. relying instead on airport diagrams and charts. Identifies the runway or taxiway the aircraft is currently on or is entering. and a runway sign Airport guidance signs provide direction and information to taxiing aircraft and airport vehicles. Holding Position Markings for Instrument Landing System (ILS) These consist of two yellow solid lines spaced two feet (60 cm) apart connected by pairs of solid lines spaced ten feet (3 metres) apart extending across the width of the taxiway. in this case a direction sign. The taxiways are given alphanumeric identification. These taxiway IDs are shown on black and yellow signboards along the taxiways. with an arrow indicating the direction to turn. with several types of each: Operational guidance signs[edit] Location sign for a taxiway Direction sign to taxiway Bravo  Location signs – yellow on black background. Identifies the intersecting taxiways the aircraft is approaching.  Surface Painted Holding Position Signs Red background signs with a white inscription to supplement the signs located at the holding position.  Holding Position Markings for Taxiway/Taxiway Intersections These consist of a single dashed line extending across the width of the taxiway. a location sign. Smaller airports may have few or no signs. .  Direction/Runway exit signs – black on yellow.

a line of red lights across a taxiway is used during low visibility operations to indicate holding positions. These signs identify a runway intersection ahead. runway holding lines must never be crossed without permission. The yellow "W2" direction sign in the foreground leading to the black "W2" location sign in the background. runway 12-30 in the photo above.  Runway signs – White text on a red background. The designation consists of the letter S followed by designation of the taxiway on which the Stop Bar is positioned. Mandatory instruction signs[edit] No entry sign Mandatory instruction signs are white on red.  Frequency change signs – Usually a stop sign and an instruction to change to another frequency.  Holding position signs – A single solid yellow bar across a taxiway indicates a position where ground control may require a stop. Vehicles and aircraft are required to stop at these signs until the control tower gives clearance to proceed. An "interrupted ladder" type marking with an "ILS" sign in white on red indicates a holding position before an ILS critical area.g.[2]  Other – many airports use conventional traffic signs such as stop and yield signs throughout the airport. They show entrances to runways or critical areas. this indicates a holding position for a runway intersection ahead. These signs are used at airports with different areas of ground control. At some airports. This sign is not standard. . The blue "SW 2" sign is non-standard. e. Stop Bar signs – white on blue background. If two solid yellow bars and two dashed yellow bars are encountered.

These lights can be closer together at taxiway intersections. at the runway holding position marking at taxiway/runway intersections. although some small airports are not equipped with them.200 ft RVR). These fixtures are elevated and emit blue light. On curved taxiway segments. steady-burning in-pavement lights installed across the entire taxiway at the runway holding position. taxiways at many airports are equipped with lights. unidirectional. Taxiway Centerline Lights may be required to be closer together. A controlled stop bar is operated in conjunction with the taxiway centerline lead-on lights which extend from the stop bar toward the runway.  Taxiway Edge Lights: used to outline the edges of taxiways during periods of darkness or restricted visibility conditions.[3] . Following the ATC clearance to proceed. the stop bar is turned off and the lead-on lights are turned on. Taxiway edge lights are spaced 75 feet apart. On straight segments. or a row of in-pavement yellow lights installed across the entire taxiway.  Stop Bar Lights: A row of red.  Taxiway Centerline Lights: They are steady burning and emit green light located along the taxiway centerline  Clearance Bar Lights: Three in-pavement steady-burning yellow lights installed at holding positions on taxiways  Runway Guard Lights: Either a pair of elevated flashing yellow lights installed on either side of the taxiway. and elevated steady-burning red lights on each side used in low visibility conditions (below 1.Lights[edit] Taxiway edge light For night operations. Taxiway Centerline Lights are spaced at either 50 or 100 foot intervals depending on the minimum authorized visibility.

A portable rotating beacon on display at the Alberta Aviation Museum An aerodrome beacon or rotating beacon is a beacon installed at an airport or aerodrome to indicate its location to aircraft pilots at night. they can be seen well above and below this peak spread. above other buildings of the airport. often a control tower. or it may be an aerobeacon rotating at a constant speed which produces the visual effect of flashes at regular intervals. and points on Federal airways 2. Flashes may be of just a single color. landmarks. or of two alternating colors.Aerodrome beacon From Wikipedia. It produces flashes not unlike that of a lighthouse. The beacon may be an omnidirectional flashingxenon strobe. An aerodrome beacon is mounted on top of a towering structure. however. the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has established the following rules for airport beacons: Flashing rates 1. In the United States[edit] In the United States. the free encyclopedia Not to be confused with Airway beacon. Airport and heliport beacons are designed in such a way to make them most effective from one to ten degrees above the horizon. 24 to 30 per minute for beacons marking airports. 30 to 45 per minute for beacons marking heliports Color combinations .

Green** — Military Airport 7. **Military airport beacons flash alternately white and green. Heliports with beacons exhibit the morse letter H (4 short flashes) at a rate of 3 to 4 groups per minute. the FAA has no regulation that requires airports to turn the beacon on during the day. the regulations are different. Green. White. Yellow alone* — Lighted water airport 5. operation of the airport beacon during the hours of daylight often indicates that the ground visibility is less than 3 miles and/or the ceiling is less than 1. Class D. the free encyclopedia . In Class B. Lighted aerodromes are equipped with white single flash beacons operating at a frequency of 20 to 30 flashes per minute. [1] In Canada[edit] In Canada. Green alone* — Lighted land airport 3. Green. White.000 feet.1. and Class E surface areas. White.[2] Airport reference point From Wikipedia. and White — Lighted heliport 6. Air Traffic Control (ATC) personnel turn the beacon on or off with controls in the tower. but are differentiated from civil beacons by two quick white flashes between the green flashes. Yellow. At some locations with operating control towers. At many airports the airport beacon is turned on by a photoelectric cell or time clocks. White and Yellow — Lighted water airport 4. respectively. Class C. and ATC personnel cannot control them. Red — Hospital and/or Emergency Services Heliport *Green alone or yellow alone is used only in connection with a white-and-green or whiteand-yellow beacon display. Regardless of the weather conditions. White and Green — Lighted land airport 2.

minutes and seconds.2. Internationally.2 The aerodrome reference point shall be located near the initial or planned geometric centre of the aerodrome and shall normally remain where first established.2.1 An aerodrome reference point shall be established for an aerodrome. the rules governing the establishment of an Airport reference point are defined by ICAO Annex 14. 2. located at the geometric centre of all the usable runways. and include: 2. . The ARP is computed as a weighted average of the end of runway coordinates.Airport reference point of the defunctBerlin Tempelhof Airport Airport reference point of the defunctBerlin Tempelhof Airport An airport (or aerodrome) reference point (ARP) is the centre point of an airport. 2.2.3 The position of the aerodrome reference point shall be measured and reported to the aeronautical information services authority in degrees.

400 metres (7. if a paved runway is 2.900 ft) long.[6] LDA[5] Landing Distance Available – The length of runway that is declared available and suitable for the ground run of an airplane landing.[6] (The clearway length allowed must lie within the aerodrome or airport boundary. The length of the clearway may be included in the length of the takeoff distance available. if clearway is provided. According to the Federal Aviation Regulations and Joint Aviation Requirements(JAR) TODA is the lesser of TORA plus clearway or 1.5 times TORA).[6] TODA[5] Takeoff Distance Available – The length of the takeoff run available plus the length of the clearway.000 metres (6. including clearway. if stopway is provided.300 ft) of clearway beyond the end of the runway. Takeoff and landing distances available are given using one of the following terms: TORA[5] Takeoff Run Available – The length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an airplane taking off. the maximum permissible takeoff weight of the airplane can be based on the takeoff distance available. ASDA[5] Accelerate-Stop Distance Available – The length of the takeoff run available plus the length of the stopway. the takeoff distance available is 2. . clearway is a term related to the dimension of some runways and it is abbreviated with CWY.[7] EMDA [8] Emergency Distance Available – LDA (or TORA) plus a stopway. Clearway is an area beyond the paved runway.600 ft) long and there are 400 metres (1. Clearway allows large airplanes to take off at a heavier weight than would be allowed if only the length of the paved runway is taken into account.Clearway Aviation[edit] In aviation. When the runway is to be used for takeoff of a large airplane. free of obstructions and under the control of the airport authorities.[4] For example.

such as lighting on vehicles. often referred to as PQ (Pavement Quality) concrete.2Ramp  2See also  3References  4External links Other terms[edit] Airbus A380-800 operated by Qatar Airways at London Heathrow Airport apron outside Terminal 4 with a wide range ofground handling equipments around such as aircraft container. catering vehicles and dollies.[1]Although the use of the apron is covered by regulations. Contents [hide]  1Other terms o 1. Tarmac[edit] Many people in the general public and news media refer to the apron at airports as "the tarmac" despite the fact that most of these areas are often paved with concrete not tarmac. ULD. the apron is not usually open to the general public and a license may be required to gain access. or boarded. The apron is designated by the ICAO as not being part of the maneuvering area. it is typically more accessible to users than the runway or taxiway. belt loader.The airport apron is the area of an airport where aircraft are parked. The use of the apron may be controlled by the apron management service (apron control or apron advisory) to provide coordination between the users. pushback tug. The term "tarmac" was used during an early aircraft hijack episode in the Middle East. However.[citation needed] Ramp[edit] . aircraft and people using the apron are referred to as apron traffic. pallet loader. refueled. unloaded or loaded. The reporter with a British accent reported that the aircraft was parked "on the tarmac" and it stuck as a descriptive area. jet air starter. All vehicles.1Tarmac o 1.

the word ramp is an older term for an area where pre-flight activities were done. an apron was any area for parking and maintenance. Abbreviations – FOD Foreign Object Damage ACN – PCN -Project Control Number TORA –Takeoff Distance Available TODA –Take-off Run Available LDA –LDA Landing Directional Aid LDA Localizer Directional Aid ASDA –Accelerate Stop Distance Available RESA – . Canada.In the United States. and the Philippines. The word apron is the ICAO and FAA terminology (the word ramp is not). so the wordramp is not used with this meaning outside the US. Maldives. Passenger gates are the main feature of a terminal ramp.

RVR –Runway Visual Range NDB –Non-directional Beacon VOR –VOR Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range VOR/DME Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range Collocated with Distance Measuring Equipment VOR/DME VHF Omnidirectional Range/Distance Measuring Equipment VMC – Visual Meteorological Conditions OCA –Oceanic Control Area OFZ –Obstacle Free Zone ILS –ILS Instrument Landing System ILSP Integrated Logistics Support Plan NOTAM Notice to Airmen Parts of Aircraft .

Navigational Aids – A navigational aid (also known as aid to navigation. buoys. and day beacons.Directional Range ILS . the term is most commonly used to refer to nautical or aviation travel. Common types of such aids include lighthouses. ATON. or navaid) is any sort of marker which aids the traveler in navigation.Instrument Landing System . Aerodrome Beacon NDB –Non-directional Beacon DVOR DVOR Doppler Very High Frequency Omni Directional Range DVOR Doppler Very High Frequency Omni-. fog signals.