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Intensive Grammar

Course

NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

CHAPTER 1
PRONOUNS
WHAT IS A PRONOUN?
A pronoun is used in place of a noun. It refers to a noun. The noun it refers it is called the
antecedent. Examples:
I read the book. It was good.
(The pronoun it refers to the antecedent noun book.)
Mary said, I drink tea.
(The pronoun I refers to the speaker, whose name is Mary.)

SUBJECT
PRONOUNS

OBJECT
PRONOUNS

SINGULAR
I
You
He, She, It

PLURAL
We
You
They

Me
You
Him, Her, It

Us
You
Them

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS:
A noun does not follow these possessives immediately; they stand-alone. Example:
That book is mine. Those are yours over there
Possessive Adjectives are followed immediately by a noun; they do not stand-alone
Example:

My book is here. Your books are over there

POSSESSIVE
PRONOUNS
POSSESSIVE
ADJECTIVES

SINGULAR
Mine
Yours
His, Hers, its

PLURAL
Ours
Yours
Theirs

My name
Your name
His, Her, Its name

Our names
Your names
Their names

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Possessive nouns require apostrophes. Ex. That book is Marys.


Possessive pronouns do not take apostrophes.
Correct: That book is hers, and those books are theirs
Incorrect: That book is hers and those books are theirs
Hint:
Pronouns that express ownership (yours, his, hers, its, ours, etc ) never require apostrophe.
Hints
Dont confused possessive pronouns with contractions.
Possessive pronouns
Its ( belonging to it )
Your ( belonging to you )
Their ( belonging to them )

contractions
its ( it is )
youre ( you are )
theyre ( they are )

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS:
The following are reflexive pronouns:
Myself
Yourself
Himself, herself, itself
Ourselves
Yourselves
Themselves
a.
b.
c.
d.

He looked at himself in the mirror.


He himself answered the phone, not his secretary.
He answered the phone himself.
She lives by herself.

A reflexive pronoun usually refers to the subject a sentence.


In (a) he and himself refer to the same person.
Sometimes reflexive pronouns are used for emphasis, as in (b) and (c).
The expressions by + a reflexive pronoun usually means alone, as in (d).

NONSPECIFIC OBJECT PRONOUNS: SOME, ANY AND ONE


(a) A: I need some blank tapes, Object pronouns for PLURAL COUNT NOUNS:
(nonspecific)
Nonspecific
some or any
B: I dont have any, but Jack has
Specific
them
some.
In (a): The speakers are not talking about specific
(b) A: Where are the blank tapes that tapes.
were on my desk? (Specific)
In (b): The speakers are talking about specific tapes,
B: Rita has them.
the tapes SPEAKER A left on her desk.
(c) A: I need a blank tape, (nonspecific) Object pronouns for SINGULAR COUNT NOUS:
B: I think you can get one from
Nonspecific
one
Jack.
Specific
it, her, him
(d) A: Wheres the blank tape that was
on my desk? (Specific)
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B: Rita has it.


(e) A: Would you like some coffee? Object pronouns for NONCOUNT NOUS:
Nonspecific
some or any
(Nonspecific)
B: No thanks, I just had some. I
Specific
it
dont want any right now.
(f)

A: Your cup is empty.


What
happened to your coffee? (Specific)
B: I drank it.

EXCERSISES
EXERCISE 1 Identify the pronouns and their antecedents in the following sentences.
1. Jack has a part-time job. He works at a fast-food restaurant.
(he = a pronoun ; Jack = the antecedent )
2. Many monkeys dont like water, but they can swim well when they have to.
__________________________________________________________
3. The teacher graded the students papers last night. She returned them during class the next
day.
___________________________________________________________
4. The cormorant is a diving bird. It can stay under water for a long time. In some countries, it
is used by fishermen to catch fish for them.
___________________________________________________________
5. Tom took an apple with him to school. He ate it at lunchtime.
___________________________________________________________
EXERCISE 2 Choose the correct word in parentheses
1. This is (my, mine) umbrella. (Your, yours) umbrella is over there
2. This umbrella is (my, mine). The other one is (your, yours)
3. Mary and Bob have (their, theirs) book. In other words, Mary has (her, hers) Bob and has
his.
4. A honeybee has two wings on each side of (its, its) body
5. (Its, its) true that a homing pigeon will find (its, its) way home even though it begins (its,
its) trip in unfamiliar territory.
6. I have a pet. (Its, Its) name is Squeak. (Its, It is) a turtle. (Its, Its) been my pet for two
years.
7. With (its, its) paw injured, the animal limped down the road.
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8. It was (they, them) who objected to the decision.


9. I dont know what would do if I were ( him, he )
10. It must have been (they, them ) who purchased the class gift.
11. Is this term paper (yours, yours) or Helens?
EXERCISE 3 Complete the following by using appropriate reflexive pronouns
1. I cant help you, Bob. Youll have to solve your problem by yourself.
2. Jane did not join the rest of us. She sat in the back of her room by __________
3. You may think Stan is telling the truth, but I ____________ dont believe him.
4. It is important for all of us to be honest with _____________________________
5. Now that their children are grown, Mr. And Mrs. Grayson live by _____________
6. You __________ have to make that decision, Ann. No one can make it for you.
7. I dont know what to tell you, Sue and Jack. You will have to take care or that problem
______________
8. When everybody else forgot his birthday, Ralph decided to give _____________ a birthday
present. He bought a new shirt for ____________________________
EXERCISE 4

Agreement of pronouns

Complete the sentences with pronouns. In some of the blanks there is more than one possibility.
1. A student should always hand in his or her work on time.
2. Students should always hand in ____________ work on time.
3. Teachers determine ___________ students course of study.
4. Each student is expected to learn ____________ lesson on time.
5. If anyone calls, please ask _____________ to leave a message.
6. Somebody left ______________ raincoat in the classroom.
7. The flight crew on our long plane trip was very attentive. ____________ efforts to make us
feel comfortable were greatly appreciated.
8. My family is wonderful. ____________ have always helped _____________ in anyway
____________ could.
9. The crowd enjoyed the game. _____________ got excited whenever the home team scored.
10. The crowd at the last concert broke attendance records. __________ was the largest audience
ever to have been in that stadium for a rock concert.

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Exercise 5: find the subject and reflexive pronoun that should be in each sentence.

1. The problem wont solve _____________________.


2. The repairman couldnt help me, so I had to fix it____________.
3. We promised _______________ a great vacation after we finish this job.
4. The secretaries told their bosses to make the coffee__________________.
5. The tour guide told us, you will have to get to the hotel by________________
6. The man was terribly fat and I guess he did not want to weigh_______________.
7. If you want it done right, do it__________________.
8. We did not want them to come, but they invited _______________.
9. The famous writer signed the book______________.
10. that door closed by _____________
Exercise 6: substitute a possessive pronoun for the word in parenthesis in each sentence.
1) That book is (my book). That book is mine.
2) Those are (her pictures) those are hers.
3) All of these magazines are (his magazines).
4) Those cigarettes on the table are (my cigarettes).
5) Are all of these papers (your papers)?
6) That newspaper on the desk is (her newspaper).
7) That big house on the corner is (their house)
8) Is this your purse or (miss Browns purse)?
9) Are those my overshoes or (his overshoes)?
10) Are these two books (your books) or (my books).

CHAPTER 1.5
NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Adjective clauses:

First, we are going to identify some specific terms we need to understand this subject:
a. Clause:
A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb.
b. Independent clause:
Ann independent clause is a complete sentence. It contains the main subject and verb of a
sentence. (It is also called the main clause).
c. Dependent clause:
A dependent clause is a not a complete sentence. It must be connected to an independent clause.
d. Adjective clause:
An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It describes, identifies, or gives
further information about a noun. (An adjective clause is also called a relative clause).
When we have and adjective clause, we have two clauses joined by a pronoun could be object or
subject.
a. Using Subject pronouns:
WHO, WHICH, THAT
I thanked the woman. She helped me.
I thanked the woman who helped me
I thanked the woman that helped me.
I thanked the woman (an independent clause)
Who helped me? (An adjective clause)
The adjective clause modifies the noun woman.
The book is mine. It is on the table.
The book, which is on the table, is mine
The book that is on the table is mine.
WHO:
Used for people
WHICH:
Used for things
THAT:
Used for both people and things.
b. Using Object pronouns:
WHO (M), WHICH, THAT
Here we are talking about pronouns as the object of a verb. Ex:
The man was Mr. Jones. I saw him
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The man who (m ) I saw was Mr. Jones.


The man that I saw was Mr. Jones.
The man 0 I saw was Mr. Jones.
Who is usually used instead of whom, especially in speaking. Whom, is generally used only in a
very formal English.
An object pronoun is often omitted from an adjective clause. (A subject pronoun, however, may
not be omitted).

c. Pronoun used as the object of a preposition:


In very formal English the prepositions comes at the beginning of the adjective clause. Usually,
however, in every day usage, the prepositions come after the subject and verb of the adjective
clause.
If the preposition comes at the beginning of the adjective clause, only whom or which may be
used. A preposition is never immediately followed by that or who.

She is the woman. I told you about her.


She is the woman about whom I told you.
She is the woman who (m) I told you about.
She is the woman that I told you about.
She is the woman 0 I told you about.
The music was good. We listened to it last night.
The music to which we listened last night was good.
The music, which we listened to last night, was good.
The music that we listened to last night was good.
The music 0 we listened to last night was good.

a. Using WHERE:
WHERE is used in an adjective clause to modify a place (city, country, room, house, etc)
If WHERE is used, a preposition is not included in the adjective clause. If WHERE is not used,
the preposition must be included.
Example.
The building is very old
He lives there (in that building)
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The building
The building
The building
The building
The building

where
in which
which
that
0

he lives
he lives
he lives
he lives
he lives

is very old.
is very old.
is very old.
is very old.
is very old.

b. USING WHEN
WHEN is used in an adjective clause to modify a noun of time (year, day, time, century, etc)
The use of a preposition in an adjective clause that modifies a noun of time is somewhat different
from that in other adjective clauses. A preposition is used preceding which. Otherwise, the
preposition is omitted.
Example.
Ill never forget the day
Ill never forget the day
Ill never forget the day
Ill never forget the day

when
on which
that
0

I met you
I met you
I met you
I met you

EXERCISE 1: Combine the two sentences. Use the second sentence as an adjective clause.

1. I saw the man. He closed the door.


I saw the man who closed the door.
That
2. The girl is happy. She won the race.

3. The student is from China. He sits next to me.

4. The students are from China. They sit in the front row.

5. We are studying sentences. They stand for unknown numbers.

6. The taxi driver was friendly. He took me to the airport.

EXERCISE 2: Combine the sentences, using the second sentence as an adjective clause. Give all
the possible patterns.

1. The book was good. I read it.


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2. I liked the woman. I met her at the party last night.

3. I liked the composition. You wrote it.

4. The people were very nice. We visited them yesterday.


EXERCISE 3: Combine the sentences, using the second sentence as an adjective clause. Give all
the possible patterns.

1. The meeting was interesting. I went to it.

2. The man was very kind. I talked to him yesterday.

3. I must thank the people. I got a present from them.

4. The picture was beautiful. She was looking at it.

5. The man is standing over there. I was telling you about him.
EXERCISE 5: Combine the sentences, using the second sentence as an adjective clause:

1. The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation there (in that city)
2. That is the restaurant. We will meet you there (at the restaurant)
3. The town is small. I grew up there (in that town)
4. That is the drawer. I keep my jewelry there (in that drawer)

EXERCISE 6: Combine the sentences, using the second sentence as an adjective clause.

1. Monday is the day. We will come then (on that day)


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2. 7:05 is the time. My plane arrives then (at that time)

3. 1960 is the year. The revolution took place then (in that year)

4. July is the month. The weather is usually the hottest then (in that month)

CHAPTER 2
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NOUNS
Definition:
A noun names a person, a place, a thing or an idea.

1. Count nouns:
Count nouns are items that can be counted. Example:
I bought a chair. Sam bought three chairs
A chair
One chair

SINGULAR

Chairs
Two chairs
Some chairs
A lot of chairs
Many chairs

PLURAL

A count noun:
1. May be preceded by a / an in the
singular.
2. It takes a final s /-es in the plural

2. No count nouns:
No count nouns refer to a whole that is made up of different parts.
Example.
I bought some chairs, tables, and desks. In other words, I bought some furniture.

Furniture represented a whole group of things that is made up of similar but separate items.

I put some sugar in my coffee.

Sugar and coffee represent whole masses made up of individual particles or elements.

To express a particular quantity, some count nouns may be preceded by unit expressions.
Ex:

A spoonful of sugar
A quart of milk
A grain of rice
A bag of flour
A piece of furniture
A piece of jewelry
I wish you luck

A cup of coffee
A loaf of bread
A bowl of soup
A pound of meat
A piece of paper

Luck is an abstract concept, an abstract whole. It has no physical form; you cant touch it.
You cant count it.

Sunshine is warm and cheerful

Phenomena of nature, such as sunshine, are frequently used as No count nouns.


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Many nouns can be used as either No count or count nouns, but the meaning is different. Ex:
a. Hair:
. No count: Ann has brown hair
. Count: Tom has a hair on his jacket
b. Light:
. No count: I opened the curtains to let in some light
. Count: Dont forget to turn off the lights before you go to bed

SINGULAR

Furniture
Some furniture
A lot of furniture
Much furniture

A No count nouns:
1. It is not immediately preceded by a / an.
2. It has no plural form; it does not take a final s / es

3. Some common No count nouns:


The following are typical of nouns that are commonly used as No count noun. Many others nouns
can be used as No count nouns. This list serves only as a sample.
1. Whole groups made up of similar items: Baggage, clothing, equipment, food, fruit,
furniture, garbage, hardware, jewelry, junk, luggage, machinery, mail, make up, money / cash
/ change, postage, scenery, traffic.
2. Fluids:

Water, coffee, tea, milk, oil, soup, gasoline, blood, etc.

3. Solids: Ice, bread, butter, cheese, meat, gold, iron, silver, glass, paper, wood, cotton, wool,
etc.
4. Gases: Steam, air, oxygen, nitrogen, smoke, smog, pollution, etc.
5. Particles: Rice, chalk, corn, dirt, dust, flour, glass, hair, pepper, salt, sand, sugar, wheat, etc.
6. Abstractions: Beauty, confidence, courage, education, enjoyment, fun, happiness, health,
help, honesty, hospitality, importance, intelligence, justice, knowledge, laughter, luck, music,
patience, peace, pride, progress, recreation, significance, sleep, truth, violence, wealth,
Advice, information, news, evidence, proof, Time, space, energy, Homework, work,
Grammar, slang; vocabulary.
7. Languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, Spanish, etc.
8. Fields of study: Chemistry, engineering, history, literature, mathematics, psychology, etc.
9. Recreation: Baseball, soccer, tennis, chess, bridge, poker, etc.
10. General activities: Driving, studying, swimming, traveling, walking, (and other gerunds).
11. Natural phenomena: Weather, dew, fog, hail, humidity, heat, lightning rain, sleet, snow,
thunder, wind, darkness, light, sunshine, electricity, fire, gravity.
4. Expressions of Quantity:
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An expression of quantity may precede a noun. Some expressions of quantity are used only with
count nouns, some only with No count nouns; some with both, count and No count nouns.
EXPRESSIONS
OF QUANTITY

USED WITH
COUNT NOUNS

USED WITH
NONCOUNT
NOUNS
One
One apple
0
Each
Each apple
0
Every
Every apple
0
Two
Two apples
0
Both
Both apples
0
A couple of
A couple of apples
0
Three, etc
Three apples
0
A few
A few apples
0
Several
Several apples
0
Many
Many apples
0
0
A number of
A number of apples
A little
0
A little rice
Much
0
Much rice
A great deal of
0
A great deal of rice
Not any / no
Not any / no apples
Not any / no rice
Some
Some apples
Some rice
A lot of
A lot of apples
A lot of rice
Lots of
Lots of apples
Lots of rice
Plenty of
Plenty of apples
Plenty of rice
Most
Most apples
Most rice
All
All apples
All rice
0 == Not Used. For example, you can say I ate one apple but NOT I ate One rice

5.Noun as a subject and as an object:


We could have two nouns in one sentence, playing different roles like subject or object. Ex:
I love you
I is the subject
You is the object
Jack put the letter
Jack is the subject
Letter is the object

EXCERSISE
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EXERCISE 1
Look at the italicized nouns in the following sentences. Write C under the count nouns and
NC under the No count nouns.
Example.
1. I bought some chairs, tables and desks. In other words, I bought some furniture.
C
C
C
NC
2. I have some pennies, nickels and dimes in my pocket. In other words, I have
Some money in my pocket.
3. Ann likes to wear jewelry. Today she is wearing four rings, six bracelets, and a
Necklace.
4. We saw beautiful mountains, fields, and lakes on our trip. In other words, we saw
Beautiful scenery.
5. Would you like some food? How about a sandwich and an apple?
6. We had meat, rice, bread, butter, cheese, fruit, vegetables and tea for dinner.
7. Gold and iron are metals.
8. I used an iron to press my shirt because it was wrinkled.
9. I wish you happiness, health and luck in your life.
10.Tom is studying Chemistry, History and English.
11.In the United States, baseball is called the national pastime. To play it, you need
A baseball and a bat.
12.My hometown has rain, thunder, fog, sleet and snow in the winter months.
In Other words, it has bad weather.
13.Tom has black hair and brown eyes.

EXERCISE 2
Complete the sentences with the given nouns. Add final s / -es if necessary. Use each noun
once.
Advice

Information

Screwdriver

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Change
City
Garbage
Hardware
Homework

Junk
Luggage / baggage
Music
Progress
River

Stuff
Thunder
Traffic
Traveling
Trip

Ex:
1. I have some coins in my pocket. In other words, I have some change in my pocket.
2. The Mississippi, the Amazon, and the Nile are well-known __________ in the world.
3. I like to listen to operas, symphonies and folk songs. I enjoy ________________
4. Since I came to the United States, I have visited Chicago, New York and Miami. I want to
visit other _______________ before I return to my country.
5. The street is full of cars, trucks and busses. This street always has heavy ______________,
especially during rush hour.
6. In the last couple of years, Ive gone to France, India, and the Soviet Union. I like to take
____________. In other words _____________ is one of my favorite activities.
7. I put some banana peels, rotten food, and broken bottles in the waste can. The can is full of
______________.
8. They have a rusty car without an engine, broken chairs, and an old refrigerator in their front
yard. Their yard is full of ____________.
9. Paul has books, pens, papers, notebooks, a clock, scissors, a tape recorder and some other
things on his desk. He has a lot of ____________ on his desk.
10. The children got scared when they heard ______________ during the storm.
11. Tools that are used to fasten screws into wood are called _____________.
12. I went to the store to get some nails, hammers, and screws. In other words, I bought some
_________________.

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13. Tonight I have to read 20 pages in my history book, do 30 problems in algebra, and write a
composition for my English teacher. In other words, I have a lot of ____________ to do
tonight.
14. Ann took three suitcases, a shoulder bag, and a cosmetic case. In other words, she took a lot
of _______________ on her trip.
15. Toronto is 356 ft. / 109m above sea level. The average annual precipitation in Toronto is 32
in. / 81cm. The population of the metropolitan area is over 3.000.000. I found (this, these)
_______________ in the encyclopedia.
16. I didnt feel good. Ann said, you should see a Doctor. Tom said, you should go home and
go to bed. Martha said, you should drink fruit juice and rest. I got _____________ from
tree people.
17. My English is slowly getting better. My vocabulary is increasing. Its getting easier from me
to write and I make fewer mistakes. I can often understand people even when they talk fast.
Im satisfied with the _____________ I have made in learning English.

EXERCISE 3 Add final s / -es to the nouns in italics if necessary. Do not add or change any
other words.
Ex:
eggs
chickens
1. Mary Always has fresh egg available because she raises chicken in her yard.
2. I had chicken and rice for dinner last night.
(No changes)
3. Outside my window, I can see a lot of tree, bush, grass, dirt, and flower.
4. Tom gave me some advice. Millie also gave me some good suggestion.
5. Yoko learned several new word today. She increased her vocabulary today.
6. I drank two glass of water.
7. Windows are made of glass.
8. Jack wears glass because he has poor eyesight.
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EXERCISE
correctly.
Ex:
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

4 Draw a line through the expressions that cant be used to complete the sentence

I bought ____________ furniture.


Some
A couple of
Several
Too much
Too many

2. Isabel has________ assignments.

3. Sue is wearing ________ jewelry.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

Three
Several
Some
A lot of
Too much
Too many
A few
A little
A number of
A great deal of
Hardly any
No

Four
Several
Some
Lots of
Too many
Too much
A few
A little
Hardly any
No

EXERCISE 5 Use many or much with the following nouns, changing the nouns to plural if
necessary
1. Furniture
2. Desk
3. Equipment
4. Machinery
5. Machine
6. Branch
7. Woman
8. Piece
9. Mouse
10. Advice
11. Prize
12. Goose
13. Music
14. Progress

15.Tooth
16.Race
17.Knowledge
18.Marriage
19.Information
20.Luck
21.Hypothesis
22.Mail
23.Office
24.Slang
25.Phenomenon
26.Human being
27.Roof
28.Shelf

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CHAPTER 3
ARTICLES
Basic Article Usage
1. Using A or 0 : GENERIC NOUNS
A speaker uses generic nouns to make generalizations. A generic noun represents a whole class
of things; it is not a specific, real concrete thing but rather a symbol of a whole group.
SINGULAR COUNT NOUN
A banana is yellow
PLURAL COUNT NOUN
1. Bananas are yellow.
In these two examples the speaker is talking about any bananas, all bananas, bananas in general.
NONCOUNT NOUN
2. Fruit is good for you.
In this example, the speaker is talking about any and all fruit, fruit in general.
Notice that no article (0) is used to make generalizations whit plural count nouns and No count
nouns as in the example 2 and 3.

2. Using A or Some: INDEFINITE NOUNS


Indefinite nouns are actual things (not symbols), but they are not specifically identified.
SINGULAR COUN NOUN
I ate a banana.
In this example, the speaker is not referring to this banana or that banana or that banana you
gave me the speaker is simply saying that he/she ate one banana. The listener doesnt know or
need to know which banana was eaten; it was simply one banana out of that whole group of
things called bananas.
PLURAL COUNT NOUN
I ate some bananas.

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NONCOUNT NOUN
I ate some fruit.
In these two examples we see that SOME is often used with definite plural count nouns and
indefinite No count nouns. In addition to some, a speaker might use two, a few, several, a lot of.
Etc. With No count nouns.

3. Using THE: DEFINITE NOUNS


A noun is definitive when both the speaker and the listener are thinking about the same specific
thing.
SINGULAR COUNT NOUN
Thank you for the banana.
In this example the speaker uses THE because the listener knows which specific banana the
speaker is talking about. Ex. That particular banana that the listener gave to the speaker.
PLURAL COUNT NOUN
Thank you for the bananas.
NONCOUNT NOUN
Thank you for the fruit
Notice that THE is used with both singular and plural count nouns and with No count nouns.

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE


THE:
Use it when you know or assume that your listener is familiar with and thinking about the
same specific thing or person you are talking about.
Ex. The sun is bright today.
Please hand this book to the teacher.
Please open the door.
Jack is in the kitchen.
Use THE for the second mention of an indefinite noun.
Ex.
Yesterday I saw some dogs. The dogs were chasing a cat. The cat was chasing a mouse. The
mouse ran into a hole. The hole was very small.
First mention:
Second mention:

some dogs, a cat, a mouse, a hole.


the dogs, the cat, the mouse, and the hole.

THE is not used for the second mention of a generic noun. Compare:
a. What color is a banana (generic noun)? A banana (generic noun) is yellow.
b. Tom offered me a banana (indefinite noun) or an apple. I chose the banana (definite noun).

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Do not use THE with a plural count noun (ex. Apples) or a No count noun (ex. Gold) when
you are making a generalization.

Ex.
INCORRECT:
CORRECT:

The apples are my favorite fruit.


Apples are my favorite fruit.

INCORRECT:
CORRECT:

The gold is a metal.


Gold is a metal.

Do not use a singular count noun (ex. Car) without: an article (a, an, the) or (this, that) or a
possessive pronoun.

Ex.
INCORRECT:
CORRECT:

I drove car.
I drove a car.
I drove the car.
I drove that car.
I drove his car.

EXCERSISE
EXERCISE 1 : In the following sentences, try to decide whether the speakers would probably
use a/an or the.
1. I have
an idea. Lets go on __a____ picnic on Saturday.
2. Did you have fun at ________ picnic yesterday?
3. Youd better have ________ good reason for being late!
4. Did you think ________ reason Jack gave for being late was believable?
5. Your blue shirt is on ________ washing machine. You will have to wear ________ different
shirt.
6. I wish we had ________ washing machine.
7. What happened to your bicycle? ________ Front wheel is bent.
8. I ran into ________ parked car when I swerved to avoid ________ truck.
9. I wrote ________ apology for Mary.
10. __________ Radiator has __________ leak, and one of ________ windshield wipers doesnt
work.
11. Can you show me where ________ leak is?
12. ________ Beef is a kind of meat.

NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

21

CHAPTER 4
CONJUNCTIONS
One use of a conjunction is to connect words or phrases that have the same grammatical function
in a sentence. This use of conjunctions is called parallel structure. The conjunctions used in this
pattern are:
AND, BUT, OR, NOR. (More specifically are called coordinating conjunctions).
EXAMPLE
a. Steve and his friend are coming to dinner.

PATTERN
Noun + and + Noun

b. Susan raised her hand and snapped her fingers.

Verb + and + verb

c. He is waving his arms and (is) shouting at us.

Verb + and + verb


In this case the second auxiliary may be
omitted if it is the same as the first
auxiliary.

d. These shoes are old but comfortable.


Adjective + but + Adjective
e. He wants to watch TV or (to) listen to some
music.

f. Steve, Joe, and Alice are coming to dinner.


g. Susan raised her hand, snapped her fingers, and
asked a question.
h. The colors in that fabric are red, gold, black, and
green.

Infinitive + or + Infinitive
In this case the second TO may be omitted.
A parallel structure may contain more than
two parts. In this case, commas are used to
separate each unit. The final comma that
precedes the conjunction is optional but is
customarily used. (No commas are used if
there are only two parts to a parallel
structure).

USING PARIED CONJUNCTIONS


a. Two subjects connected by bothand take a plural verb.
Both my mother and my sister are here.
b. When two subjects are connected by (not onlybut also), (eitheror), or (neithernor),
the subject that is closer to the verb determines whether the verb is singular or plural.
Not only my mother but also my sister is here.
NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

22

Neither my mother nor my sister is here.


Neither my sister nor my parents are here.
c. Notice the parallel structure in the examples. The same grammatical form should follow each
word of the pair.
The research project will take both time and money.

Both + noun + and + noun

Yesterday it not only rained but also snowed

Not only + verb + but also + verb.

Ill take either chemistry or physics next quarter.

Either + noun + or + noun.

That book is neither interesting nor accurate.

Neither + adjective + nor + adjective.

USING AND + TOO, SO, EITHER, NEITHER

AND TOO

AND SO.

AND EITHER

A - Sue likes milk,


AND + S + aux + TOO
And
Tom does too.
B- Sue likes milk,
AND + SO + aux + S
And
so
does Tom

C - Mary doesnt like milk,


AND +S+ aux + EITHER
And John doesnt either.

AND NEITHER.

F A1: Im hungry.
B1: So am I.

G A1: I dont like H A1: I dont like hot dogs.


hot Dogs.
B1: Neither do I.
B1: I dont either.

I - A1:Im hungry.
B1: Me too.
. (Informal)

Notice in (b): After and so the


auxiliary verb (aux) comes before
the subject (S).

C And d have the same meaning.


Notice in (d): After and neither, the
auxiliary verb comes before the
subject.

D - Mary doesnt like milk,


AND +NEITHER + aux + S
And neither does John.

E A1: Im hungry.
B1: I am too.

(a) And (b) have the same meaning.

J - A1: I dont like hot dogs.


B1: Me neither. (Informal)
NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

Notice in (c): A negative auxiliary


verb is used with and either.
In (d): An affirmative auxiliary verb
is used with and neither
And is usually not used when there
are two speakers.
E And F have the same meaning.
G GAnd H have the same meaning

Me too and me neither are often


used in informal spoken English.

23

CONNECTING IDEAS WITH BECAUSE

(a) He drank water because ha was Because expresses a cause; it gives a reason.
thirsty.
Why did he drink water?
Reason: he was thirsty.
(b) MAIN CLAUSE: He drank water.

A main clause is a complete sentence:


He drank water. = A complete sentence.
C - ADVERB CLAUSE:
An adverb clause is NOT a complete sentence: because he
because he was thirsty.
was thirsty =NOT a complete sentence.
Because introduces an adverb clause:
Because + subject + verb = an adverb clause.
An adverb clause is connected to a main clause, as in (d)
Main clause
adverb clause
and (e). *
In (d): main clause + no comma + adverb clause.
D - He drank water because he was In (e): adverb clause + comma + main clause.
thirsty.
(No comma)
(d) And (e) have exactly the same meaning.

Adverb clause

main clause

E - Because he was thirsty, he drank


water. (Comma)
F - INCORRECT:
He drank water.
thirsty.

(f) Is incorrect: because he was thirsty cannot stand alone as


Because he was a sentence that starts with a capital letter and ends with a
period. It has to be connected to a main clause as in (d) and
(e).

CONNECTING IDEAS WITH SO


(a) The room was dark, so I turned on a So can be used as a conjunction. It is precedes by a comma.
NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

24

light.
(b) I didnt study, so I failed the exam.

It connects the ideas in two independent clauses.


expresses results:
Cause: the room was dark
Result: I turned on a light

So

USING AUXILIARY VERBS AFTER BUT AND AND


(a) I dont like coffee, but my husband
does.
(b) (b) I like tea, but my husband
doesnt.
(c) I wont be here tomorrow, but Sue
will.
(d) Ive seen that movie, but Joe
hasnt.

After but and, often a main verb is not repeated. Instead,


only an auxiliary verb is used. The auxiliary is a substitute
for the main verb phrase. The auxiliary after but and has the
same tense or modal as the main verb.
In (a): does = likes coffee. The auxiliary does (simple
present) is the substitute for the main verb phrase (simple
present).

(e) He isnt here, but she is. *


(f) I dont like coffee, and Ed doesnt
either.
Notice in the examples:
(g) I like tea, and Kate does too.
(h) I wont be here, and he wont Negative + but + affirmative
either.
Affirmative + but + negative
(i) Ive seen that movie, and Pat has
too.
Negative + and + negative
(j) He isnt here, and Anna isnt either.
Affirmative + and + affirmative

*A verb is not contracted with a pronoun at the end of a sentence after but and:
CORRECT: but she is.
INCORRECT: but shes.

CONNECTING IDEAS WITH EVEN THOUGH / ALTHOUGH


(a) Even though I was hungry, I did not eat. Even though and although introduce an adverb clause.
I did not eat even though I was hungry.
(a) And (b) have the same meaning. They mean: I was
(b) Although I was hungry, I did not eat.
hungry, but I did not eat.
I did not eat although I was hungry.
COMPARE:
(c) Because I was hungry, I ate.
Because expresses an expected result.
(d) Even though I was hungry, I did not eat. Even though/although expresses an unexpected or
opposite result.

EXCERSISE
NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

25

EXERCISE 1: Parallel structure makes repeating the same words unnecessary.


Combine the given sentences into one concise sentence that contains parallel structure.
1. Mary opened the door. Mary greeted her guests.
Mary opened the door and greeted her guests.
2. Mary is opening the door. Mary is greeting her guests.
3. Mary will open the door. Mary will greet her guests.
4. Alice is kind. Alice is generous. Alice is trustworthy.

5. Please try to speak more loudly. Please try to speak more clearly.
6. He gave her flowers on Sunday. He gave her candies on Monday. He gave her a ring on
Tuesday.
7. While we were in NY, we attended an opera. While we were in NY, we ate at marvelous
restaurants. While we were in NY we visited some friends.
8. He decided to quit school. He decided to go to California. He decided to find a job.
9. I am looking forward to going to Italy. I am looking forward to eating wonderful spaghetti
every day.
10. I should have finished my homework. I should have cleaned up my room.
11. The boy was old enough to work. The boy was old enough to earn some money.
12. He preferred to play baseball. Or he preferred to spend his time in the streets with other toys.
13. I like coffee. I do not like tea.
I like coffee but not tea.
14. I have met his mother. I have not met his father.
Jake would like to live in Puerto Rico. He would not like to live in Iceland.
EXERCISE 2: Supply the correct present tense form of the verb in parentheses
15.

1. (Know) Neither the students nor the teacher__________ the answer.


NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

26

2. (Hear) Neither the teacher nor the students__________ the answer.


3. (Play) Not only the girl but also the boy __________ tennis.
4. (Watch) Both the carpenter and the man__________ the game.
5. (Want) Neither Carol nor Alan__________ to go skiing this weekend.
6. (Like) Both John and Ted___________ to go skiing.
7. (Have) Either Jack or Alice__________ the information you need.
8. (Agree) Neither my parents nor my brother ___________ with my decision.
9. (Be) Both intelligence and skill ___________ essential to good teaching.
10. (Think) Not only Lauras husband but also her children___________ she should return to
school and finish her graduate degree.
EXERCISE 3: Complete the sentences by using even though or because.

1. ______Even though_____ the weather is cold, Rick isnt.


2. ______

_____ the weather is cold, Ben is wearing a coat.

3.

______

___

Tim is fairly tall, he cant reach the ceiling.

4.

______

____Matt is very tall, he can reach the ceiling.

5.

______

____Dan isnt as tall as Matt, he cant reach the ceiling.

6.

______

___ Nick isnt tall; he can reach the ceiling by standing on a chair.

EXERCISE 4 : Complete the sentences by using the word in italics and an appropriate auxiliary.

1. Tom

Jack has a mustache, and so ________does Tom ______.


Jack has a mustache, and ___________Tom does

2. Brian

too.

Alex doesnt have a mustache, and neither __________________.


Alex doesnt have a mustache, and ___________________ ,either.

3. I

Sara was at home last night, and so _______________________.


Sara was at home last night, and ___________, too

4. Oregon

California is on the West Coast, and so _____________________.


California is on the West Coast, and ____________________ , too.

5. Jean

I went to a movie last night, and so _________________________.


NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

27

I went to a movie last night, and ________________________, too.


6. Jason

I didnt study last night, and neither _________________________.


I didnt study last night, and __________________________, either.

7. Dick

Jim cant speak Arabic, and neither _________________________.


Jim cant speak Arabic, and ___________________________, either.

8. Laura

I like to go to science fiction movies, and so ___________________.


I like to go to science fiction movies, and __________________, too.

9. Alice

I dont like horror movies, and neither ________________________.


I dont like horror movies, and _________________________ , either.

10.Porpoises

Whales are mammals, and so ______________________________.

Whales are mammals, and _____________________________, too


EXERCISE 4: Combine each pair of sentences in two different orders. Use because
1. We didnt have class. The teacher was absent.
-

We didnt have class because the teacher was absent.


Because the teacher was absent, we didnt have class.

2. The children were hungry. There was no food in the house.


3. The bridge is closed. We cant drive to the other side of the river.
4. My car didnt start. The battery was dead.
5. Debbie woke up in morning with a sore throat. She had cheered loudly at the basketball
game.

CHAPTER 5
ADJECTIVES
NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

28

WHAT IS AN ADJECTIVE?
Adjectives describe nouns. In grammar we say that adjectives modify nouns. The word modifies
means change a little. Adjectives give a little different meaning to a noun.
Ex:
Intelligent student
Lazy student
Good student
1. Mary is an intelligent student.
( Adj )
(Noun)
2. The hungry children ate fruit.
(Adj ) (Noun)
An adjective is neither singular nor plural. A final s is never added to an adjective.
CORRECT:
INCORRECT:
*exercise 1

I saw some beautiful pictures.


I saw some beautifuls pictures.

Adjectives followed by infinitives:

Certain adjectives can be immediately followed by infinitives. In general, these adjectives


describe a person or people, not a thing. Many of these adjectives describe a persons feelings or
attitudes.

Common adjectives that can be followed by the infinite


Glad to
Happy to
Pleased to
Delighted to
Content to
Relieved to
Alarmed to
Encouraged to

Ready to
Prepared to
Anxious to
Eager to
Willing to
Motivated to
Depressed to
Excited to

Sorry to*
Sad to*
Upset to*
Disappointed to*
Proud to
Ashamed to
Curious to
Embarrassed to

Careful to
Hesitant to
Reluctant to
Afraid to
Determined to
Lucky to
Distressed to
Fortunate to

Surprised to*
Amazed to*
Astonished to*
Shocked to*
Stunned to*
Fortunate to
Disturbed to
Touched to

*The expressions with an * are usually followed by infinitive phrases with verbs such as:
See
learn
Discover
Find out
Hear

ADJECTIVES CLASSIFICATION:
NUMERALS
First

Tall

CALIFICATIVES
Short

Second

Pretty

Ugly

Third

Tired

Excited

Good
Hungry

Bad
Full

NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

POSSESIVES
My
Your
His
Her
Its
29

Exhausted

Relax

Our

Nice

Rude

Your

Outgoing

Shy

Their

Polite

Impolite

Colors are also classified as adjectives. Because in certain moment they are modifying a noun.
Ex.
I like the blue coat
(Adj) (Noun)
Some colors are:
Black
Brown
Red

OrangeBlue
Yellow
Green

White
Purple
Gray

Pink
Beige

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS OF ADJECTIVES

Comparatives
Comparatives are used to show the difference between two objects. Lets say that I have two
cars. I have a little Toyota and a big Ford. A comparative is used to show the difference between
the two. The Ford is big so we can say the Ford is bigger than the Toyota. Because the Toyota
is small, we can say The Toyota is smaller than the Ford. To learn to use these we need to
learn five basic rules.
1. If an adjective has 1 syllable we add the ending er to the adjective.
Small + er = smaller than
Hard + er = harder than
2. If a one syllable adjective ends with a consonant + a vowel + a consonant you must
double the last consonant and then add er.
Big + er = bigger than
Fat + er = fatter than
3. If an adjective ends with a y, remove the y and add ier.
Happy y +ier = happier than
Funny y +ier = funnier than
4. If an adjective has two syllables or more without a y then add the word more before
the word. If the adjective ends with a y you will only add the word more if it has two
syllables or more.
Beautiful + more = more beautiful than
Expensive + more = more expensive than
Satisfactory + more = more satisfactory than
NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR
30

5. There are a few exceptions.


Good = better than
Bad = worse than
Far = farther than

Remember, when using a comparative you must always follow it with the word than.
o The Toyota is smaller than the Ford
o The Ford is bigger than the Toyota
o Britney Spears is more beautiful than Janet Jackson
o The airplane is more expensive than the car.
o Jim Carrey is funnier than George Bush.

Superlatives
Superlatives are used to show the difference between more than two objects. Lets say that I
have three cars. I have a little Toyota, a medium size Jeep and a big Ford. A superlative is used
to show the difference between in the group. The Ford is big so we can say the Ford is the
biggest. Because the Toyota is small, we can say The Toyota is the smallest. To learn to use
these we need to learn five basic rules.
6. If an adjective has 1 syllable we add the ending est to the adjective.
Small + est = the smallest
Hard + est = the hardest
7. If one syllable adjective ends with a consonant + a vowel + a consonant you must double
the last consonant and ad est.
Big + est = the biggest
Fat + est = the fattest

8. If an adjective ends with a y, remove the y and add iest.


Happy y + iest = the happiest
Funny y + iest = the funniest
9. If an adjective has two syllables or more without a y then add the word more before
the word. If the adjective ends with a y you will only add the word most if it has two
syllables or more.
Beautiful + most = the most beautiful
Expensive + most = the most expensive
Satisfactory + most = the most satisfactory
10. There are a few exceptions.
Good = the best
Bad = the worst
Far = the farthest
NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

31

Remember, when using a superlative you must always precede it with the word the.
o The Toyota is the smallest.
o The Ford is the biggest.
o Britney Spears is the most beautiful.
o That airplane is the most expensive.
o Jim Carrey is the funniest.

SOME ADJETIVES THAT FORM THE COMPARATIVE


AND SUPERLATIVE IN TWO WAYS.
ADJETIVE
Common
Cruel
Deadly
Friendly
Handsome
Happy
Likely
Lively
Lonely
Lovely
Narrow
Pleasant
Polite
Quiet
Shallow
Sincere
Stupid
true

COMPARATIVE
Commoner/more common
Crueler/more cruel
Deadlier/more deadly
Friendlier/more friendly
Handsomer/more handsome
Happier/more happy
Likelier/more likely
Livelier/more lively
Lonelier/more lonely
Lovelier/more lovely
Narrower/more marrow
Pleasanter/more pleasant
Politer/more polite
Quieter/more quiet
Shallower/more shallow
Sincerer/more sincere
Stupider/more stupid
Truer/more true

SUPERLATIVE
Commonest/most common
Cruelest/most cruel
Deadliest/most deadly
Friendliest/most friendly
Handsomest/most handsome
Happiest/most happy
Likeliest/most likely
Liveliest/most lively
Loneliest/most lonely
Loveliest/most lovely
Narrowest/most narrow
Pleasantest/most pleasant
Politest/most polite
Quietest/most quieter
Shallowest/most shallow
Sincerest/most sincere
Stupidest/most stupid
Truest/most true

COMMON PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES


People
Alarmed
Amazed
Amused
Annoyed
Astonished
Bored
Confused
Depressed
Disappointed
Disgusted

situation

people

Alarming
Fascinated
Amazing
Frightened
Amusing
Horrified
Annoying
Inspired
Astonishing
Interested
Boring
Irritated
Confusing
Moved
Depressing
Paralyzed
Disappointing
Pleased
Disgusting
Relaxed
NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

situation
Fascinating
Frightening
Horrifying
Inspiring
Interesting
Irritating
Moving
Paralyzing
Pleasing
Relaxing
32

Distressed
Disturbed
Embarrassed
Entertained
Excited
Exhausted

Distressing
Disturbing
Embarrassing
Entertaining
Exciting
Exhausting

Satisfied
Shocked
Surprised
Terrified
Tired
Touched

Satisfying
Shocking
Surprising
Terrifying
Tiring
Touching

COMMON ADJETIVES WITH ALLIED


PREPOSITIONS
A great deal of
Afraid of
Absent from
Amazed at/by
Angry at
Ashamed of
Aware of
Awful at
Bad at
Bored with/by
Capable of
Careful of/with
Content with

Excited about
Famous for
Fed up with
Fond of
Glad about/to
Good at/to
Happy about
Interested in
Jealous of
Mad at/about
Nervous about
Opposed to
Perfect for

Responsible for
Similar to
Suspicious of
Sad about
Safe from
Satisfied with
Shocked at/by
Sick of
Slow at
Sorry for/about
Surprised at/about/by
Suitable for
Terrible at

Curious about
Depend on
Different from
Equal to

Pleased with/about
Plenty of
Prepared for
Polite to
Ready for

Tired of
Used to
Worried about
Work for
Proud of

EXCERSISES
Youre Not My Type
Exercise 1 : Which of the following do you think are good or bad personality characteristics .
Shy (timid introverted- bashful- inhibited)
Outgoing (sociable- extrovert- friendly)
Easygoing (tolerant- relaxed- calm- lenient)
Obnoxious (intolerable- hateful- detestable)

Trustworthy (reliable- honest-trustful upright)


Funny (humorous- amusing- hilarious)
Messy (untidy- disordered- disorganized)
Picky (hard to please- fastidious- demanding)

NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

33

Whiney (someone who complains a lot)


Irritable (bad-tempered- touchy- petulant)
Neat (tidy- orderly- careful)
Talkative (chatty)
Well-read (educated- cultured)
Stubborn (obstinate- inflexible)
Irrational (illogical- ridiculous- absurd)
Rational (lucid- coherent)
Emotional (moving- touching)
Obsessive (compulsive- neurotic)
Aggressive (violent- hostile)
Bossy (domineering- dominant)
Thoughtful (considerate)
Affectionate (loving- friendly)
Shallow (superficial- small-minded)
Romantic (idealistic- impractical- loving)
Honest (sincere- truthful- frank)
Hard-working (careful- painstaking)
Perverted (distorted- tainted- changed)
Cold-hearted (cruel- pitiless- ruthless)
Capable (competent- talented- skilled)
Caring (kind- thoughtful- considerate)
Fascinating (charming- interestingabsorbing)
Well-spoken (articulate- eloquent- refined)
High-strung (nervous- edgy- energetic)
Moody (temperamental- grumpy-changeable)
Mischievous (naughty- bad- playful)
Sloppy (slack careless)
Brave (fearless valiant - courageous)
Outstanding (exceptional wonderful)
Audacious (daring bold)
Aloof (unfriendly cold)
Depressed (miserable- unhappy- down in the
dumps)
Humble (modest- meek- poor)
Sadistic (cruel- vicious)
Down-to-earth
( practical- realisticwith both feet on the ground- straight
thinking)
Cruel (unkind- mean- nasty- malicious)
Generous ( kind- bighearted- giving)
Clever (bright- intelligent- smart)
Kind (nice- gentle)
Malicious (hateful- malevolent)
Strict (severe- austere- firm)
Conservative (traditional- conventional)
Naughty (disobedient- mischievouswayward)

Wishy-washy (weak- indecisive- watery)


Zany (crazy- wacky- madcap)
Jittery (nervous- nervy- jumpy)
Skittish (playful- lively- restless)
Meek (submissive- humble- timid)
Smug (arrogant- full of yourself- conceited)
Haughty (proud- arrogant- snooty- stuck-up)

Witty (sarcastic)
Snobbish (arrogant)
Punctual (on time)
Willful (headstrong- pigheaded)
Finicky (fastidious)
Conceited (arrogant- smug- snobbish)
phony (fake- not genuine- snake oil)
Hooked (enthusiastic - wholehearted)
Roguish (wicked malicious)
Wicked (evil bad)
Keen (dedicated devoted)
Wholehearted (enthusiastic unconditional
- heartfelt)
Stingy (miserly grudging tightfisted)
Bold (intrepid audacious)
Remarkable (extraordinary amazing)
Perky (lively frisky animated)
Sleazy (seedy sordid squalid)

NLC INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

34

EXERCISE 2: Complete the sentences with infinitives.


1. I was glad to get a letter from you.
2. I was relieved to find out that I had passed the exam.
3. Sue is lucky __________alive after the accident.
4. The soldiers were prepared ____________.
5. The children are anxious____________ to the circus.
6. Dick didnt feel like going anywhere. He was content____________ at home and read a book.
7. The teacher is always willing____________ us.
8. The students are motivated_________________ English.
9. Be careful not____________ on the icy sidewalks.
10. Tom was hesitant ____________home alone on the dark street.
11. Sally is afraid____________ home alone.
12. Ann is proud____________ the top student in her class.
13. I was surprised____________ Mr. Yamamoto at the meeting.
14. We were sorry____________ the bad news.

Exercise 3: ADJETIVES WITH ALLIED PREPOSITIONS


Select the correct prepositions for the blank space in each sentence.

1) Are you ready __________ the English examination?


2) Mr. And Mrs. Brown are proud ___________ their new house.
3) Why those girls were mad ___________ Frank and you.
4) John is more interested __________ History than English.
5) Everyone feels very sorry ____________ that poor old man.
6) I think that young girl is afraid___________ cats and dogs
7) Im getting tired _______ that students constant excuses.
8) My friend Roger is very excited _____________ his new job.
9) We have plenty ________ time ahead.
10) Daniel Soto and his wife are quite fond ___________ strong coffee.
11) I hope you are prepared ________ a great deal _________ criticism.
12) I think Im not good __________ remembering peoples names.
13) Smiths a good person to work________
14) The group was very polite____________ our guests.

N.L.C

INTENSIVE GRAMMAR

35

CHAPTER 6
ADVERBS
Definition
Adverbs modify verbs. Often they answer the question how?
Adverbs are often formed by adding- ly to an adjective.
Adjective:
Adverb:

quick
quickly

He walks quickly
(Adv.)
She opened the door quietly.
(Adv.)
Adverbs are also used to modify adjectives, to give information about adjectives.
I am extremely happy.
(Adv)
Adverbs are also used to express time or frequency. Examples:
Tomorrow, today, yesterday, soon, never, usually, always, yet.
Ann will come tomorrow.
(Adv.)
Some adverbs may occur in the middle of a sentence. Midsentence adverbs have usual positions; they

Come in front of simple present and simple past verbs (except in be):

Ann always comes on time.


(Adv.)

Follow be (simple present and simple past):

Ann is always on time.


(Adv.)
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Come between a helping verb and a main verb:

Ann has always come on time.

In a question, a Midsentence

adverb comes directly after the subject:

Does she always come on time?


(Adj.)
Common Midsentence Adverbs:
Ever /
always / usually
/ often
Frequently
/ generally
/ sometimes / occasionally
Seldom
/
rarely /
hardly never
Not ever
/
already
/
finally /
just
Probably

LY
ADVERBS

Carefully
Slowly

More
The most carefully
carefully
The most slowly
More slowly

ONE
SYLLABLE
ADVERBS

Fast
Hard

Faster
Harder

IRREGULAR Well
ADVERBS
Badly
Far

Better
Worse
Farther
further**

The fastest
The hardest

More and most are used


with adverbs that end in
Iy. *
The er and est. forms
are used with one
syllable adverbs.

The best
The worst
/ The farthest / furthest

*Exception: early are both an adjective and an adverb. Forms: earlier, earliest.
**Both farther and further are used to compare physical distances: I walked farther/further than my
friend did.
Further (but not farther) can also mean additional: I need further information.

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CHAPTER 7
VERB TENSES
1. DEFINITION
A verb expresses an action, occurrence, or state of being. Ex. Run, speak, become, be, etc.
Almost all English sentences contain a subject (S) and a verb (V). The verb may or not may be
followed by an object (O).
(s)
a. Birds
(Noun)

(v)
fly
(Verb)

(s)
(v)
b. The baby cried.
(Noun) (Verb)
(s)
(v)
(o)
c. The student needs a pen.
(Noun)
(Verb)
(Noun)
(s)
(v)
(o)
d. My friends enjoyed the party.
(Noun) (Verb)
(Noun)
The Subjects and Objects of verbs are nouns (or pronouns).
2. Progressive Verbs :
These verbs are making reference to an activity in progress.
The verb BE + an adjective is used in the progressive to describe a temporary characteristic. Very few
adjectives are used with BE in the progressive; some of the most common are:
Foolish
Nice
Kind

careful
patient
silly

polite
impolite
lazy

rude

Example:
Kim is reading about this grammar
Marie is running in the park
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3. NON-PROGRESIVE OR NON-ACTION (STATIC) VERBS:


They are not used in any of the progressive tenses. These verbs describe states, conditions that exist.
They do not describe activities that are in progress. Ex:

Ali knows this grammar

In this sentence, KNOW describe a mental state that exists.

Common Non-progressive verbs


MENTAL
STATE

EMOTIONAL
STATE

POSSESSION
AND
RELATIONSHI
P
SENSES AND
PERCEPTIONS
WANTS
AND
PREFERESNCE
APPEARANCES
AND VALUE

Know
Realize
See (Understand)
Recognize
Agree
Guess
Hesitate
suppose
Love
Like
Appreciate
adore
Possess
Contain

Believe
Feel ( believe )
Suppose
Think*( believe)
Assume
Find
Hope
wonder
Hate
Dislike
Detest
doubt
Have

Imagine
Doubt
Remember
Forget
Consider
Expect
mind

Want
Need
Prefer
Mean
Disagree
Estimate
Presume

Fear
Envy
Hope
regret
Own

Mind
Care
Respect
Belong

Taste*
Smell*
Desire
wish
Appear

Hear
Feel*
Need

See*
Notice
Prefer

Observe
Perceive
Want

Be

Cost

Equal

Verbs with an asterisk are also commonly used as progressive verbs, with a difference in meaning,
as in the following examples:

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NON-PROGRESSIVE
(existing state)

PROGRESSIVE
(activity in progress)

Think

I think he is a kind man

I am thinking about this grammar.

Have

He has a car

Taste

This food tastes good

I am having trouble. Shes having a


good time.
The chef is tasting the sauce

Smell

These flowers smell good

Don is smelling the roses

See

I see a butterfly. Do you see it?

The Doctor is seeing a patient.

Feel

The cats fur feels soft.

Sue is feeling the cats fur.

Look
Appear

She looks cold. Ill lend her my Im looking out the window.
coat.
He appears to be asleep.
The actor is appearing on the stage.

Weigh

A piano is heavy. It weighs a lot.

The grocer is weighing the bananas.

Be

I am hungry

Tom is being foolish.

*Compare:
a. Bob is foolish:
Foolishness is one of Bobs usual characteristics.
b. Tom is being foolish:
Right now, at the moment of speaking, Tom is doing something that the speaker considers foolish.

Regular and irregular Verbs:


English verbs have four principal parts:
Simple Form
Simple Past
Past Participle
Present Participle

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Regular Verbs:
As it name indicates, they have a regular form, to form the simple past and the past participle these
verbs must end in Ed.
Examples
SIMPLE FORM
SIMPLE PAST
PAST
PRESENT
PARTICIPLE
PARTICIPLE
hope
hoped
hoped
hoping
stop
stopped
stopped
stopping
listen
listened
Listened
Listening
Study
Studied
Studied
Studying
Start
Started
Started
Starting

Irregular Verbs:
As it name indicates, these verbs have irregular past and past participles forms, (they do not end in ed)
or they are the same.
Example:
SIMPLE FORM

SIMPLE PAST

Break
Come
Find
Hit
Swim

Broke
Came
Found
Hit
Swam

PAST
PARTICIPLE
Broken
Come
Found
Hit
Swum

PRESENT
PARTICIPLE
Breaking
Coming
Finding
Hitting
Swimming

Spelling of ing and Ed forms:


VERBS THAT END
IN - E

Hope
hoping
Date
dating
Injure injuring

hoped
dated
injured

ONE SYLLABE VERBS


VERBS THAT END Stop
stopping stopped
IN A VOWEL AND Rob
robbing
robbed
A CONSONANT
Beg
begging
begged
TWO SYLLABLE
VERBS
Listen listening
listened
Offer offering
offered
Open
opening
opened
Begin beginning (began)
Prefer preferring
preferred
Control controlling controlled

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ING- form: If the word ends in


e, drop the e and add ing.
-ED form: If the word ends in-e,
just add d.
One vowel:
2 consonants 2

First syllable stressed:


1 consonant
Second syllable:
2 consonants

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VERBS THAT END Start


starting
IN
TWO Fold
folding
CONSONANTS
Demand demanding

started
folded
demanded

VERBS THAT END Enjoy


IN Y
Pray
Buy

enjoying
praying
buying

enjoyed
prayed
(bought)

Study
Try
Reply

studying
trying
replying

studied
tried
replied

dying
lying
tying

died
lied
tied

VERBS THAT END Die


IN IE.
Lie
Tie

If the word ends in two


consonants, just add the ending.
If y is preceded by a vowel,
keep the y.
If y is preceded by a
consonant:
-ING form: Keep the Y, add
in.
-ED form: Change Y, to I,
add ed
-ING form: Change i.e. to,
add in
-ED form: Add d

1 Exception: If a verb ends in EE, the final e is not dropped: seeing, agreeing, freeing.
2 Exception: -W and X are not doubled: plow plowed, fix fixed.

Verbs Tenses
The Present Tense
The minimum you need to create a sentence in English is a noun (person, place, or thing) and a verb
(the action of the sentence). Prepared below is all you need to create a simple sentence in English.
Subject Pronoun + Verb Base + Verb Ending
1. Subject Pronouns are I, You, He, She, It, We, You (plural), and They.
2. The verb base is to followed by the simple present tense verb. For example: To Eat.
3. The verb ending is the change that is made to the verb. For example: He + To Eat = He Eats.

(I) Eat
(You) Eat
(He, She, It) Eats

Present Tense Conjugation Chart (To Eat)


(We) Eat
(You plural) Eat
(They) Eat

We use the present tense to discuss things that are happening today or that you do commonly now. If a
person says: I eat spaghetti it will be understood as I eat spaghetti often. Eating spaghetti is
understood to be a common action that we do.

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When using the present tense we will remove the to from the verb base to eat and place it after the
pronouns I, You, We, and They.
I eat
You eat
We eat
They eat
When the verb follows the third person (He, She, It) we will remove the to and add an s to the verb.
He (to eat) > He eats
If the verb ends with a y and follows two consonants (cry) we will remove the y and add -ies (cries).
Examples of these words are dry, try, fly, and comply.

The simple present is used to express habitual or everyday activities.


. I study for two hours every night.
. My class begins at nine.
. He always eats a sandwich for lunch.

The Simple Past Tense


The simple past tense is used to talk about a specific action that happened in the past. The simple past tense has
a few simple rules. A simple past tense verb will have one of three endings: -d, -ed, or ied. All past tense
verbs except for the past of to be will be used for all persons.

If a verb ends with an e we will add d to the word.


Example = Taste becomes Tasted
Smile becomes smiled
If a verb ends with a y and has a consonant before it we will remove the y and add ied
Example = Cry becomes Cried
Reply becomes replied

If a verb ends with a y but has a vowel before it, we will add Ed to the y.
Example = Play becomes Played
Spray becomes Sprayed
If a verb ends with any other letters then add Ed.
Example = Climb becomes Climbed
Argue becomes Argued

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If a verb ends with a consonant + vowel + consonant we must double the last consonant unless it has
more than one syllable and the first syllable is stressed. (Never double x, w, or y)
Example = Strap becomes Strapped
Tan becomes Tanned
Refer becomes Referred
Enter becomes Entered (first syllable is stressed)
At one particular time in the past, this happened. It began and ended in the past.
a. It snowed yesterday.
b. I watched television last night
If a sentence contains when and has the simple past in both clauses, the action in the when clause
happens first.
. She got up to investigate when she heard a strange noise.
. The coffee spilled on my lap when I dropped my cup.

Simple Past Tense Pronunciation


Although all simple past tense verbs end with an ed, they can have three different pronunciations. Each of
these pronunciations is decided by the sound (not the letter) that comes before the -ed. /Id/ is the sound that the
"ed" makes in the words bed, credit, and medicine. /d/ is the common sound for the letter d. We hear it in the
words door, dog, and doctor. /t/ is the common sound of the letter t. We hear it in the words talk, take, and
not.

/Id/
/t/ tasted
/d/ padded
/d/ ended
/d/ needed
/t/ invited
/t/ wanted
/t/ patted
/t/ waited

/d/
/b/ rubbed
/g/ bugged
/dg/ judged
/l/ pulled
/m/ hummed
/n/ fanned
/r/ tired
/v/ lived
/z/ buzzed

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/t/
/f/ laughed
/k/ kicked
/p/ stopped
/s/ passed
/sh/ pushed
/ch/ punched
/ x/ fixed

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Simple Future
At one particular time in the future, this will happen. Be going to and will are used to express future
time.
A. I am going to leave at nine tomorrow morning.
B. I will leave at nine tomorrow morning
C. Marie is going to be at the meeting tonight
D. Marie will be at the meeting tonight
(a) and (b) have the same meaning
(c) and (d) have the same meaning *
E. I shall leave at night tomorrow morning
F. We shall leave at night tomorrow morning**
* will and be going to usually give the same meaning, but sometimes express different meanings.
** the use of shall ( with I or we ) to express future time is infrequent and formal.

FORMS WITH WILL


STATEMENT
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
SHORT ANSWERS
CONTRACTIONS

( I, you, he, she, it, we, they ) will come tomorrow


( I, you, he, she, it, we, they ) will not ( wont ) come tomorrow
Will ( I, you, he, she, it, we, they ) come tomorrow
Yes, ( I, you, he, she, it, we, they )will
No, ( I, you, he, she, it, we, they )wont
( Ill, youll, hell, shell, itll, well, theyll ) will is usually contracted
with pronouns in both speech and informal writing.

BE GOING TO vs. WILL


(a) She is going to succeed because she works hard Be going to and will are the same when they are
(b) she will succeed because she works hard.
used to make predictions about the future.(a) and
(b) have the same meaning.
(c) I bought some wood because I am going to Be going to (but not will) is used to express a
build a bookcase for my apartment
preconceived plan .in ( c) : the speaker is planning
to build a bookcase .
(d) this chair is too heavy for you to carry alone
Will (but not be going to ) is used to volunteer or
Ill help you
express willingness . in (d) : the speaker is happy
to help.
Situation 1:
c. Are you busy this evening?
d. Yes, Im going to meet Jack at the library at seven. Were going to study together.
In this situation, only be going to is possible. The speaker has a prior plan, so he uses be going to.

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Situation 2:
a. Are you busy this evening?
b. Well, I really havent made any plans. Im going to eat dinner, of course. And then I will probably
watch / Im probably going to watch TV for a little while.
c. A: Why did you buy this paint?
b. Im going to paint my bedroom tomorrow.
d. I talked to Bob yesterday. He is tired of taking the bus to work. Hes going to buy a car. Thats
what he told me.
3. To express Willingness:
Only will use.
In this case we are not trying to make a prediction. When you dont have a prior plan. It is instead when
you are volunteering to answer the phone and uses will to show his willingness.
e. A: The phones is ringing.
b. I will get it.
f. A. I dont understand this problem.
e. Ask your teacher about it. She will help you.

THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES

The progressive tenses are also called the continuous tenses: present continuous, past continuous and
future continuous.
Form:
to be + ing
Meaning: The progressive tenses give the idea that an action is in progress during a particular time.
The tenses say that an action begins before, is in progress during and continues after another time or
action.

1. Present Progressive:
He went to sleep at 10:00 tonight. It is now 11:00 and he is still asleep.
His sleep began in the past, is in progress at the present time, and probably will continue.
a. He is sleeping right now.
Then, the present progressive expresses an activity that is in progress at the moment of speaking. It
began in the recent past, is continuing at present, and will probably end at some point in the future.
I need an umbrella because it is raining.
John and Mary are talking on the phone.

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Often the activity is of a general nature: something generally in progress this week, this month, this
year.
I am taking five courses this semester.
John is trying to improve his work habits.
She is writing another book this year*
* the sentence means that writing a book is a general activity she is engaged in at present, but it does
not mean that at the moment of speaking she is sitting at her desk with pen in hand.

2. Past progressive:
He went to sleep at 10:00 last night. I arrived at 11:00. He was still asleep. His sleep began before and
was in progress at a particular time in the past. It probably continued.
b. He was sleeping when I arrived.
The past progressive describes a situation in the past parallel to another prior activity in the past, too.
Examples:
I was reading a book when they came in.
We were eating breakfast when he arrived.
When they arrived. I was making a phone call.
When the phone rang, I was taking a shower.

Besides, the past progressive could make reference to projects or plans that were not done.
I was trying to get in touch with you, but I couldnt.
We were planning to leave earlier, but there was a lot of work to do.

1. Future Progressive:
He will go to sleep at 10:00 tomorrow night. We will arrive at 11:00. The action of sleeping will begin
before we arrive and it will be in progress at a particular time in the future. Probably his sleep will
continue.
c. He will be sleeping when we arrive.

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EXCERSISES
EXERCISE 1: Find the subject (s), verb (v) and object (o) of the verb in each sentence.
1. The politician supported new taxes.
2. The mechanic repaired the engine.
3. Those boxes contained old photographs.
EXERCISE 2: Change the verb to fit in the following sentences:
1. I (to sit) _______ on the couch.
2. My brother (to light) ____________ the fire in the fireplace.
3. My sister (to use) _______________ the telephone.
4. We (to put) _____________ drinks on the coffee table.
5. They (to cover) ____________ our floor with carpet.
6. She (to play) _______________ the guitar.
7. I (to turn on) _____________ the VCR to watch the movie.
8. He (to look) ___________ at the picture on the wall.
9. We (to play) _____________ on the computer all night.
10. You (to search) _______________ the phone book for Johns phone number.
EXERCISE 3 Use either the simple present or the present progressive of the verbs in parentheses.
1. I cant afford that ring. It (to cost)______Too much.
2. Look. It (to begin)____________to rain. Unfortunately, I (to have, not)___________
my umbrella with me . Tom is lucky. He (to wear)_____________ a rain coat.
3. I (to own, not )____________ an umbrella. I (to wear)_____________ a waterproof
hat on rainy days.
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4.Right now I (to look) ____________around the classroom. Yoko (to write)__________ in her book.
Carlos (to bite)__________ his pencil. Wan-Ning (to scratch)_________ his head. Ahmed
(to stare) ___________out the window. He (to seem) _____________ to be daydreaming.
5. Theres a book on my desk, but it (to belong, not) ____________ to me.
6. Dennis (to fix) ___________the roof of his house today.
7. This box (to weigh) _____________ a lot. Its too heavy for me to lift.
8. I (to do) _______ this practice at the moment. It (to consist) _________Of some Mathematics
problems.
9. Mrs. Edwards is at the market. Right now. She (to look) _____________ at the
apples. They (to look) _____________ fresh.
10. My sister (to sing) ____________ at the church chorus. She (to go) ____________ On Saturdays.
EXERCISE 4: Write the answers to the following questions:
What do you do at work?
I write stories.
What is your teacher doing right now?
What are you doing right now?
What do you do at school?
What do you do with a sandwich?
What do you do with a radio?
What do you do with a video?
What do you do with money?
EXERCISE 5 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE & SIMPLE PRESENT
Use either the simple present or the present progressive of the verb in parenthesis:
1. Diane cannot come to the phone because she (to wash) ____________ her hair.
2. Diana ( to wash) ____________her hair every other day or so.
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3. Please be quiet. I ( to try) ____________to concentrate.


4. Every morning, the sun (to shine) ____________in my bedroom window and
(To wake)____________ me up.
5. After three days of rain, Im glad that the sun (to shine)____________again today.
EXERCISE 6

PAST PROGRESSIVE & SIMPLE PAST

Complete in the spaces with the Past Progressive or Simple Past if is necessary.
1. What (to go)_____________on in your house when I ( to call) ______________last night?
2. The two men ( to drink)________________together when the fight ( to start)__________
3. What_________ you (to do) __________last night when the light ( to go) __________out?
4. When the police (to arrive)___________, the situation (get) ___________worse.
5. When they (to arrive)____________, my wife ( to make) ___________________tea.
6. Someone (to talk)______________________in the room next to mine.
7. They ( to play)___________________chess all day yesterday.
8. I ( to write)___________________my report while they ( to watch)________
9. When I (to leave)__________home this morning, my brother was still ( to sleep)____________.
EXERCISE 7: fill in the blanks with either the simple past or past continuous.
On July 11, 1991, the most spectacular total eclipse in seven centuries____________(take)place. Little
by little, the sky_________________(turn) dark until the moon________________(cover)the sun
completely. The actual phenomenon_________________(not, last) very long, but both people and
animals_____________________ (react) to its effects. The reactions of the people at the time of the
eclipse______________(be) diverse. Some ___________________(kneel)
and__________________(pray), while others____________(shout) and _____________(applaud) in
euphoria. The reaction of the animals______________(be) basically instinctive. Chickens, cows, and
dogs, that ___________________(wander)freely, _______________(run) to their shelter when the
brief night________________(fall). Five minutes later, the sun___________(again, shine) brightly.

EXERCISE 7: Do the following exercise.


Make a schedule of your day starting with 6:00am until you go to bed. What do you do each hour?
6:00 am I wake up
7:00 am I go to school

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CHAPTER 8
THE PERFECT TENSES
We compose the present perfect tense with the auxiliary have plus the past participle of the main
verb.
Form:
Meaning:

have + past participle


The perfect tenses all give the idea that one thing happen before
Another time or event.

1. Present perfect:
The present perfect expresses the idea that something happened (or never happened) before now, at an
unspecified time in the past. The exact time it happened is not important.
. If there is a specific mention of time, the simple past is used.
(I saw that movie last night)

1. To describe an action that took place in the past (remote or recent ) but that still has relevance in
the present.
He has already seen the movie.
The mail has just arrived.
I have flown on an airplane many times.
We have had four tests so far this semester.

2. to show that an activity began in the past and still continues in the present. The most common
prepositional phrases used with this tense are the ones introduced by the prepositions for and
since
I have worked there for three years.
(I began to work there three years ago, and I still work there)
Kate has known Paul since 1990.
(Kate and Paul met in 1990, and they are still friends)
He has been a lawyer since last year.
(He became a lawyer last year, and he is still practicing law)

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Other adverbial of time that are often used with the present perfect are the following; a few times,
already, ever, finally, lately, many times, not yet, so far, up to now, up to the present, yet, during the
past ( days, months, years, seasons ), and all the adverbs of frequency.

. They have moved into a new apartment.


. Have you ever been to England?
. I have already seen snow.
. The boy has coughed many times today.
. We have gone on several outings during this summer.

2. Past Perfect:
The past perfect tense is a structure made up of the past tense of the auxiliary have (had) and the past
participle of the main verb. The past perfect tense describes an activity that was completed at or before
some definite plan in the past, that is, before some other action in the past.
The store had closed when the fire broke out.
(The store closed first and then the fire started)
Sharon said that she had lied during the trial.
(Sharon lied first and then she confessed to it)
We also use the past perfect tense in the subjunctive mood to express contrary-to-fact situations. For
further reference.
I wish you had visited us when you were in town.
If I had known the news, I would have told you about it.

2. Future Perfect:
The future perfect tense is a structure made up of the modal auxiliary will plus have plus the past
participle of the main verb. This tense describes an action that will take place or will finish before
another event or time in the future. Some expressions that we usually use with this tense are the
following: by that time, by (seven) oclock, in (three) hours, in (two) years (time), by this time next
(year).
By seven oclock, I will have worked for five hours.
(I began at two oclock, and I am still working)
I will have finished my studies in three years.
(I still need to study three years before graduating)
by this time next year, he will have completed his mission in Central America.
(His mission finishes next year on exactly the same day and month as today)

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THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES


The present perfect continuous is a construction made up of the auxiliaries have and been plus the ing
form of the main verb. This tense emphasizes the duration of the action the action throughout a period
of time.
1.

Present Perfect Progressive:

The action began in the past (remote or recent) and continues up to the present. The most common
prepositional phrases used with the present perfect tense are the ones introduced by the prepositions
for and since
I have been striving to become a doctor all my life.
(I began to strive years ago and continue to work hard so that I can become a doctor someday)
The priest has been preaching for over an hour.
(He began an hour ago and continues preaching)
She has been taking medication since she had the accident
(Immediately after the accident, she began to take medication, and she is still taking it)

2.

Past Perfect Progressive:

This tense is a construction made up of the auxiliary have in the past tense (had) plus the auxiliary
been and the ing form of the main verb. This tense expresses an action that began in the past but
continued up to another action or time in the past. The past perfect continuous emphasizes the duration
of the action throughout a period of time.
The little girl had been crying for half an hour before her mother came home.
They had been waiting for the ticket office to open when it started to rain.
The woman said that she had been cooking for an hour.
3.

Future Perfect Progressive:

The future perfect continuous tense is a construction formed with the modal auxiliary will plus the
auxiliaries have been and the ing form of the main verb. This tense indicates that an action will take
place before another action or by a certain time.
By midnight, I will have been working on my paper for ten hours.
(I began at two oclock; I am still working on the paper and will have worked ten hours by midnight)
We will/shall have been studying English for two years by November.
(We will complete our second year of English in November)

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EXCERSISES
EXERCISE 1

SIMPLE PAST & PRESEN T PERFECT

Use the simple past or the present perfect. In some sentences. Either tense is possible.

1. I (attend, not)________any parties since I came here.


2. Al (go)________to a party at Sallys apartment last Saturday night.
3. Bill (arrive)________here three days ago.
4. Bill (be)________here since the 22nd
5. Try not to be absent from class again for the rest of the term. You (miss, already)
_______________too many classes. You (miss)____________two classes just last week.

EXERCISE 2:

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESIVE

Use the present perfect progressive in the following.


1. The boys are playing soccer right now. They (play)________________for almost two hours. They
must be getting tired.
2. Alex is talking on the phone. He (talk)________________on the phone for over half an hour. He
should hang up soon. Long distance is expensive.
3. Im trying to study. I (try)________________to study for the last hour, but something always
seems to interrupt me. I think Id better go to the library.
EXERCISE 3: PAST PERFECT & SIMPLE PAST
Use the simple past or the past perfect.
1. He (be)_____________a newspaper reporter before he (become)__________ a businessman.
2. I (feel)______________ a little better after I (Take) _____________the medicine.
3. I was late. The teacher (give, already)______________ a quiz when I (get) _____________ to
class.
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4. The
anthropologist
(leave)_______________the
_______________enough data.
5. It was raining hard,
(stop)_______________.

but

by

the

time

class

village

when

she

(be)_______________over,

(collect)

the

rain

EXERCISE 4: use the present perfect to describe events that may have made speakers say the
following exclamations:
1. Great! ____________________________________________________
2. Sorry! _____________________________________________________
3. My god! ___________________________________________________
4. Damn! _____________________________________________________
5. Oh dear! ___________________________________________________
6. Congratulations! _____________________________________________
7. Knock on wood! _____________________________________________
8. Welcome! __________________________________________________
9. No, thank you! _______________________________________________
10. Stop it! ____________________________________________________
11. Cut it out __________________________________________________
12. Knock it off. _____________________________________________
EXERCISE 5: with since or for use the present perfect continuous to describe relevant situations
that have taken place in the life of one of the members of your family.

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EXERCISE 6: Brainstorm and write three sentences about what you have accomplished in your life up
to now. Write two more sentences about what you have not accomplished yet.

EXERCISE 7: fill in the blanks with either the present perfect or present perfect continuous form of
the verb in parenthesis.
Following in her fathers footsteps, Rigoberta Menchu ___________ (work)as an activist for human
rights for many years. Since the 1980s, she _______________(organize) indigenous tribes so that they
can defend their land and their rights, and she____________(coordinate) the members of trade unions
to fight for social justice. She, however, ___________ (remain) neutral towards the rebel forces and
their violent tactics. Not all of Rigobertas actions (be) pacific, but for her work for Indian rights and
the reconciliation of the two prominent ethnic groups in Guatemala, she__________ (receive) the
Nobel Price for Peace. Even so, her work__________________ (not, conclude) because the fight for
civil rights___________ (go on) for thirty years.

EXERCISE 8: fill in the blanks with either the past perfect or past perfect continuous form of the verb
in parenthesis.
Prior to the solar eclipse of July, 1991, the astronomers__________________(establish) its route from
Hawaii, over the Pacific Ocean, and down the American continent. They _______________ (calculate)
The precise time of the eclipse in each location and _________________(set up) their telescopes and
other scientific instruments to observe and study the solar flares. In other places, special groups
__________________ (prepare) religious festivities, and anyone, who ________________(wait)
anxiously for the event, found ways to get a glimpse at the eclipse. They _____________ (ready)
sunglasses, smoked glass, binoculars with filters and, of course, their sophisticated cameras. Since not
everyone was willing to see the eclipse, some__________________ (make) the decision to stay indoors
to avoid undesirable consequences. Hey, what can I say!

EXERCISE 9: fill in the blanks with either the future perfect or future perfect continuous form of the
verb in parenthesis.
By the time I graduate, I ___________________(practice) English for four years. However, since
practice is not enough to get a degree in English. I______________________(also, learn) about the
system of the language, I____________________(deal with) syntax, morphology, phonetics and,
needless to say, I________________________(struggle) constantly to convey my ideas since meaning
is crucial in communication. Meanwhile, and in spite of the closer approximation of my interlanguage
to get my target language, I________________________ (repeatedly, wonder) where to find the magic
formula to get rid of my accent, but, by then, I _______________(realize) that I still need to work on
my stress, rhythm, and intonation.

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OPINION LETTER
This opinion letter must be addressed to N.L.C Editores de Panama, Inc and
has to be about your experience with the program, try to use all the structure
that you have learned so far, and must include your full name, contract,
phone number and sign. One page

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CHAPTER 9
MODAL AUXILIARIES
Besides using the verbs be, do, and have in the formation of tenses, English verbs are often modified by
other types of auxiliaries to change their meaning. Among these are the modal auxiliaries shall, will, would.
Can, could, may, might, should, must, and ought to.
Modal auxiliaries have only one grammatical form. They are not inflected, that is, they do not add the suffix s
for third person singular, and they do not have infinitive or participle forms. Modals do not have a complete
meaning unless in answer to question (yes, he will), or when the main verb is omitted because it is supplied by
earlier context (I can speak in English as well as you can). In declarative sentences, they appear immediately
after the subject but are fronted in yes/no questions (will it be ready soon? ) and tag questions ( he can sing well,
cant he ? ). In Wh-questions, they follow the interrogative word (when should we handed in the assignment?).
Modals have two forms: present for shall, will, can, must, and ought to; past for would, could, should, and
might. However, they may indicate present, past, and future time in real or contrary-to-fact conditions. To
express present and future time, these auxiliaries use the simple form of the verb (she might go today/tomorrow),
or the continuous form (he may be sleeping). To express past time, they either use the perfect form ( he might
have gone ), or the perfect continuous form of the verb ( he may have been resting ) would and could may also
express past time when followed by the simple form of the verb ( when I was young, I could run very fast and
would outrun my friends ). As seen, adverbial of time play an important role in expressing these different times.
To make a modal negative, the particle not is inserted immediately after the modal (cannot, may not, might not,
should not). The contracted form of not is possible with the following modals: shall not (mustnt) may and
ought to once had contracted forms, but they are now rarely, if ever, used.

Modal auxiliaries generally express a speakers attitudes, or moods. For example, modals can express
that a speaker feels something is necessary, advisable, possible, or probable, and, addition, they can
convey the strength of these attitudes.
SHALL, AND WILL
In ordinary conversation, the idea of future time is often expressed by using an adverb of time (he is
leaving soon), or by using a form of the verb be plus going to whenever an activity has been planned
beforehand (were going to meet at johns house). Shall and will also express future time under
different conditions of formality.
Shall shows futurity with the first person singular and plural in formal situations, such as business
letters, public speeches, and academic writing.
We shall be pleased to send your order within a few days.
I shall appreciate any help concerning the new program.
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1. Shall is mostly used in interrogative sentences with the first person pronouns and carries a
semantic component of agreement.
a. When used without and adverb of time, it refers to the immediate future, right after the
moment of speaking.
Shall we open the window?
Shall we leave?
b. When used with an adverb of time, it refers to a more distant future.
Shall we go fishing next weekend?
Shall I do the dishes tonight?
2. Shall is also used to make prophecies about the future.
Nostradamus says the world shall end in the year 3997.
If he continues to rise in the company, he shall be the general manager.

Will shows futurity in everyday speech and writing. In this sense, it is used in simple, continuous, and
perfect tenses (Henry will be working late tonight; He will have read the chapters for tomorrow). The
semantic component of will produces some other meanings.
1. Will suggests promise, intention, or willingness.
If I win the lottery, Ill buy you a new dress.
He says that hell be back by 4 oclock.
Who volunteers to buy the paper cups? I will.
2. Will sometimes expresses determination, threat, or inevitability.
Shell do it in spite of what you say.
Please keep the secret, or Ill never trust you again.
Hell get in trouble if he breaks the window.
3. Will can show inference (as a conclusion) or assumption (act of assuming).
The storm is about over, itll be fine tomorrow.
Someones at the door. Thatll be Joe.
4. Will reveal doubt or inquiry (request for information).
Will he win the competition or wont he?
Will you need your umbrella today?
5. Will is also used in request and commands.
Will you turn on the lights, please?
Turn the radio down, will you?

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WOULD
Would states the probable outcome (result or consequence) of a hypothetical condition or contrary-tofact. This appears in the result clause of conditional sentences or their equivalents
If I were you, I would go home.
It would be foolish to give up hope.
Jonathan would go camping, but his mother wont let him.
Im glad tomorrow is holiday; otherwise, I would have an exhausting day.
1. It also occurs in wish sentences expressing contrary to-fact actions.
I wish it would stop raining.
Mark wished his son would have gone to college.
2. It can also express an action that did not happen in the past or a past unreal condition.
We would have taken a picture, but we didnt have a camera.
She would have gotten a good grade if she had studied harder.
3. Would is used in refusals.
Although he was hungry, he wouldnt eat anything
He was hungry, but he wouldnt eat anything.
4. Would denote an action that occurred frequently in the past. In this sentence in equivalent to
used to.
When I was a child, my mom would always tell us stories.
In summer if the weather was fine, we would all go for a swim in the nearby
river.
5. Would acts as the past form of will in indirect speech.
Ann said, I wont be late
Ann said that she wouldnt be late.
6. Would is used to state a polite request. In this pattern, it shows more formality than will.
I would appreciate receiving your check as soon as possible.
Would someone please turn down the radio?
7. Would is sometimes stressed in ordinary conversation to show that we are not happy about
something that has happened.
You would get dirty, wouldnt you?
They would spend all our tax money on weapons.

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CAN
Can shows ability. In meaning, it is synonymous of be able to.
1. In some cases sentences, it refers to physical ability.
Tom is so strong that he can lift 50 kilos.
Hector has been training so hard that he can now run five miles without getting
tired.
2. Sometimes, it refers to a learned ability.
The new girl in class can speak three languages.
The Osborne brothers can play several musical instruments.
3. At other times, it expresses the power to do something.
An eruption volcano can destroy tons of crops.
Historical events can often shake the values of a society.
4. Can also show possibility.
Mrs. Henderson cant see you now, but she can see you tomorrow.
I can go to Europe if I receive the bank loan.
5. Can is colloquially used to ask for, give, or to talk about permission. It denotes less formality
than may.
Can we leave now?
They cannot meet in that room.
I wonder if I can take my vacation next week.

6. Cant is sometimes stressed in everyday speech to show that we think something wrong.
I CANT stand so much litter in the city.
He was crying just a minute ago, he CANT be singing already.
What he said CANT be true.

COULD
Could also express ability. It refers to a past ability that does not exist in the present. It is, in this sense,
equivalent to be able to.
Tom was so strong that he could lift 50 kilos.
He could skate very well when he was young.
The land was so flat that you couldnt see a mountain for miles.

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1. Could show possible actions or happenings in the future. In this case, it is formal than can but
denotes less probability. It is usually stressed in such sentences.
Mrs. Henderson cant see you today, but she COULD see you tomorrow.
Where shall we go tonight? We COULD go to the movies.
There COULD be another earthquake soon.

2. Could expresses permission that was once granted in the past, but is no longer valid in the
present.
Years ago, everyone could enter stores without having to leave their bags at the counter.
Some years ago, people could smoke in the cinemas and on the buses.
3. Could is used to consult someone and thus, semantically, it reveals diffidence.
Could I borrow your pen?
Could I ask you something, if youre not too busy?

4. Could is also used to politely ask someone to stop doing something. In such cases, not modifies
the verb.
Could you not smoke at the table, please?
Could they not talk so loudly?
5. Could act as the past form of can in indirect speech.
Alice said, I can be here at five oclock
Alice said that she could be here at five oclock.
6. Could appear in the result clauses in conditional sentences that show present or future time.
If he werent so old, he could run faster.
Janet could have more friends if she were more sociable.

MAY
May indicate assumption. The changes for something to occur are great.
1. To state an assumption in the future, may is followed by the simple form of the verb.
Knowing Peter, he may be late again.
The new designs may be ready next week.
If you eat too much candy, you may get a stomach ache.
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2. To express an assumption in the present, may is followed by be and ing form of the verb.
Wheres dad? He may be working in the yard.
The children are very quiet, they may be sleeping.

3. May affirms that permission has been granted. It is used in present and future situations only.
To express permission granted in the past, use verbs such as allow or permit( he allowed us
to enter)
May Susan use your hair drier?
You may start answering the questions.
Johns mother says that he may go with us.
4. May is synonymous of can when it suggests ability or possibility in the present or future.
You may find the information in the 1990 catalogue.
Michelangelos LA PIETA may be seen in the Vatican.
Shes saving her money, so that she may buy a car.
5. May appears in concessions.
He may be thin but hes strong.
Even though she may be a beginner, she shows great potential.
6. May can express a wish. This use is more poetical than colloquial.
May all your dreams come true
May god keep you well

MIGHT
Might also expresses assumption; yet, the chances for something to happen in the future are lower
than with may but higher than with could. Compare the following sentences.

It has been raining so hard these days that it will probably rain tomorrow, too.
The clouds are so dark that it may rain soon.
(Assumption made from cause-effect experience)
The wind is strong and cool. It might rain later on.
(Assumption where the cause-effect relationship is weak or unfulfilled)
It could rain today even though there are no clouds.
(Assumption made from past occasional experience)
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To indicate assumption in the present, might is interchangeable with May.


Miss Davis is looking intently at the floor.
She might be trying to find her contact lens.
Mr. Smith doesnt celebrate his birthday, so he might not like the surprise party we have for him.

1. Might reveal diffidence (shy-timid) when used in questions asking for permission.
Might I have your attention please?
Might they be allowed to practice in the auditorium?
2. Might used in exclamatory sentences denote sarcasm or reproach, and it is stressed strongly.
You MIGHT have been more polite!
You MIGHT try to be more careful!
3. Might functions as the past form of May in indirect speech.
Professor Harris said I may arrive a little late
Professor Harris said that he might arrive a little late.
MUST
Must expresses obligation o necessity in the present or future if the obligation lies with the speaker, or
subject, of the sentence. If the obligation arises from someone else, then have to is used and stressed in
the sentence. Study the following examples:
I must go now. (I dont want to be late)
I HAVE TO be at the bank before it closes.
(The bank sets the working hours)
We must eliminate all sources of malaria.
(Its an obligation)
International travelers HAVE TO show their passport and ticket at the boarding
gate. (The airport administration requires that they do so)
1. Had to expresses obligation or necessity in the past.
We had to stay overnight because the fog wouldnt lift.
My brother had to drive me to the hospital yesterday.
2. Had to also function as t he past form of must in indirect speech.
The doctor said, You must lose weight.
The doctor said that I had to lose weight.

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3. Must not single out a positive prohibition. It is usually contracted in conversation and states
the obligation or necessity not do something.
You must NOT walk in the middle of the road.
You MUSNT spend too many hours under the sun.
(Not modifies the verb)
4. Must is used for illogical deductions or strong suppositions.
a. to express an indifference in the present, must is followed by the simple or the
continuous form of the verb.
Paul recently finished high school. So, he must be about eighteen years old.
The Robertsons havent returned from their trip yet. They must be having a great time!
b. For negative deductions in either present, future, or past, must is stressed but never
contracted with not.
That store charges more than others.
It must be an exclusive store. (Positive deduction)
It MUST not be very honest in its dealings. (Negative deduction)
Hellen looks a little sad.
She MUST not have passed the test.
5. Must, stressed in the following sentences, and denotes sarcasm.
If you MUST smoke, please step outside.
If he MUST chew gum, couldnt he do it quietly?
6. Must can state a general truth if used without time expressions.
One must sleep well to work well.
You must love to be loved.

SHOULD
Should expresses duty on the part of the speaker, or subject of the sentence.
Your tooth aches so badly that you should go to the dentist this afternoon.
Children shouldnt play with matches.
Should is also used to express a duty at the present moment. In this case, it is followed by the
continuous form of the verb.
Sarah likes to argue so much that she should be studying law instead of drama.
He should be doing his homework and not watching television.

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1. Should suggest advisability. In questions asking for agreement or offering help, it is


interchangeable will shall when used with first person singular and plural.
You should be careful with strangers.
He should exercise more.
Should I help you with those bags?
Should we hand in our report typewritten?
2. Should has no past form n indirect speech. It does not change.
Father said, You should mow the lawn
Father said that I should mow the lawn.

3. Should is used in conditional sentences to replace the word if.


Should they try deciding to invest in the company, they would have to do it before the
wee expires.
Should he comes, please give him these papers.

OUGHT TO
Ought to hints at the advisability of the speaker, or subject, of the sentence to do something.
Compare the following sentences.
Should I retype this letter? Yes, you should.
(It is your duty to re-do it because it is not well done)
Should I retype this letter? Yes, you ought to.
(It is advisability that you re-do it, but it is choice whether or not you want to.
She ought to work harder on her pronunciation.
You ought to offer your guests some refreshments.

Ought to, in colloquial usage, sometimes conveys assumption or suggestion. It is usually used
in exclamatory sentences, but it is not stressed.
The party ought to be great! (I assume it will be)
He ought to be famous! (I suggest that he should be)

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EXCERSISES
EXERCISE 1: choose the alternative that best completes the sentence logically.
1) The steak (shall, will, would) burn if you dont turn it on the other side.
2) I advise him not to go too fast, but he (shall, will, would) not listen. Now, look whats hes
done to his bike.
3) ( shall, will, would ) I do this for you?
4) After their last dispute over property rights, the brothers (shant, wouldnt) talk to each
other.
5) She thinks that we (shall, will, would) be friends for a long time.
EXERCISE 2: fill in the blank with shall, will, or would.

1) He said that he was having a small problem with the distributors of the product, that he
______________settle the matter soon.
2) ________________ you be going to the seminar on Shakespeare?
3) Although the key turned, the drawer _____________________ not open.
4) _______________________we go now?
5) I asked him to come in, but he ________________ not.
EXERCISE 3: choose the alternative that best completes the sentence logically.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Did you know that VCR cassettes (can, could) hold six hours of continuous recording?
The ball rolled down the hill, but the boy (cant, couldnt) catch up to it.
The bank clerk said that I (cant, couldnt) cash the check because the account had no funds.
A flood (can, could) cause considerable damage to both land and houses.
There (can, could) be dire consequences to hostile acts.

EXERCISE 4: fill in the blanks with can or could.


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Books ____________________stir the imagination.


To sit and watch the sea roll in ____________________produce a very soothing effect.
________________you climb a tree when you were little?
A power surge protector____________ protect electrical equipment from excessive voltage.
The secretary said that she_____________ have the invoices ready on time.

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EXERCISES 5 choose the alternative that best completes the sentence logically.
1) Eddie asked to borrow my wrench. Please tell him that he(may, might).
2) Mrs. Stuart said that she (May, might) sign up for the senior citizens program.
3) Lou (may, might) not be an outstanding worker but hes certainly a great dad.
4) Im not quite sure, but I think you (may, might) find the hardware department on the fourth
floor.
5) You (may, might) get lost in Los Angeles even with a good map.
EXERCISE 6: fill in the blanks with may or might.
1) Laura _____________seem timid, but she is really sociable.
2) _______________ God bless you!
3) Father said that he ______________retire this year.
4) ________________ I borrow your pencil, please?
5) Darren only likes classical music, so he ______________ not want to go to the rock concert
with us.
EXERCISE 7: choose the alternative that best completes the sentence logically.

1) You (must, should, ought to) take risks to achieve your goals.
2) The beans have been cooking for quite a while. They (must, should, ought to) be about
ready.
3) Its not my business, but you havent called your parents in a month. Dont you think you
(must, should, ought to)?
4) It is wise to save money in case of an emergency. Everyone (must, should, ought to) have a
bank account.
5) You (must, should, ought to) tidy up your room so that you will not feel ashamed when
your friends come to visit.
EXERCISE 8: fill in the blanks with must, should, ought to.
1) Judy is an American exchange student and wants to learn how to dance salsa and merengue
maybe, she____________ enroll in a dance class.
2) Miguel looks disoriented. He ___________________know his way around campus yet.
3) Gloria Stefan is giving a concert next week. Yeah, it_________________ be good!
4) He wears a big hat, jeans, and pointed boots. He _______________ be a rancher.
5) People with cholesterol problems__________________ eat fried food.

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OTHER AUXILIARES AND IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS


There are some other auxiliaries and idiomatic expressions that are very frequent in English. They, like
the modal auxiliaries, have specials meanings and uses. Without them, it would be almost impossible to
communicate many personal intentions, attitudes, and emotions. Practice will, undoubtedly, sharpen the
ability to handle the subtle differences among them correctly.
BE ABLE TO
Be able to substitutes can when we want to express the meaning of can in infinite or participle form.
Youll be able to drive a car soon. (Infinitive)
Id like to be able to spend 6 months in Europe. (Infinitive)
I havent been able to hear well recently. (Infinitive)
Be able to also substitutes could to show that someone had an opportunity to do something in the past
and achieved his purpose; he had the chance and took it.
Bruce wasnt able to win Roger at tennis even though the game wasnt difficult.
Although the Louvre Museum closed at four, we were able to see the Mona Lisa.
Have to, have got to
Have to, as seen previously, is used to express an obligation or a necessity that comes from someone or
something else. In everyday conversation, though,, it is often interchangeable with have got to but
only in present and future situations. Unlike have to, have got to can be contracted pronouns.
I have to return this book to the library by Friday.
Weve got to get some medicine from the drugstore.
They had to pick up all their toys from the floor.
In questions, have to is used for habitual or customary actions while have got to is used for single
occasions.
Do we have to hand in our reports every week?
(Do we need to do so every week?)
Have we (got) to listen to him?
(Do we need to stay and listen to him now?)

The negative forms of these expressions also show this difference.


We dont have to rewrite our papers. (We dont need to do so)
We havent got to pay for our fares. (There is no need to pay our fares)

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HAD BETTER
Had better is an idiomatic expression that indicates advisability on the part of the speaker, or the
subject, of the sentence. It is followed by the simple form of the verb and had is usually contracted
with the subject pronouns (hed, itd). Even though had is a part form, it does not reflect past time. The
advisability is present and, semantically, it implies that something wrong might happen if the action is
not carried out in the immediately future. The expression is not normally used in affirmative question.
Wed better leave before the rush hour.
Theyd better not forget their appointment with the lawyer.
Hadnt you better check on the baby?
BE USED TO, GET USED TO, USED TO
Be used to is an idiom that means be accustomed to. It is followed by a noun, a pronoun, or a gerund
and used in present and past situations.
Were you used to the cold winter in the north? (Noun)
Yes, I was used to them. (Pronoun)
We arent used to work with sophisticated methods. (Gerund)
I was used to running in the field before I moved to the city. (Gerund)
get used to is another idiom that means to become accustomed to . it is very much like used to, as it
is followed by a noun, a pronoun, or a gerund. Yet, it indicates that a certain amount of time needs to
elapse before any change can occur. It is used in present, past, and future actions.
People will never get used to inflationary prices. (Noun)
Did the young boy soon get used to shaving? (Gerund)
Yes, he got used to it pretty soon. (Pronoun)
Most exchange students dont get used to eating rice and beans every day. (Gerund)

Used to refers to an action that regularly happened in the past but no longer continues in the present. It
is followed by the simple form of the verb.
Computers programs didnt used to be very good, but they have certainly improved in
recent years.
Didnt your family used to live on a farm? Yes, we used to.
WOULD LIKE, WOULD RATHER, AND WOULD SOONER.
Would like is an idiom that expresses polite way of showing preference. It is usually followed by an
infinite.
We would like to have two Cokes, please.
Would you like to go on a picnic with us?
What would he like to get for Christmas?

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Would rather is an idiom that shows the speaker preferences for an alternative, when both alternatives
are positive, or when one of the alternatives is positive and the other negative.
The Newmans would rather not go out tonight.
They would rather travel by car than by train.
They would rather stop drinking than die.
Would sooner is yet another idiomatic expression that shows preference for an alternative, when the
two alternatives are negative for the speaker.
I would sooner drop the course than face the professors anger.
He would sooner climb Mount Everest than cross the swamp.
MAY AS WELL, MIGHT AS WELL
May as well and might as well are idioms. They express the idea that we should do something, either
because there is nothing better to do, or there is no choice but to comply with or duty. They are, more
often than not, interchangeable.
Its late. We may as well go home
I have to do so many things that I may as well start by ironing the clothes.
We might as well watch this movie. (There is nothing better to watch )
That is the situation. You might as well accept it.
Youll have to wait half an hour for the next bus, so you might as well start walking.
CANT HELP, CAN BUT, CAN HARDLY/CAN BARELY
Cant help is an idiom that means cant avoid. It is always followed by a gerund.
They cant help laughing at my mistake.
He couldnt help thinking about the final exam.
Can but is yet another negative form of can. It is followed by the simple form of the verb and stressed
in the modal.
I CAN but only think of the consequences.
He COULD but use sign language; but he couldnt speak.
Can hardly and can barely are also other negative forms of can, and they are followed by the simple
form of the verb.
She can hardly hear you; speak loud.
The baby was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes open.
The children are so excited about the puppet show that they can barely wait to go.

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EXCERSISES
EXERCISE 1: fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of be able to.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

In the 1990 World Cup, the Costa Rican team___________________ get to the semi-finals.
Without earphones, you ________________ listen to your walkman radio.
The assault victim _______________ overcome the trauma left by the attack on her life.
Even though the test was difficult, Karen _____________ finish it in two hours.
_____________________ they _________________ score a goal before half-time?

EXERCISE 2: fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of have to, have got to, and had better.
1) You _____________________ save your file on your disk drive before the power fails again.
2) I ____________________ change my attitude toward the new teaching techniques before I am
completely blocked.
3) The librarian told Karl that he _________________ return the books in a week.
4) The light bulb is loose. You ____________________ fix it.
5) I have a dental appointment this afternoon. I _____________ be there at 2:30 p.m.

EXERCISE 3: fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of be used to, get used to, and used to.

1) Sonia __________________ sing in the choir when she was in high school.
2) Couples soon ______________waking up in the middle of the night to feed their newborn baby.
3) The Harrisons __________ heavy rainfall. After all, they have lived in the tropics for ten years
now.
4) Small children _______________________ taking a mid-morning nap.
5) He _______________________ washing, ironing, and cooking, but now that hes married, he
doesnt want to help with the house chores.
EXERCISE 4: fill in the blanks with would like, would rather, or would sooner.
1) Richard _________________ to go fishing this weekend, but he cant.
2) Some people ______________ accept flattery than the truth.
3) In the battlefield, soldiers _________________ charge against the enemy than feel trapped in
the trenches.
4) Mrs. Brooks loves to go to the entertainment park, but she ____________ not go up on the
Ferris wheel.
5) Children ___________________ eat junk food than a wholesome meal.

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EXERCISE 5: fill in the blanks with May as well, or might as well.


1) Jean wants to live by herself. She ____________ as well look for an apartment.
2) Im hungry but too tired to cook dinner. I ___________________as well heat up the left-overs.
3) Pierre dreams of going to the United States. He has signed up for an English course because he
says he ___________________ as well start by studying the language.
4) If you are going to eat spaghetti with lots of tomato sauce, you _______________ as well use a
napkin as a bib.
5) Your favorite blouse is badly stained. You _________________ as well throw it away.

EXERCISE 6: fill in the blanks with cant help, can but, or can hardly in the present or past forms.

1) The Dawsons are taking a cruise in the Caribbean. They __________________ wait for the trip
to start.
2) My son has been coughing all morning. I __________________ hope that its nothing more
than a cold.
3) Matt saw some children begging on the streets downtown. He ________________feeling sorry
for them.
4) The fog was so thick that we _________________ see the road ahead.
5) When you fall in love, you ________________________ thinking of the beloved.

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CHAPTER 10
PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL
PHRASES
The preposition
Prepositions are connective words, sometimes a group of two or three words that relate a noun or
pronoun to one or another of the basic elements of the sentence (the subject, verb, object, or
complements).
Prepositions have been called the biggest little words in English. They are usually quite short and
insignificant looking, but they have very important functions, take a look at this sentences and notice
how completely different the meaning of the sentences is.
 A letter was sent to Mary.
 A letter was sent by Mary.
 A letter was sent for Mary.
 A letter was sent from Mary.

The prepositions change, but that is enough to change the meaning entirely.
Read the following conversation and observe the use of prepositions.
Try to imagine how you could give the same meaning without using any preposition. It would be very
difficult. As a matter of fact, it would be almost impossible.
Mr. and Mrs. Smith were driving along a country road.
They came to a river with a bridge over it.
Here is the river that we noticed on the map,
Mr. Smith said now we must take this road that runs along it.
No, Mrs. Smith said, we should go across the river.
Maybe we should take the road beyond the river.
Well, said Mr. Smith, Im confused now. I dont know whether we should take the road
along the river, across the river, or beyond the river.
Mr. Smith was confused. He didnt know which direction to go. But he did understand the meaning of
each preposition.

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Prepositional phrases
Notice in the conversation that each preposition follows a noun or a verb. The preposition is followed
by a noun or a pronoun. A pronoun after a preposition is always an object pronoun: It, me, him, her, us,
and them.
The preposition and its accompanying noun or pronoun is called a prepositional phrase. Prepositional
phrases functions as adjective, adverbs, and sometimes as nouns.

Prepositional Phrases as adjectives


Normally, a preposition phrase used as an adjective follows the noun that it modifies.
 We should take the road along the river.
 We saw a river with a bridge.
 The book on Egypt has been sold.
 The package for Mary arrived yesterday.


Prepositional Phrases as Adverbs


Prepositional phrases can modify verbs, and in such cases function as adverbs in the sentence. Such
adverbial phrases can occur after the verb they modify or after the object.
 They were driving along a country road.
 They came to a river.
 We saw John in January.
 In April, we will see him again.


Prepositional Phrases as noun


Prepositional phrases can be used as noun.
 Before breakfast is a good time for a swim. (subject)
 The best place for a picnic is in the park
Prepositions usually indicate relationships such as position, place, direction, time, manner, agent,
possession, and condition between the objects and other parts of the sentence. Prepositional phrases
provide information usually as for by the question words who, what, where, how, when, why, how much,
how long, etc.

Prepositions
The following list shows some of the most common uses of preposition.
Where:
Across
At
Against
Behind
By
Down
In

place, position.
Her house is across the street.
He used to be a student at an American U.
His bicycle was leaning against the fence.
The garage is behind the house.
That house by the lake is my dream house.
We saw her walking down fifth avenue this
afternoon.
She was dozing in an armchair when we got there.
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The taxi is parked in back of the bus.


The ball rolled in front of the bus.
Come in. Its warmer inside the house.
You shouldnt smoke near gasoline.
He put the book on the table.
I want cake and ice cream, and on top of that I want
whipped cream.
The mother pulled the blanket over the baby.
Over
Theres a birds nest outside my window.
Outside
She went to the grocery store.
To
The bird flew through the open window.
Through
I found that book it was under the desk.
Under
Underneath Put a pad underneath that hot coffee pot.
He was walking up the street.
Up
He placed his hat upon his head.
Upon
If you look carefully, you might find the letter among
Among
those papers.
His shop is between the bank and the post office.
Between
Walk straight ahead; then take the first street after the
After
bridge.
I have your letter before me now.
Before
They live in the apartment below ours.
Below
The school is opposite the church
Opposite
In back of
In front of
Inside
Near
On
On top of

Where: direction.
I saw her going into the theater a few minutes ago.
Into
He took some money out of his pocket
Out of
This road leads toward the sea
Toward
By way of Cant we go to New York by way of Philadelphia
He is building a house across the street
Across
The post office is opposite the court house
Opposite
When: time
At
By
In
For
During
After
Before
Until (till)
On + time
In + time

I told her to meet us at six oclock sharp


Alice should be back by seven at the latest
Ill meet you in an hour
They are living for three weeks
During the summer, I think Ill go to Florida
Would you please call after eight
Take this medicine before mealtime
We must wait until noon
Do you think the train is arriving on time?
Please hurry up or well never be in time for the first
act
I get to my office around nine every morning
Around
I think she will be away about a week
About
Fromto The office will be open from one to nine every day
Fromuntil She works from eight am until two six pm day a week
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Why: purpose, reason.


Take this medicine for your headache
For
Whose: possession
The leader of the scouts has not arrived yet
Of
Those books belong to Mary
To
How: manner
I enjoy going there by train
By
I met her on the train
On
You must be dressed in formal clothes at that hotel
In
She met me with a scowl on her face
With
She is not at all graceful; she walks like a duck
Like
How: agent, material
This film was directed by an American director
By
The play was originally written in English
In
I must fill my pen with ink
With
What, which:
The shop at the corner sells stamps
At
The apartment on the second floor is smaller than
On
ours
That book by Capote is a masterpiece
By
The man in the dark suit is Mr. Howard
In
This kind of material cant be found today
Of
She was given an award for her high grades
For
She works as a secretary
As (in
capacity of)
How much, how long: measurement.
We walked for miles and miles
For
He has lived here for years
I paid sixty cents for a dozen eggs
I want to buy two bottles of milk
Of
Meat is sold by the pound or by the kilo
By

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Some prepositions are used to express a variety of meanings, and often present difficulties. Some of the
common prepositions with their various meanings and their most common uses are summarized below for
reference purposes.
By

Means or agent
We went by bus.
The letter was delivered by the postman
That story was written by a friend of mine
Without help, or alone (when used with a reflexive pronoun)
He lives by himself
She did the homework by herself
I always study by myself
Passing near something and continuing without stopping
I always walk by that house on my way to work
Several buses go by our house
Do you go by the post office?
Time expression meaning, not later than
I hope I can finish my work by six oclock
He will be here by five oclock
All classes will be over by June

Prepositions of Location: above, below, over, under, inside, outside, and near.
Above
Anywhere higher than a certain point
The ceiling is above our head
The dictionary is on the shelf above the encyclopedia
Our airplane was above the clouds during most of the trip
The temperature is well above freezing
Below
Anywhere lower than a certain point
There is a shop below their apartment.
From the airplane we could see mountains below us
That valley is below sea level
The temperature was below 30 Fahrenheit this morning.
Over
Directly above a certain point; more than; during a long period of time.
There is a light over the table.
He held an umbrella over his head.
We flew over the mountains.
It cost over ten dollars.
He is over eighty years old
Over the years, he has proven to be a good friend

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Under
Directly below a certain point; less than; under the supervision of
The cat is sleeping under the chair
His shoes are under the bed
The children in this class are under six years of age
John works under Dave Moore
Inside
Completely within a certain location
The paper is inside the drawer
Come inside the house, its much cooler here
You will find your gift inside that box
Outside
Completely out of a certain location
He is outside the house
Please wait outside the office
The car is outside the garage
Near
Indefinite position not far away from a certain place
The bank is near the post office
She lives near me
His car is parked near the school
Prepositions of Motion: to, toward, into, out of, and through.
To

Continuing to a definite place


We walked to the station
He drove to Washington
They traveled to France

Toward
In the direction of
All mosques face toward Mecca
He is pointing toward his friends house
Those children are running toward us
Into
Motion that ends somewhere inside a certain place
He has already gone into theater
He put his hand into his pocket
She fell into the water

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Out of
Motion that ends somewhere outside a certain place
She moved all chairs out of the room
What time will they come out of the mall?
My teacher sent the boy out of the room
Through
First into and then out of (to go through is to enter and then leave directly)
Lets walk through the park
We drove through several villages
You have to go through room three in order to get to room four
In

At

Location or residence in a state, a city, or a country(the place is usually a large area or a large city)
He lives in America
That river is in California
She lives in Cairo
Point of time, or period of time thought of as a complete unit
I saw him in January
It was in 1965
The mail comes in the morning
We swim and play in the summer
Duration of time
He can do it in an hour
He finished that book in one evening
I wrote that composition in half an hour
Languages
They were speaking in Arabic
The play was produced in French
That opera was originally written in Italian
Inside, within, enclosed
He is in his office now
His hand kerchief is in his pocket
She is in the garden
After a certain length of time
He will come in an hour
Location or residence in a small town, or a street address if the house number is given
He lives at Smithville
We have finally arrived at his town
He lives at 18 Magnolia Street
Exact time
He arrived at 8:00 oclock
Those farmers stop working at sunset
He gets up at dawn

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Price
The prices of those books begin at $1 and go up.
They are on sale at two dollars a dozen
I cannot afford to buy them at that price
Direction or aim
Look at those boys fighting
That child threw a stone at me
The hunter aimed his gun at the birds
Location place
He is at school now
Dr. Miller is at his office
He is at work
On

Resting on or touching something


The book is on the table
The picture is on the wall
There is a light on the ceiling
Days of the week and other dates
Summer begins on June 21
We do not have classes on Sundays
Our vacation begins on Friday
Location of residence on a street if the number is not given
I live on McKinley Street
She is visiting a friend on Magnolia St.

For
Duration of time
She played the piano for two hours
We have been waiting for twenty minutes
They lived in Washington for two years
In exchange for
He rented the house for very little money
I bought this book for two dollars
Can you buy a good notebook for fifteen cents?
For the pleasure or benefit of
Mary sang songs for us
Shall I open the window for you?
She baked a cake for me
Instead of or in place of
She was busy. So I did her work for her
When you were away, Tom did the work for you
Alice is going to cook the dinner for us and her mother
For is often used in this way: be + adjective + noun + infinitive
Its impossible for Tom to pronounce that word
It is important for them to arrive early
It is too late for us to go to the party

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Beside (next to)


He is sitting beside Alice
He is sitting next to Alice
The library is next to the post office
The library is beside the post office
Opposite
Tom sits opposite me in the cafeteria every day
There is a new building opposite our house
Our school is opposite a park
As far as
We walked as far as the park before we got tired
He threw the ball as far as he could
He threw the ball as far as that tree
We can see as far as the horizon
Between
Alice is sitting between Jane and Mary
I want to put the table between those two windows
Wednesday comes between Tuesday and Thursday
Among
I found your letter among my school papers
He is sitting among some of his friends
Do not put your papers among mine
Beneath, underneath
Beneath and underneath mean almost the same thing in many uses. Generally, both indicate lower than a
given point. When the meanings diverge, underneath conveys more specifically the meaning of one
object being covered up by another, and beneath may be used in a figurative sense. It may be useful to
associate underneath with under and beneath with below
Two hundred feet beneath (below)the surface of the earth, solid rock was found
You will find a pot of gold underneath (under) a huge stone at the foot of the rainbow
Mr. Glum considers such a fairy tales beneath his dignity
Off
Removed from contact or connection; away from a place occupied before
He took the book off the shelf
He took the picture off the wall
I cant find the calendar. It is off the wall
I lost a bottom off my coat
Upon
Resting on top (about the same meaning as on, when it means in contact with, or above)
His hat is upon his head
He put it upon the shelf
Her photograph is upon the mantelpiece
Besides
In addition to, more than
Two others won prizes besides us
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Besides those five verbs, we learned five nouns


She has written many books besides that one
Like, unlike

Like mean similar to. Unlike is the opposite of like (just like means identical, exactly the same as)
His mind is like an adding machine
You look just like your brother
Do you think English is like French?
The film is unlike the book
Being so impolite is unlike him.
Despite
Despite, like in spite of, has the meaning of without regard to another circumstance or situation (is often
used in the expression despite the fact that)
They are playing football despite the rain
They are playing despite the fact that is raining
She came to school today in spite of the doctors warnings
In order to
For the purpose of (usually can be replaced by to)
We will have to hurry in order to arrive on time
One has to go to the office in order to learn the results
In order to save time, please dont do that
Since
Duration of time based on stated prior period of time or specific date
I have known him since his marriage
They have lived there since 1965
I havent seen them since our party
During
Over a stated period of time or while a given event is in progress; maybe either constant or intermittent
John lived in St. Louis during most of his childhood
We ate hot dogs and drank cokes during the football game
It rained several times during august
Throughout
Much of the same meaning is during with stress on the intensity or continuity of action; indicates
unceasing activity from the beginning until the end of the period of time mentioned
The girls whispered throughout the concert
It rained throughout our week at the beach
Before and after
These words have obvious opposite meanings in time expressions
I will see you after the examination
I would like to meet you before class time
He studies before an examination
He relaxes after all examinations
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Until
Period of time before something else happens; up to
I will wait for you until five oclock
He lived there until his marriage
I have to work up to five oclock today
I have to work until five oclock today
Within
Inside described limits
He said he would finish the report within the required time
The mail will arrive within an hour
According
Used in citing authority or source of information
According to the latest census, Houston has more than a million inhabitants
According to the critics the play is excellent
According to my watch its 12:30
Prepositions at the end of the sentence:
It used to be said that one should never end a sentence with a
preposition, but in actual practice that is a rule that cannot always be followed. Prepositions commonly end
sentences under the following circumstances:
When an interrogative pronoun is the object of a preposition
Who (whom) are you speaking to?
What are you looking for?
When a relative pronoun is used as the object of the preposition
This is the house that I used to live in
There is the man that I was speaking of
When the relative pronoun is omitted
This is the house I used to live in
This is the house in which I used to live
Here is the book I was speaking of
This is the book of which I was speaking
After an infinitive at the end of the sentence
He used his pen to write with
Notice the position of the preposition in the following sentences
1. He admires the man for whom he works
2. He admires the man whom he works for
3. He admires the man that he works for
4. He admires the man he works for

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EXCERSISES
EXERCISE 1: Choose in, on, or at for the blank space in each sentence.
1) Mr. and Mrs. Kennedy live _______ West End Avenue.
2) Did you buy your new car _______ Detroit or here?
3) The Browns were ________ Greece and Italy two years ago.
4) Mr. Foster works ________ 667 E, 78th Street ________ New York.
5) The Johnsons garage is _______ back of their house.
6) Would you please park your car ________ the driveway.
7) Mr. and Mrs. Smith stayed _______ the Lincoln Hotel _________ Boston.
8) Ill meet you __________ the corner of 34th Street and Broadway.
9) How did you enjoy your vacation _______ Europe last year?
10) Alice isnt ____ home right now.
11) There are national parks ____ every section of the country.
12) Do your friends live ________ Manhattan or _________ Long Island?
13) Turn left ______ the corner. The house is ________ the left side.
14) Mr. Carson arrived __________ the airport half an hour later.
15) My friend and I always ride to school _______ the bus.
EXERCISE 2: select the right preposition for the blank space in each sentence. Adj + pre
1) Mr. Adams went ________ a walk _____ the park this afternoon.
2) I hope that the director will cooperate _______ us ________ that matter.
3) That restaurant _________ 10th street is known ______ its fine food.
4) I think that the young girl is afraid ______ cats and dogs.
5) The quality of this is not equal _______ the quality of that one.
6) Are you ready ______ the English examination.
7) Everyone feels very sorry ______ that poor old man.
8) How much did your friend pay _______those theater tickets?
9) When did the Andersons expect to arrive _______ New York?
10) The men will probably rely ______ you ____ some assistance.
11) Frank always depends ______ his brother for assistance.
12) They are aware ____ my strong feelings _______ that matter.
13) We are not accustomed ________ this very cold weather yet.
14) Our visitors complained _______ the bad weather ______ this region.
15) Betty is always very considerate _______ other peoples feeling.
EXERCISE 3: choose before, after, or ago for the blank space in each sentence.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Our friends will arrive in this city a week ______________ now.


Mr. Benson was here the week __________ last.
Freds brother finished school several years ___________________.
Bill and I went to that meeting the night ___________________-last
Pierre will return to this country two years __________________now.
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6) Our school year ended the month __________ last.


7) Mr. and Mrs. Fox left here two weeks ________________ yesterday.
8) Im going to go back to school the ______________ next.
9) Did you speak to Miss Davis the day __________ yesterday?
10) I am leaving for South America a week _______________ tomorrow.
EXERCISE 4: SINCE vs. FOR
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

Mr. Berg has studied English in this class ___________________ eight months.
My friend has studied English in this class _________________last October.
The Browns have lived in this city ______________ 1948.
The Wilsons have lived in New York ____________ six years.
Mr. Smith worked for the Ajax Company ________ one year.
Mr. Smith has worked for our company ________________ that time.
Alice has been here _____________ the beginning.
Her sister has been in San Francisco ______ a long time.

EXERCISE 5: FOR vs. IN


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

Mr. Smith worked for the Container Corporation ______________ 1951.


Mr. Smith worked for the corporation ____________________ one year.
My wife and I usually take our vacation _______________ the summer.
We usually stay inVermont or Maine_________________ a whole month.
Professor Moore came to his university_______________ 1939.
Professor Moore has taught here_________________ seventeen years.
Freds sister has had her diploma______________ over six weeks now.
She received her diploma from Michigan State University ______________June.

EXERCISE 6: BY vs IN
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

Thomas and Richard will be there_______________ ten oclock.


My friends will be there__________________ two or three hours.
Will you finish the work_________________ September 10?
Ill finish all of the work_________________ three months.
Ill lend you my dictionary_______________ a day or two.
Dont brother; Ill have my own dictionary________________ then.
Well go there at six-thirty________________ that time, Tom will be there.
Im sure you will not finish the work __________ that amount of time.

EXERCISE 7: BY vs. FOR


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Well have that report for you ______________ 4:00 p.m.


Well work on that report ______ the next two hours.
Im leaving now, but Ill be back here _____ noon.
Ill be away from my office _____________ several hours today.
The highway department will finish that road _____ 2008.
The construction company has already worked on it __________________ one year.
Please dont tell my friends the news ______________ a few days.
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8) Why not? Your friends will know all about it _______ that time.
EXERCISE 8: FOR vs. IN

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

The train to Chicago will leave ____________ five minutes.


The train will stay in the station ______________ five minutes more.
Are your friends going to be in Wisconsin ________ a long time?
No, theyll be back in this city ___________ a week or two.
We usually go from Detroit to New York ___________ three hours.
My brother and his wife lived in Detroit _______ three years.
Are you leaving now? No, Ill leave __________ a little while.
Are you leaving now? Yes, Ill be away _____ a little while.

EXERCISE 9: select the correct preposition for each blank space. Use only prepositions since, for,
ago, in, on, at.
1) Mr. Rossi was born ______________ Genoa, Italy ________ the year 1907. he was born _____
Tuesday, March 15, _____ midnight. He lived ____ Genoa ____ eight years. Then he moved to
Rome _______ 1915.He fell in love with that city ______ that time. He has written a lot of
stories about Rome ______ that time. However, it has been quite a long time _______ his last
year ___ that city. He went to school _______ Rome ________ eight years. He quit school there
_________ June, 1923. _____July 15, he left _______ Switzerland. He arrived ______
Lausanne late ____________ night two days later. He went to a private school ______ that city
_____ two years. Today, he often speaks about the wonderful time he had ________ that school
many years _______. ________ the end of those two years, he left ______ France. ______ first,
he felt very homesick. However, he finally got a job ________ the staff of a large newspaper. It
was hard work_______ the beginning. He didnt have much experience _______ that time. That
was ________1925. Of course, he has gained a great deal of experience _____ then. But
______ those days, he was only a beginner ______ that field. ___ the beginning of the next
year, he got a job ______ a publishing house. He worked _______ that concern ______ four
years. Mr. Rossi came to the United States _____ the spring of 1930. He became a citizen
_______ the twentieth of April, 1935. he has had a house ____ this city _______ that time.
_____ all, he has lived ________ this country _______ quite a long time. Mr. Rossi took a
course ______ English a number of years ________. He started his course ________ ten
oclock _____ the morning _________ October 7, 1933. He studied English _______ two
years. Mr. Rossi has also studied German and Spanish _________ that time. He studied German
_______ the summer of 1940, and he started his Spanish course ____________ February,
1943. he studied that language _____________ three years. Mr. Rossi went to South Africa six
years _________, and he stayed there _________ two years. Then he returned to the United
States ___________ good. He has also written many things about South America _______ that
trip. Mr. Rossi has been a professional writer _______ 1925. he wrote his first article _____
1925. _____ then, he has written almost 800 articles and stories.

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CHAPTER 11
THE PASSIVE
Active and passive voices are used in English to express actions. While in the active voice, the subject
is the doer, the passive, the subject receives the effect of the action. Thus, only transitive verbs (those
that take a direct object) can undergo the passive transformation. This is one of the reasons why the
active voice is more frequent in speech and in writing. The passive voice, however, is especially useful
for stylistic reasons in official documents, journalistic articles, and scientific writing.
Form or the passive:

verb to be + past participle

To transform an active sentence into a passive one, follow these three steps.
1. Move the direct object of the active sentence to subject position.
Both governments signed the agreement.
D.O
The agreement was signed by both governments.
S

2. Insert a form of be in the tense of the active sentence, and write the main verb of the
active sentence in its past participle form.
Roy grows potatoes in the farm.
Potatoes are grown on the farm.
The telephone company is installing new lines.
New lines are being installed by the telephone company
The doctor has already examined the pregnant women.
The pregnant women have already been examined by the doctor
The champion must drive that race car.
That race car must be driven by the champion.

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3. Move the subject of the active sentence to the end of the passive sentence. The subject
of the active sentence becomes the agent of the passive one. The agent is then headed by
the preposition by.
The boy told a weird story.
S
A weird story was told by the boy.
Agent
The agent is, however frequently omitted when it does not contain information which
specifically wish to include.
Oscar Arias from Costa Rica was awarded the Nobel Price for peace in 1987.
(we omit the by prepositional phrase)

Only transitive verbs (verbs that are followed by an object) are used in the passive. It is not possible to
use verbs such as happen, sleep, come and seem (intransitive verbs) in the passive. Ex.
ACTIVE:
PASSIVE:

An accident happened.
(none)

VERB TENSE
Simple Present

Mary
Helps
John
John
Is helped
By Mary
Present Progressive
Mary
Is helping
John
John
Is being helped
By Mary
Present Perfect
Mary
Has helped
John
John
Has been helped
By Mary
Simple Past
Mary
Helped
John
John
Was helped
By Mary
Past Progressive
Mary
Was helping
John
John
Was being helped
By Mary
Past Perfect
Mary
Had helped
John
John
Had been helped
By Mary
Simple Future
Mary
Will help
John
John
Will be helped
By Mary
Be going to
Mary
Is going to help
John
John
Is going to be helped
By Mary
Future Perfect*
Mary
Will have helped
John
John
Will have been helped
By Mary
*The progressive forms of the present perfect, past perfect, future and future
used in the passive.

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A
P
A
P
A
P
A
P
A
P
A
P
A
P
A
P
A
P
perfect are very rarely

89

Using the Passive:

1.To signal that the performance is unknown

The investigation was carried out in Germany.


The television set had been assembled in Mexico.
English is spoken in many places.
2. To hint that the doer is a general group.
The mechanic was held at 10 oclock
The dining hall was being readied for the diplomatic banquet.
It is constantly said that ecology is vital to our survival.
3. To avoid mentioning the performer of the action.
Romeo an Juliet was written between 1594 and 1596.
The concert was given inside the cathedral.
I was told to go to the immigration office.
4. To place emphasis on the receiver rather than on the performance of the action.
The thief was beaten by the policeman.
Has the arrest been declared illegal?
The trial is being postponed for next month.

4. To describe a scientific experiment or process.

First, the sample was taken and then the test tube was heated.
The plants were labeled for further research.
The patients had been vaccinated previous to the diagnosis.

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The Passive Form of Modals and Similar Expressions:

The Passive Form: modal

+ be + past participle

MODAL PASSIVE
Tom
The window
Children
This book
This letter
Mary
Fred

Will
Cant
Should
May I
Had better
Ought to
Has to
Is supposed to

Be invited
Be opened
Be taught
Be excused
Be returned
Be sent
Be told
Be told

These Past - Passive Form: modal

+ have been

To the picnic
To respect their elders
From class?
To the library soon
Before June 1st
About our change in plans
About the meeting

+ past participle

MODAL PASSIVE
The letter
This house
Jack

Should
Must
Ought to

Have been sent


Last week
Have been built
Over 200 years ago
Have been invited To the party

EXCERSISES
EXERCISE 1: Change the active to the passive by supplying the correct form of BE.
Ex.
Tom opens the door.
The door ____is____ ____opened by Tom.
1. Tom is opening the door.
The door ______________ opened by Tom.
2. Tom has opened the door.
The door _______________ opened by Tom.

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3. Tom opened the door.


The door __________________ opened by Tom.
4. Tom was opening the door.
The door _______________ opened by Tom.
5. Tom had opened the door.
The door _______________ opened by Tom.
6. Tom will open the door.
The door __________________ opened by Tom.
7. Tom is going to open the door.
The door ________________ opened by Tom.
8. Tom will have opened the door.
The door __________________ opened by Tom.

EXERCISE 2: Change the active to the passive


Ex.
Shakespeare wrote that play.
The play was written by Shakespeare.

1. Bill will invite Ann to the party.

2. Alex is preparing that report.

3. Waitresses and waiters serve customers.

4. The teacher is going to explain the lesson.

5. Shirley had suggested a new idea.

6. The horses were pulling the farmers wagon.

7. Kathy had returned the book to the library.

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8. His tricks wont fool me.


EXERCISE 3: Change the active to the passive if possible. Some verbs are intransitive and cannot be
changed.
Ex.
A strange thing happened yesterday.

(No change)

Jackie scored the winning goal.


The winning goal was scored by Jackie.
1. My cat died.

2. I agree with Dr. Ikedas theory


3. Dr. Ikeda developed that theory.

4. Timmy dropped the cup.


5. The cup fell to the floor.

6. The assistant manager interviewed me.


7. It rained hard yesterday.
8. A hurricane destroyed the small fishing village.

9. Dinosaurs existed millions of years ago.


EXERCISE 4: Why is the use of the passive appropriate in the following Sentences.
What would be the active equivalents of the passive sentences?
1. The Washington monument is visited by hundreds of people every day.

2. Paper, the main writing material today, was invented by the Chinese.

3. The World Cup soccer games are being televised all over the world.

4. Beethovens Seventh Symphony was performed at the concert last night.


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EXERCISE 5: Complete the sentences with the given words, active or passive

Ex.
James ___should be told___ the news as soon as possible.
(Should + tell)
1. Someone _________________________ James the news immediately.
(Should + tell)
2. James _________________________ the news a long time ago.
(Should + tell)
3. Meat _________________________ in a refrigerator or it will spoil.
(Must + keep)
4. You _________________________ meat in a refrigerator or it will spoil.
(Must + keep)
5. We tried, but the window _________________________.
6. (Couldnt + open)
7. I tried, but I _________________________ the window.
(Couldnt + open)
8. Good news! I _________________________ a job soon. I had an interview at an engineering firm
yesterday.
(May + offer)
9. Chris has good news.
The engineering firm where she had an interview yesterday
_________________________ a her job soon.
(May + offer)
EXERCISE 6: Use the verb in parentheses with any appropriate modal or similar expression. All of
the sentences are passive. In many sentences, more than one modal is possible. Use the modal that
sounds best to you.

1. The entire valley (see) ________________ from their mountain home.


2. He is wearing a gold band on his fourth finger. He (marry) _________________.
3. According to our teacher, all of our compositions (write) ___________________
4. I found this book on my desk when I came to class. It (leave) _______________
5. Five of the committee members will be unable to attend the next meeting. In my opinion, the
meeting (postpone) _______________
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6. A child (give, not) _______________ everything he or she wants.


7. Your daughter has a good voice. Her interest in singing (encourage) _______________.
8. Try to speak slowly when you give your speech. If you dont, some of your words (misunderstand)
_______________.
9. Some UFO sightings (explain, not) _______________ easily. No one is able to explain them
easily.
10. She is very lazy. If you want her to do anything, she (push) ________________.

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CHAPTER 12
CONDITIONALSENTENCES
EXPRESSING CONDITION
IF CLAUSES
If clauses present possible conditions. The main clause expresses results. Ex.
If it rains, the streets get wet
POSSIBLE CONDITION:

It rains
The streets get wet.

A present tense, not a future tense, is used in a if clause even though the verb in the if clause may
refer to a future event or situation, as in:
If it rains tomorrow, I will take my umbrella
Words that introduce clauses of condition: If clause
If
Whether or not
Even if

in case (that)
in the event (that)
unless

only if
providing (that)
provided (that)

WHETHER OR NOT, EVEN IF

Whether or not, expresses the idea that neither this condition nor that condition matters; the result will
be the same.
Im going to go swimming tomorrow whether or not is cold.
(Or whether it is cold or not)
In this sentence its clear the condition, that it doesnt matter if it cold or not Im going swimming
anyway.

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EVEN IF

Sentences with Even if, are close in meaning to those with whether or not. Even if gives the idea that a
particular condition does not matter. The result will not change. Ex
I have decided to go swimming tomorrow. Even if the weather is cold, Im going to swimming
tomorrow.
COMPARE:
If clauses are followed by expected result.
If Ann studies hard, she will pass the exam.
CONDITION:
Ann studies.
EXPECTED RESULT:
She passes the exam
Even if clauses are followed by unexpected results.
Even if Mary studies hard, she wont pass the exam.
CONDITION:
Mary studies
UNEXPECTED RESULT: She doesnt pass the exam

IN CASE (THAT), IN THE EVENT (THAT)

In case that and in the event that express the idea that something probably wont happen, but it might.
In case / in the event that = If by chance this should happen.
Notes: In the event that is more formal than in case. The use of should in the clause emphasize the
speakers uncertainty that something will happen. Ex.
a. Ill be at my uncles house in case you (should) need to reach me.
b. In the event that you (should) need to reach me, Ill be at my uncles house.
c.
UNLESS
This conditional has the same meaning that implies if not. Ex.
Ill go swimming tomorrow unless its cold.
Ill go swimming tomorrow if is not cold.
These two clauses have the same meaning.

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ONLY IF, PROVIDING / PROVIDED THAT

1. Only if expresses the idea that there is only one condition that will cause a particular result.
The picnic will be canceled only if it rains.
If it is windy, well go in the picnic
If is cold, well go in the picnic
If it is damp and foggy, well go in the picnic
If it is hot, well go in the picnic
When only if begins a sentence, the subject and verb of the main clause are inverted. Ex.
Only if it rains will the picnic be canceled.
2. Providing that and provided that are equal to if or only if. Ex.
Providing / provided (that 9 no one has any further questions, the meeting will be adjourned).
VERB FORMS IN SENTENCES WITH IF (CONDITIONAL SENTENCES)
SITUATION

IF -

RESULT CLAUSE

EXAMPLES

CLAUSE
TRUE IN THE
PRESENT/
FUTURE

Simple
present

Will
Can

+ simple form

If I have
money,
Will by

enough

Can buy

I
ticket.

CONTRARYTOSimple past Would


FACT IN THE
Could
PRESENT/FUTURE

+ simple
form

CONTRARY-TOPast perfect Would have


FACT
IN
THE
Could have
PAST

If I had enough money,


Would buy
Could buy

I
tickeT

+ past
participl

If I had had enough


money,
Would have
I

bought
Could have
bought

A ticket.

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EXCERSISES
EXERCISE 1: Make sentences from the given possibilities. Give two sentences. Use if.

Ex.
It may be cold tomorrow.
If its cold tomorrow, Im going to stay home.
If its cold tomorrow, lets go skating
1. Maybe it will be hot tomorrow.

2. Robert will probably study for the test.

1. The teacher may be absent tomorrow.

2. Maybe you will lock yourself out your apartment.

EXERCISE 2: Use the given information to complete the sentences.

1. Sams uncle tells a lot of jokes. Sometimes they are funny, and sometimes they are not. It doesnt
matter.
a. Sam laughs at the jokes whether ______________ or not.
b. Sam laughs at the jokes even if ________________
2. Maybe you are finished with the exam, and maybe youre not. It doesnt matter. The time is up.
a. You have to hand in your examination paper whether _______________ or not.
b. You have to hand in your examination paper even if ____________________
3. It might snow, or it might not. We dont want to go camping in the snow, but it doesnt matter.
a. Were going to go camping in the mountains whether _______________ or not.
b. Were going to go camping in the mountains even if ____________________

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EXERCISE 3: Use in these sentences In case / in the event (that)


Ex.
You probably wont need to get in touch with me, but maybe you will. If so, Ill give you my phone
number.
Ill give you my phone number in case you (should) need to get in touch with me / in the event that you
(should) need to get in touch with me.
1. You probably wont need to see me, but maybe you will. If so, Ill be in my office tomorrow
morning around ten.

2. I dont think you need any more information, but maybe you do. If so, ask Dr. Smith.

3. Jack probably wont call, but maybe he will. If so, please tell him that Im at the library.

EXERCISE 4: Make sentences with the same meaning by using UNLESS

I will go to the zoo if it isnt cold.


I will go to the zoo unless it is cold.
1. You cant I travel abroad if you dont have a passport.

2. You cant get a drivers license if you are not at least 16 years old.

3. If I dont get some film. I wont be able to take pictures when Ann and Rob get here.

4. Youll get hungry during class if you dont eat breakfast.

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EXERCISE 5: Use the given information to complete the sentences

1. Jimmys mother doesnt want him to chew gum, but sometimes he chews it anyway.
Jimmy _______________ only if hes sure his mother wont find out.
2. If you want to go to the movie, well go. If you dont want to go, we wont go.
We _______________ only if you want to.
3. You have to have a ticket. Then you can get into the soccer stadium.
Only if you have a ticket _______________.
4. My parents make me finish my homework before I can watch TV in the evening.
Only if my homework is finished ________________.

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