Acftvv) l\) 67
Design of Cold Formed
n
D
Australian steel institute
SteelStructuresSeminar
Presenter:
Professor Greg Hancock, Emeritus Professor, and
Professorial Research Fellow,
University of Sydney.
www.steel.org.au
DESIGN OF COLDFORMED
STEEL STRUCTURES
Introduction to ColdFormed Steel Design
Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock
2
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ColdFormed Steel Structures
Lecture 1
Introduction to ColdFormed Steel Design
Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock AM FTSE
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ColdFormed Steel Design
Standards
Australian/New Zealand Standard
AS/NZS 4600:2005
North American Specification  2012
Developed by the AISI
Eurocode 3 Part 1.3
THEtsrvmsmrof
SYDNEY
AS/NZS 4600 : 2005
ColdFormed Steel Structures
Austrafcm/New Zealand Standard'
Coldformed steel structures
Design of ColdFormed
Steel Structures
(to AS.NZS 4600:2005)
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KW SYDNEY
North American Specification
North American Specification
for the Design of ColdFormed
Steel Structural Members
2012 Edition
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r5 SYDNEY
Eurocode 3 Part 1.3
BimnSTANOA*D
Eurocode 3 Design of
steel structures
Part 13: General rule*
Supplementary rule* for coldformed
member* and nheetln#
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Australian/ New Zealand Standard
AS/NZS 4600:2005
Similar to the North American Specification
Increased range of steels G450  G550 to
Australian Standard AS 1397
steels less than 1.0 mm thick can be
used for structural members, i.e. wall studs
and truss chords in steel framed houses
>0.90fy and 0.90fu used in G550 design
("Pwl
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WsW SYDNEY
AS 13972011
Coating Classes
Zinc (Z)
Zinc/Iron Alloy (ZF)*
Zinc/Aluminium (ZA)*
Australian Standard*
Continuous hotdip metallic coated steal
sheet and stripCoatings of zinc and
zinc alloyed with aluminium and
magnesium
Zinc/Aluminium/Magnesium (ZM)*
Aluminium/Zinc (AZ)
Aluminium/Zinc/Magnesium (AM)"
New in AS 1397 2011
SYDNEY
RollForming Machine
SYDNEY
r*fcl
Punching and marking in CSection
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WiW SYDNEY
Common Section Profiles and
Applications of ColdFormed
Steel
Section 1.2
3a
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SYDNEY
(3) Roof and Wall Systems of Industrial,
Rural and Commercial Buildings
Section 1.2(a)
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SYDNEY
Roof and Walls
"31*7*1
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2D Frame with Purlins
SHW SYDNEY
"N'5
SYDNEY
QtoVTVe.
"
Purlin and Cleat
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SYDNEY
Simple
Complex
Z (Zed) sections
Simple
Complex
C (Channel) sections
(a) Typical Sections
(b) Typical sheeting profiles for screwed connections
(c) Typical sheeting profiles for concealed fasteners
Innovative SupaZed Section
Fig. 1.1 Roof and Wall Section Profiles
THEUMVtRSfTYOP
SYDNEY
Concealed Fixed Kliplok Sheeting
Kliplok Concealed Fasteners
10
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.37 SYDNEY
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(b) Steel racks for supporting storage pallets
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Section 1.2(b)
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SYDNEY
FIGURE t.3.1 (Input) ADJUSTABLE PALLET RACKING
c
c
11
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few SYDNEY
AS 40842012
New Features in 2012
Limit States Design to
AS/NZS 4600
Australian Standard*
Stool storage racking
Loading (action)
combinations for racks
Geometric nonlinear
analysis (GNA)
Extended range of
test methods
SYDNEY
SYDNEY
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(c) Structural members for plane and space
trusses
Section 1.2(c)
D
D
C
D
Tubular
top
chord
Tubular
web
member
_ Tubular
bottom
chord
(a) Tubular truss
Bolted or welded connections
Channel
_ section
top chord
Channel or
~
tubular web
member
Channel
(b) Channel section truss
Fig. 1.8 Plane Truss Frames
section
bottom
chord
DIE UMVEKSTTYOF
WW SYDNEY
(e) Domestic wall framing
and
(f) Floor bearers and joists
Sections 1.2(e) and (f)
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SYDNEY
Wall and floor
systems
Lipped or
unlipped
channel
stud
%
I 9% %
Noggin
Mechanical
or welded
k
connection
Bottom plate
(a) Mill framing
Particle board
sheeting
Hat section
joists
vj
A
i

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Deep hat section bearers
or UB bearers
Ajl
(b) Floor system
Fig. 1.10 Domestic Construction
14
Tltf UNIVERSITY OF
SYDNEY
Braced Wall Panel
SYDNEY
15
rm university of
SYDNEY
Twostorey steel house composed of G550 Steel
G550 Sheet Steels
SYDNEY
Deformed
elongated
grains
New grains
forming
Structure
composed
New grains
growing
entirely ol
new grains
Remnants
of deformed
grains
Cold reduced to thickness.
G550 less than 1.0 mm thick
Stress relief annealed.
Higher fy & fu and lower ductility  Anisot
16
SYDNEY
Typical StressStrain Curves
High strength steel G550
Conventional steel G300
Strainhardening range
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SYDNEY
Roof trusses in Indonesia composed of
G550 Steel
SYDNEY
Shopping complex roof composed
of G550 Steel
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SYDNEY
Steel Framing Design Guide
Aligns with AS/NZS 1170 and
AS/NZS 4600
Guidance on roof systems,
wall systems, floor systems,
bracing systems, connectors
testing, durability, fabrication
and construction practice
Screw capacities tabulated
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WsW SYDNEY
(g) Steel decking for composite construction
Section 1.2(g)
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lMVEKSI7Y OF
W:W SYDNEY
Composite decking
*
Concrete
Reinforcing mesh
S
Decking profile
Concrete
Ribbed decking
Intermittent indentations
in profile (Embossments)
Concrete
Interlocking trough sections
Fig. 1.12 Deck Profiles for Composite Slabs
Studs in decking
19
R1 t> LMvtitsrrror
WW SYDNEY
Portal frames, steel sheds and
garages
Aligns with AS/NZS 1170 and
AS/NZS 4600
AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE
Guidance on shed basics,
loads (actions), analysis,
design (especially effective
lengths), and connections
STEEL SHED GHOUP
Design Guide
Portal Frames
Steel Sheds and Garages
111
"
Detailed information on wind
actions
Thlf Guide applies to steel framed and predominantly steel clad
fhedt and garages manufacturedfrom materials certified or
tested for compliance with Australian Standards
June 2009
pWll
mi LMvmsm or
bW SYDNEY
Special considerations in cold
formed steel design
Thinner sections
High strength steels
Coldforming processes
Connections
Section 1.4
20
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SsW SYDNEY
Local buckling and postlocal
buckling of ihin elements
(a)
Stiffened compression
element
(b) Unstiffened compression
(c) Edge stiffener
element
Multiple stiffened segment
Intermediat&J
stiffener
(d) Intermediate stiffener
(e) Effective width for
a stiffened element
(f) Effective width for
an unstiffened element
Fig. 1.16 Compression Elements
nu t NIVmiflY OF
SYDNEY
21
SYDNEY
Effective Width Method
Actual
Effective
Effective
Design of CoTdFormcd
Steel Structures
(to AS/NZS 46002005)
Actual
Section 4.3
(a) Stiffened element
(b) Unstiffened element
Fig. 4.3 Effective Stress Distributions
Winter Effective Width Formula
where
k = plate buckling coefficient (depends on boundary conditions)
Ucat
SYDNEY
Effective Section in Bending
a
Fig. 4.13 Bending stress with effective widths
22
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Till CMWKSITY OF
WS SYDNEY
(a) Compression
Distortional buckling
(b) Flexure
Fig. 1.18 Distortional Buckling Modes
DM
23
*5*75 I in* im\ iRsrrr or
Flange buckling model
SYDNEY
Dsign of ColdFormed
Steel Structures
(10 ASNZS 4600:2005)
Shear centre of
flange and lip
Lentroid
Flangeweb
junction
Section 5.3
of flange
and lip
a;
IT
2EI
T~
[b) Symmetric Web Bending
I'i.niijc
The flange may be
restrained by the web
II' 1
o "T"
(c) Asymmetric Restrained
Web Bending
Fig. 5.9 Flange Distortions! Buckling Model
SYDMY
Flexuraltorsional (lateral) buckling
Lateral
Buckling
Mode
Lateral
Buckling
Mode
(a) Iand Tsections bent about xaxis
Lateral
Buckling
Mode
Lateral
Buckling
Mode
(b) Hat and Inverted Hat Sections bent about yaxis
Fig. 5.1 Lateral Buckling Modes and Axes
24
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WW SYDNEY
Elastic buckling moment
The elastic buckling moment (/W0) of a simply
supported Ibeam, monosymmetric Ibeam or Tbeam bent about the xaxis perpendicular to the
web
where
Section 5.2
Bridging minimises flexuraltorsional
buckling
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1
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JM
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25
TMEUMNEHSmrOf
Propensity for twisting
SH SYDNEY
Eccentricity from shear centre
(e)
Load (P)
Shear
Centroid
centre
Flexural
deformation
of shear
centre
Torsional
deformation
f
/
/
Torque = P e
(a) Eccentrically loaded channel beam
SYDNEY
Bridging minimises twisting
26
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Bridging/ Bracing Systems
SYDNEY
n
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it
Bridging members x
Sheeting
Stiff
support
(a) Bridging or bracing members
Bridging may be omitted
/ Sheeting
fb) Alternating members
y5Sheeting
Cleats at supports
3
Stiff
perimeter
member
ft?
(c) Diaphragm connected to perimeter support
Sheeting connected at ridge
Sheeting
Bridging may be omitted
(d) Opposing and balancing purlins and sheeting
c
c
c
o
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SYDNEY
Buckled web
Concentrated force
Fig. 6.6 Web Crippling of an Open Section
27
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SYDNEY
Web crippling under bearing
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Flanges restrained
I/vvvacM
Flanges not restrained
HSS
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Web crippling empirical equation
WsW SYDNEY
ColdFormed
Steel Suocturos
Dusjfln of
(to A&'NZS 46002005)
(i) Back lo back
channel beam
(ii) Single web
(iii) Single web
(stiffened or partially
(unstiffened
stiffened flange)
flange)
Section 6.6
(a) Restraint against web rotation
Bearings
FreeJ
endl
HH
t1~
New in AS/NZS 4600:2005
Bearing
fb) Bearing length and position
The design
equation is:
Rb =
7777777777777777777777777777777
7377/
Bearing surface
(c) Section geometry
CtwJv sin 0
Fig. 6.7 Factors affecting Web Bearing Capacity
28
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THE t'MVERSTTY OF
WsW SYDNEY
Corrosion Protection
n
n
n
n
n
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Zinc (Z, ZF), AluminiumZinc (ZA, AZ)or
Aluminium/Zinc/ Magnesium (ZM, AM) coating
protects the steel no matter how thin
Coated and painted steel can be passed
through roll forming machines without damage
OLD TASL&
SYDNEY
Coating classes for corrosion
conditions
Coating Class
Application
ZlOO
A very thin, smooth and ductile coating for higher finishes in
internal, protected environments, eg for refrigerators and
dryers (in conjunction with paints).
Z200
A light coating for internal protected environments such as
ducting and washing machines
Z275, Z350
General purpose coatings.
Z450, AZ150
Recommended coatings for typical exterior protection, eg
roofing and accessories, and cladding.
Z600, AZ200
Heavy duty coatings designed for culverts and box gutters.
29
ruELsivfusmroF
WsW SYDNEY
Connections in thin sheet steels
Bolted connections
Screwed connections
Welded connections
Riveted connections
Power actuated fasteners
(PAFs)
SYDN! 1
Bolted connections in shear
(a) Single bolt (rf = 1)
CP dr O
CP
l.5df 3df
(b) Three bolts in line of force (rf =t)
(c) Two bolts across line of force (r f = 1)
fd) Double shear (with washers)
'e) Single shear (with washers)
)kJ
QjsLb
Tojt
30
TUHlN
tj
(a) Thicknesses
(b) Nominal screw
diameter (df )
el . Pi
e]> 3df, pi >3df
e2>1.5df,p2>3df
(c) Minimum edge distances and pitches
Fig. 9.15 Screws in Shear
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r5 SYDNEY
Bearing / Tilting Failure
Vl
"
:WSki'
v x
31
*PW
THE UNIVERSITY OF
r.jrj SYDNEY
Welded connections
Arc spot weld (puddle weld)
Arc seam welds
(e)
Flarebevel weld
Fig. 9.1 Fusion Weld Types
sydney
Failure modes in transverse fillet welds
.
Geometry
 Inclination failure
5k
Weld shear,
weld teanng Failure
If & plate teanng modes
(a) Single lap joint (TNO tests)
4w Sheet
tear
Geometry
and
failure mode
(b) Double lap joint (Cornell tests)
32
n
n
sydney
Failure modes in fillet welds
HAZ Failure
n
VmsID W)
3.0 mrr
Weld throat failure
I4.I
(a)
Single thickness of sheet
(c) Minimum edge distance (arc spot welds)
(b) Double thickncss of sheet
(d) Geometry and minimum edge distance (arc seam welds)
33
IMIfNIVfKmrOF
rjrj SYDNEY
Failure modes in arc spot welds
(a) Inclination failure
Buckled
plate
(b) Tearing and bearing at weld contour
Buckled
plate
(c) Edge failure
(d) Net section failure
(e) Weld shear failure
SYDNEY
Flare welds
OTfe'K
w1
tw
ii
(a) Flarebevel weld
is the lesser of
0.707twi and 0.707tW2
filled flush to surface or
(5/16)R filled flush to surface
X
Jl
(b) Flare Vweld
Fig. 9.5 Flare Weld CrossSections
34
SYDNEY
Power Actuated Fasteners (PAFs)
JL>8
Figure 2 PAF Geometric Variables Used in the Strength Prediction Model
New Clause E5 of NAS 2012
Includes tension (pull out) and shear
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WsW
SYDNEY
Second Order Elastic Analysis
Appendix 2 of NAS 2012
Members shall satisfy the provisions of Section C5 (Section
3.5 in AS/NZS 4600) with the nominal column strengths
determined using Kx and Ky = 1.0 (i.e. effective length leb in
AS/NZS 4600 equal to the actual length), and ax and ay = 1.0
and Cmx and Cmy = 1.0.
Flexural and axial stiffness shall be reduced using E* in place
of E
E* = 0.8 Tb E where Tb depends on the ratio of the load to the yield load and is
basically 1.0 for elastic problems and reduces above 0.5 Py
35
">*74 1 fMf UNIVERSITY OF
WsW SYDNEY
Conclusions
High strength coldformed sections can be
designed safely to AS/NZS 4600:2005
Coldformed sections offer many
advantages over hot rolled sections including
high strength, light weight and ease of
fabrication
Cold formed sections allow for innovative
building products to be developed
Gothic
j j
36
!
S
DESIGN OF COLDFORMED
STEEL STRUCTURES
'
"
'
Direct Strength Method of Design of
ColdFormed Beams/Purlins
Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock
37
THttMvtusrrrop
3ST SYDNEY
ColdFormed Steel Structures
Lecture 2
Direct Strength Method of Design of ColdFormed Beams/Purlins
Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock AM FTSE
SYDNEY
Oitf?
Wirt}
&c7 1 v(r
Direct Strength Method (DSM)
First proposed by Schafer and Pekoz in 1998
Included in the 2004 Supplement to the North American
Specification as Appendix 1 and now in NAS 2007
Included in AS/NZS 4600:2005 as Section 7
Developed for columns and beams
Not developed explicitly for beamcolumns
Not developed explicitly and calibrated for shear
38
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SYDNEY
American Iron and Steel Institute Design Guide
gr;
(D
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U
: "QJO
o
1
0)
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SYDNEY
Channel Section in Bending
Assume uniform
bending
I= 1.5 nm
i=2(X).(XX)Ml,i
Applied stress
39
Finite strip subdivision of edgestiffened
IP
plate
sydney
Cubic polynomial
transversely
Flexural
displacements
of plate
Membrane displacement
of edge stiffener
Linear
Sine curves
(b) Membrane and flexural buckling displacements
Gea
Signature curve of buckling stress versus
halfwavelength
sydney
For Beams
Each buckling moment
is calculated from the
buckling stress by
multiplying by the
gross section modulus
(Zf)
<rv
Local Mode (M0,)
\
Distortional Mode (Mod) FlexuralTorsional Mode (M0)
BvacKUs
40
M i vwiumror
SYDNEY
Flexuraltorsional, distortional and local
buckles
Local Buckle
Simulated
Wind Uplift
Testing
Distortional Buckle
IyW I mr iMNFRurvor
SW SYDNEY
DSM FlexuralTorsional Buckling Moment
Capacity (Mbe)
For
M0 < 0.56My
For 2.78M
>M0 >0.56M
Mbe = M0
10
Eq. 7.2.2.2(1)
10Mv
36M.
Eq. 7.2.2.2(2)
For
m0 > 2.imy
My
S3
\Mbe
=
Eq" 72 Z2(3)
where M0 = Elastic FT buckling moment
Mv = Yield moment of Gross Section
41
THEUMVEKSTYOF
SYDNEY
DSM Local Buckling Moment Capacity (Mbi)
Eq. 7.2.2.3(1)
Eq. 7.2.2.3(2)
where M0i = Elastic local buckling moment
Mbe = Flexuraltorsional buckling moment capacity
/\/
SYDNEY
=mmm
Eq. 7.2.2.3(3)
DSM Distortional Buckling Moment
Capacity (Mbd)
Eq. 7.2.2.4(1)
Eq. 7.2.2.4(2)
where M0d = Elastic distortional buckling moment
Mv = Yield moment
Ad
Eq. 7.2.2.4(3)
42
1 nif isivfrmtv oj
Direct Strength Method for beams
WiSl SYDNEY
Distortional tests
Local tests
 Winter
 Local curve
Distortional curve
.....
x
cvtf
Mo% S
'lt0
Strength
versus
i qs ( 12.1 ) to (12.3) and (12.7) to (12.9)
Slenderness
12)/
Eqs 1 12. 10) to 1 12
and ( 12.16) to ( 12. 18)
VpaCA
JVJX)
(jp
or
M, is the
yield moment
" VM7u
q,vq
efctfo
LxA&yit*
Direct Strength Design Moment
sydney
The Direct Strength Design Moment is the least of:
pMbe
where
(p
cpMbl
and (pMbd
is the Capacity Reduction Factor equal to 0.9
43
Till isi\msin of
SYDNEY
Prequalified compression members
tails %1J
UMIT* *0* fMQlAUIIKO COMTMOIO* Mnuu
For prequalified compression
members, use cp =0.85
For nonprequalified compression
members, use cp =0.80
4 *n
0W
rPwl
THE LMVIKSITYOF
Ws57 SYDNEY
NAS 2012 has an extended range
of prequalified members including
return lips
Prequalified members subject to
bending
jflHHjBi
For prequalified members,
subject to bending, use cp =0.90
For nonprequalified members
subject to bending, use cp =0.80
NAS 2012 has an extended
range of prequalified members
including return lips
44
10.5.2 Simply Supported CSection Beam
Example
1 nit t siviemr of
rif SYDNEY
Problem
Determine the nominal member moment capacity of the Csection beam
in Example 5.8.1 using the Direct Strength Method. The section geometry
is shown in Fig. 4.12 and the beam geometry in Fig. 5.22.
The section dimensions are given in Example 4.6.3 and the beam
dimensions in Fig. 5.22.
Fig. 5.22
Fig. 4.12
D = 200mm
B = 75 mm
t = 1.5 mm
dL = 16.5 mm
fy = 450 MPa
SYDNEY
From Example 5.8.1
C. Design Load on Braced Purlin
Clause 3.3.3.2.1 Members subject to lateral buckling Open
section members (a) singlysymmetric sections.
C1.
Fig 5.22
Uplift on tension flange q
Elastic Buckling Moment
_ Lateral + torsional
brace when included
/ez= /ey= 3500 mm
/ez= /ey= 3500 mm
L = 7000 mm
M3
BMP
r" m5
m4
.
Mmax
(a) Loading and bending moment distribution
\mo
= 7wL2/128
CbAroXyjj oyJ oz
(Eq. 3.3.3.2(8))
M5 =
M6 =
C =
125(MmaJ
2.5(MmJ+3(M3)+4(M4) 3(M5)I
(Eq. 3.3.3.2(9))
a
45
THFiMvttsmror
sydney
From Example 5.8.1
Buckling Stresses and Buckling Moment of Full Section
= 113.86MPa
, _ GJ
7T2EI.
Ar
ATo\ V
(Eq. 3.3.3.2(11))
(Eq. 3.3.3.2(12))
103.36MPa
Cb =
1.299
(Eq. 3.3.3.2(9))
M0=
7.612 kNm
(Eq. 3.3.3.2(8))
Yield Moment of Full Section
M=
15.269 kNm
(Eq. 3.3.3.2(7))
Signature Curve for CSection
inn
\
\
Distortional
mode
r""i
Local
mode
</\V \j
1
\\pJy
f0/ = 303.9 MPa
10
1=256.2 MPa
i 1
100
1i
1 1
1000
Buckle HalfWavelength (mm)
Co/yCTFrrfji
Fig.10.5 CSecfion in Bending
From Program THINWALL
(http://sydney.edu.au/engineering/civil/case/thinwall.shtml)
Alternatively use CUFSM (www.ce.jhu.edu/bschafer/cufsm)
46
RB ITf LMVfitsmroF
WB SYDNEY
A. Compute the Elastic Local and Distortional Buckling Stresses
and Moments using the Finite Strip Method
fol
fod
Zxf
303.9 MPa at 120 mm halfwavelength
256.2 MPa at 600 mm halfwavelength
3.393 *104 mm3 (Ex. 5.8.1)
Mol= Zxffol
= 10.311 kNm
M0C) =
= 8.693 kNm
Zxf fod
[ 
r9&]
r iMvuaiiYor
W? SYDNEY
B
Compute the Inelastic Lateral Buckling Moment Capacity (Mbe)
Since
Mbe = M0
=7.612 kNm
C Compute the Local Buckling Moment Capacity (Mbl)
Since
QjUQ
, use Eq. 7.2.2.3(2)
47
"*5*1
IHI lMVEKSITYOF
SW SYDNEY
D Compute the Distortional Buckling Moment Capacity (Mbd)
Since
N\l>
I*Wll
l~
Ni
T>if t Mvursnt of
WSW SYDNEY
E.
Nominal Member Flexural Moment Capacity (Mb)
Mh is the least of Mbe, Mbl and M,
Mb
= 7.139 kNm
This can be compared with 6.665 kNm in Example 5.8.1
using the effective width method.
D
t:
D
D
48
[wl
rmcNivnsmroF
Pig SYDNEY
Summary
The Direct Strength Method (DSM) uses the same equations
for the flexuraltorsional buckling moment and yield moment
of the full section as the Effective Width Method (EWM)
The DSM computes the elastic local buckling moment and
elastic distortional moment of the full section from the
"signature curve" and there is no need to compute effective
widths.
The DSM Moment Capacity is simply taken from the least of the
Inelastic Lateral Buckling Moment Capacity (Mbe)
Local Buckling Moment Capacity (Mbl)
Distortional Buckling Moment Capacity (Mbd)
wm
Sydney I Signature curves for CSection and Supacee
Maximum
Stress in
Section at
Buckling
(MPa)
Buckle HalfWavelenuth (mm)
49
ug
sydney
Failure Modes of SupaCee Section Members
M Test Series
/L~i
*'"1
With straps (local buckling)
M9n
Without straps (distortional buckling)
ntflMVIKSfTYOF
WsW SYDNEY
New developments in DSM
2012 Edition of the North American Specification
has 3 significant extensions to the DSM. These are:
Inclusion of holes in both flexural and compression
members
Inclusion of inelastic reserve capacity beyond My for
stocky sections in bending
DSM design for shear, and combined bending & shear
50
Distortional buckling in compression
with holes
SYDNEY
Yielding at net section
NAS 2012 rules
courtesy of AISI
DSM curve (no holes)
Transition to P
Distortional
buckling with holes
d2'' y
Elastic buckling
Ad2
Assumptions for this plot
Based on research
at Johns Hopkins
University
(Moen and Schafer)
ynet0'0Py
0.5
2
1
1.5
distortional slendernessA
Inelastic reserve capacity of beams
n\n
inelastic bending reserve
considered: sections
1.2.2.2.2 and 1.2.2.3.2
DSM Local Buckling Strength
DSM Distortional Buckling Strength
Elastic Buckling
inelastic bendinpX V.
reserve ignored:
sections 1.2.2.2.1
and 1.2.2.3.1
*H) I
postbuckling
t03\,
as
2i(l0.24 ) V
IMy
M,
,05
slendcrncss
3
=
NAS 2012 rules courtesy of AISI (Shifferaw and Schafer JHU)
51
o
n
MPnl THECMVUrSITYOF
SYDNEY
n
n
DSM design for shear
Research by Pham and Hancock at the University
of Sydney
Approved for the 2012 Edition of the NAS as Ballot
326C
a
a
o
o
Considers the case of the whole section in pure
shear
Based on a signature curve for pure shear recently
developed at the University of Sydney
o
o
o
niHMvmsmroF
SYDNEY
Shear flow distributions in a lipped
channel
c
D
80 mm
Buckling modes from spline
finite strip method
SYDNEY
The intermediate stiffeners can
enhance the shear buckling
stresses
Plain C and Supacee with Aspect Ratio 1:1
The flanges and lips can have a
significant influence on improving
the shear buckling capacity of
thinwalled channel sections
Plain C and Supacee with Aspect Ratio 2:1
SYDMY
Shear design curves in DSM format
_ \04
Vcr
Vy /
v,
cr
V Vy
includes TFA
AlSIShear Curve

Elastic Buckling Curve
Tension Field Action Curve
DSM Proposal Curve for Shear
V=V,
excludes TFA
Vcr is the shear buckling load
of the whole section
53
Failure mode of SupaCee section
V Test Series
SYDNEY
TMF IMMHSin
w SYDNEY Shear Tests compared with DSM Shear Proposals
1.2
n
a+
l V
"V.'kx\.

A
O
O
X
X
X
X
+
a
4
X*0
AlSIShear Curvewithout TFA
Elastic
Buckling CurveVcr
Tension Field Action (TFA) Curve
DSM Proposed Curve for Shearwith TFA
C 15015
C 150 19
CI5024
C20015
C20019
C20024
SC15012
SC 15015
SCI 5024
SC20012
SC20015
SC20024
UMRShear Tests
UMRExcluded Shear Tests
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
n. :/
\
\. m
N.
"
iii
1.2
1..
1.6
1.:
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.)
54
THE UNIVERSITY OF
SYDNEY
Buckling modes in pure shear
Local buckling
Distortional
buckling
n
n
WsW SYDNEY
Signature curve for plain lipped
channel in pure shear
Maximum Shear Stress
in Section at Buckling
(MPa)
iiiiim
Buckle HalfWavelength (mm)
annum
TUf tMVEHyTYOF
WsW SYDNEY
DSM for shear  Conclusions
Extensions of the Direct Strength Method (DSM) of design
of coldformed sections for shear have been proposed
The proposals are based on the shear buckling load Vcr
of the whole section in line with DSM philosophy
A signature curve for pure shear has been developed to
allow easy calculation of Vcr for use in the DSM
Local and distortional buckling modes in pure shear
have been identified using the SAFSM
The proposals have been approved as a ballot (CS 326C)
of the American Iron and Steel Institute Specification
Committee
(Sp
Sydney
__
DSM for Shear with Stiffeners
Research currently underway at the University of Sydney
. >
56
SYDNEY
DSM for Shear with Holes
Research currently underway at the University of Sydney
<,120
* g.
(\aA
SYDNEY
DSM for Shear with Holes
OOOIS
16
n
n
THE UNIVERSITY OF
SYDNEY
DSM design for purlins
Vacuum test rig
with continuous
lapped purlins
under wind uplift
o
o
o
D
D
O
o
o
SYDNEY
Vacuum test rig
Simulated upwards loading Simulated downwards loading
58
SYDNEY
7 metre
simple span
One row of
bridging
nircNivfitHTYor
Vacuum rig test programs
SYDNEY
Table 1. PurlinSheeting Test Programs Performed at the University of Sydney
Series
Loading
Spans*
Bridging t
Sheeting Type
Rafter Fixing
SI
Uplift
3span lapped
0,1.2
Screw fastened
Cleats
S2
Uplift
2span lapped
0,1,2
Screw fastened
Cleats
S3
Uplift
Simply supported
0,1,2
Screw fastened
Cleats
S4
Downwards
3span lapped
0,1
Screw fastened
Cleats
S5
Uplift
Simply supported
0, 1,2
Concealed fixed
Cleats
Cleats
S6
Uplift
3span lapped
Concealed fixed
S7
Uplift
Simply supported
0,1,2
Screw fastened
Cleats
S8
Uplift
Simply supported
3span lapped
1,2
Screw fastened
Cleats
* 3x7.0 m spans with 900 mm laps between bolt centres for 3span lapped configuration
2x10.5 m spans with 1500 mm laps between bolt centres for 2span lapped configuration
1x7.0 m span for simply supported configuration.
t 0: Zero rows of bridging in each span
1 : One row of bridging in each span
2: Single and double spans: Two rows of bridging in each span
Triple spans: Two rows of bridging in the end spans, one row in the central span
59
n
n
n
n
n
o
o
o
Till UNIVERSITY i
$ sydney
Flexuraltorsional buckling model for Mo
Cb approach uses BMD between brace points
Mm*
m3
Mi
MS
= Elastic buckling moment
(a) Positive moment (or negative) alone
12.5M,,,
1mm 2.5Mmax + 3M3 + 4M4 + 3M5
m4n
m3
_pfc
Ms
(b) Positive and negative moments
o
o
sydney
Flexuraltorsional buckling model for M0
FELB (Finite Element
Sheeting screw fastened to top flange
d5
Lateral Buckling)
Lap
Lap
i~i
UP*.
*

Lateral and torsional brace
End span
Interior span
(a) Element
Subdivision
inward
FELB approach models full
length lapped purlin
fciHffi
N.
\\/
 outward
Lateral
of centroid
Outward loading
Lateral
of centroid
 outward \
""yInward
loading
(c) Buckling modes
Fig. 5.6 BMD and Buckling Modes for Half Purlin
60
IM UMVBOmrOF
Sydney
SYDNEY
Design programs PURLIN 4600 and SUPAPURLIN
Deform
Stress
Strength
Service
f *? O
Bridging
Span Rows
2
3
Locations
7iJ I 50 1 50
 33 1 B! 33
7jJ 1 50 1 50
pfij I 50 1 50
rji 50 ) 50 1
SupaPurlin 1J)
Analysis and Design of Supa Purlins Al
Copyright 2003  University of SydneT
SERVICEABILITY DESIGN
Maximum Deflection
The maximum deflection is 5 = 53.92 n
Located at 4000 mm from left support
This represents a span/deflection ratio I
rii_ 
Ffjl
ri!
rdl I
Fzjl 50 50;'
Fd I
rn
P"~
Al Equal to Span 1
Inwards
C Outwards
Combined bending and shear
Interaction relationships
61
niE lSIVFRMTVOF
SYDNEY
Experimental rig for V and MV tests
Loading Rain
bphencal Head
Iwo C hannel
Section Members
LVDT 7
Load Transfer
Plate
rlali Round
BU]
LVD 8
A_ ip. LVUTs 1,4
200 V Series
400 Series
LVDT* 3.6
200 V Series
4001 Senes
50
Shear Diagram
m:
Moment Diagram
Interaction with Ms] \
Vv based on DSM p
AC15015
C15019
C 15024
A
C20015
C20019
o C20024
X SC15012
X SC15015
+ SCI5024
X SC20012
X SC20015
S SC20024
62
THE UNIVERSITY OF
SYDNEY
Comparisons with tests
FELB approach
O Test Lead/ EWMLoad
Test Load/ ESMLoad (Proposal 2)
A Test Load/ EWMLoad  LbwrAords
12.5
A Test Load/ ESMLoad(Proposal 2) Dcrv\rr\ards
12.0
1.5
a
I
10.0'
1/0
1/1
1/2
2/00
2/11
2/22
3/000
3/111
3/212
Span IBridging Configuration
riir
Comparisons with tests
Cb approach
iwvEBTTTor
SYDNEY
[&o
7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0 +
Test Load/ EWMLoad
Test Load/DSMLoad (Proposal 2)
A Test Load/ EWMLoad  Downwards
A Test Load/ E6MLoad (Proposal 2)  Downwards
3.0
2.0
1.0
1l
0.0
1/0
1/1
1/2
2/04)
2/11
2/22
3/000
Span IBridging Configuration
3/111
3/212
SYDNEY
Sheeting shear and flexural
stiffnesses
Line of support
(b) Sheeting shear stiffness (k )
Line of support
(a) Plan of sheeting
(c) Sheeting flexural stiffness (k)
SYinn
Effect of torsional restraint of sheeting (krs)
Sheeting
Torsion
Stage
Vertical Bending
Stage
(a) Deflection
Flange
element
Conventional
Spring stiffness
K
bending theory
with Icomputed
for twisted section
Torsion Stage
Vertical Bending Stage
(b) Models
64
0p[VJ\
Ml
mi isiviksiTY or
SYDNEY
NCTVTdD
Conclusions
The DSM and EWM methods have been compared with
a range of vacuum rig tests on purlin sheeting systems
with single, double and triple spans.
Both methods produced safe designs with the DSM
slightly less conservative than the EWM in general.
An extension of the DSM to shear and combined bending
and shear has been proposed with the section moment
capacity Ms based on Msi The proposals produce safe designs.
65
DESIGN OF COLDFORMED
STEEL STRUCTURES
Connections
j
!
I
:
.
Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock
66
n
nn
WjW
lMVFRVTY OP
SYDNEY
ColdFormed Steel Structures
Lecture 3
Connections
Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock AM FTSE
Connections in thin sheet steels
Bolted connections
Screwed connections
Welded connections
Power actuated fasteners (PAFs)
67
nil i v\!Km;yi>
Bolted Connection in Shear
sydney
Geometry
(a) Single bolt (ff
=
1)
0 0df
I.Sdf 3df
lb) Three bolts in line of force (rr y )
'
[c) Two bolts across line of force (rf = 1
[d) Double shear (with washers)
(e) Single shear (with washers)
SYO\l Y
Failure Modes in Bolted Connections in
Shear
(a) Tearout failure of sheet (Type I)
Buckled
plate
(b) Bearing failure of sheet material (Type II)
(c) Tension failure of net section (Type III)
(d) Shear failure of bolt (Type IV)
68
ii
Sydney
Failure Modes in G550 Steel Bolted
Connections
0.42
Iranv.
(a) End tearout failure
(.550
CPU
(b) Bearing Failure
(c) Net Section Tension Failure
Tlif LMVftSmrOF
SsW SYDNEY
Tearout and bearing failures
Failure Type
I
II
Iand II
a n and III
Tearout Failure of Sheet (Type I
ime university or
Tearout and bearing failures
Snw SYDNEY
_ fu/fy> 1.08
s*
:/
SNs\ fbu
fu
/
0
a"7
Failure Type
o I
a 11
Iand II
dh
e/dh
(b) Single shear

/>
connectionsfwithoutVashers
Tearout Failure of Sheet (Tvpe
Bearina Failure of Sheet (Tvoe II
Bearing coefficient C
SYDNEY
1
1AS/NZS 4600 : 2005, NAS
d/t <10: C = 3.0
10 < d/t < 22 : C = 4  O.lt/d
d/t > 22 : C = 1.8
AS/NZS 4600: 1996 AISI
50
Eurocode
CSAS136
d/t <10 : C = 3.0
10 < d/t < 15 : C = 30t/d
d/t >15: C = 2.0
15
d/t
20
25
30
Fig. 9. 13 Bearing Coefficient C for Bolted Conections
The modification factors depends on the type of bearing and
is specified in Table 5.3.4.2(A) of AS/NZS 4600
70
Sp SYDNEY
Modification factor a for bearing
Table 5.3.4.2(A)
Single shear and outside sheets of double shear
With washers under both bolt head and nut
1.00
Same as above without washers or with only one washer 0.75
Inside sheets of double shear with or without washers
(jg)
IN \i V.
.,
'
I wSYDNEY
1.33
Modification factor a for bearing
New in NAS 2012 Table E3.3.12
Single shear and outside sheets of double shear
With short slotted holes parallel to the applied load and without
washers under both bolt head and nut, or with only one washer
0.70
Single shear and outside sheets of double shear
with short slotted holes perpendicular to the applied load and
without washers under both bolt head and nut, or with only one
washer
0.50
Inside sheets of double shear using short slotted holes
perpendicular to the applied load with or without washers
0.90
71
a
SYDNEY
Net section failures
a
(1 0.9rf + 3rf (df/sf)
f o One
Bolts < a Two
Three
0.1+ 3.0
Multiple bolts case
df/sf
(a) Single shear with washers
SYDNEY
Net section failures
(1  rf + 2.5rf(df/sf))
f o One
Bolts < a Two
* Three
df/Sf
Multiple bolts case
(b) Single shear without washers
<0wl
IHFLMUHSJTVt*
357 SYDNEY
Shear Failure of Bolt (Type IV)
The nominal shear capacity (\/J of a bolt specified in Clause 5.3.5.1
of AS/NZS 4600 is the same as specified in AS 4100. It is given by:
0.62
fuf (nnAc + nxA0)
For combined tension and shear (same as AS41 00):
sydney
Example 9.8.2 Bolted Connection Design Example
Problem
Design a bolted connection in single shear to fully develop the
strength of the net section of the sheet using bolts in the line
of action of the force as shown in Fig. 9.9(b).
Use M12 bolts of strength grade 4.6 with washers under both head and nut.
Fig. 9.9(b)
73
die iMVMsmr of
WjW SYDNEY
A.
Plate Strength for Net Plate
Clause 5.3. 1
df = 12 mm
dh = diameter of standard hole
= df + 2.0 = 14 mm
Clause 3. 2
An = (bdh)t = {80  14)2.5= 165 mm2
Nt is the lesser of
(Eq. 3.2.2(1))
Nt=\fy
= (80 x2.5)
300
= 60000 N
= 60.0 kN
(Eq. 3.2.2(2))
Nt= 0.85 kt An fu
= 0.85 x 1.0 x 165 x 340
= 47685 N
= 47.69 kN < 60.0 kN
vn ITHCCMVUSITYOF
SW SYDNEY
Hence
Nd =
(p
Nt
= 0.90 x 47.69
= 42.92 kN
Clause 5.3.3
Where washers are provided under both the bolt head
and the nut for multiple bolts in the line parallel to the force.
Nf = fuAn
Nf = 340 x
Now
0=0.55
(Eq. 5.3.3(3))
165 = 56.1 kN
for single shear connections in Clause 5.3.3(a)
<f>Vw = 0.55 *56.1 =30.85 kN
<42.92 kN
74
p*yT
niECMYMsmrof
WW SYDNEY
Number of Bolts Required
B.
Strength Grade 4.6, hence fuf  400 MPa
Clause 5.3.5. 1
Vfv = 0.62fufAo
= 0.62 x 400
= 28048 N
= 28.05 kN
Hence
(Eq. 5.3.5.1(2))
113.1
= 0.80 for Clause 5.3.5.1
<t> Vtv = 0.80 x 28.05 = 22.44 kN
3(/> Vlv = 67.32 kN > 30.85 kN
If the shear plane contains the bolt thread, then the minor diameter area of the
bolt should be used for this calculation. In this case 30V/v = 43.3 kN > 30.H5 kN
run wvtptsfiYor
riW SYDNEY
C.
Check Bearing Capacity
Clause 5.3.4.2
Vb
aC
fu dft
(Eq. 5.3.4.2)
Table 5.3.4.2(A) (Modification Factor d)
Single shear with washers under both bolt head and nut
a =1.0
Table 5.3.4.2(B) (Bearing Factor C)
MS9M
m
Hence
Vb
= 3.00
fudft
= 3.00 x340
12 x 2.5 = 30600 N
= 30.6 kN
= 0.60 as given in Clause 5.3.4.2
<f>Vb= 78.36 kN
3</>Vb = 55.08 kN > 30.85 kN
75
nafel
jSJ
SYDNI \
IMF UMVERSTY Of
D.
Tearout
Clause 5.3.2
Use e = 25 mm
te fu
= 2.5 *25 *340 = 21250 N
= 2125 kN
Vf =
Now
since
$=
fu/fy =
</>Vf =
3</>Vf =
( Eq. 5.3.2(2))
0.70 for Clause 5.3.2
1.13 > 1.08
0.70 x 21.25 = 14.88 kN
44.63 kN > 30.85 kN
Also the distance from the centre of a standard hole to the
end of the plate must be greater than or equal to 1.5df =18 mm < 25 mm
and distance between centre of bolt holes must be greater than
or equal to 3df = 36 mm > e + 6 mm = 31 mm. Hence bolt hole spacing
W
is governed by the 3df requirement and not tearout.
I#] nulmvimirror
WsW SYDNEY
I I
Sf
i>d4
0 C
I
1.5df 3df
(b) Three bolts in line of force (r f =)
Final solution is three M12 Grade 4.6 bolts in line spaced 36 mm
between the centres of the bolt holes and 25 mm from the end of the plate
to the centre of the last bolt hole. Design load capacity is 30.85 kN
which is controlled by the plate strength design capacity and not the bolt
capacity in shear or plate bearing capacity.
76
TIIE UNIVERSITY 0T
SsW SYDNEY
Block shear rupture
ffs*

A/
V
fuAnt0.60fuAnv
Ch.zo
p
_q~Agv
L_
I
S*
(a)
Small shear force and large
tension force
6Z?
0.60,, fjAj,
9
Us*
(b) Large shear force and
small tension force
Fig. 9.20 Block Shear Rupture
n\n
Screw connections in shear
MB*
(a) Thicknesses
el
(b) Nominal screw
diameter (df )
Pi
ej> 3df, pi>3df
e2>1.5df,p2>3df
(c) Minimum edge distances and pitches
Fig. 9.15 Screws in Shear
77
mi t vunsmroF
SYDNEY
Tilting Failure of Screwed Connections
n
n
042/042 C.550
SYDNEY
Bearing Failure of Screwed Connections
78
u
to
Design for Shear
TMELMVOHmrOF
SYDNEY
When
t2 < t1
use the smallest of
CSAS136
d/tlO
dA < 15 : C = 30t/d
d/tl5: C = 2.0
AS/NZS 4600 1996 A1S1
C2.7
AS/NZS 4600 : 2005
d/t6: C2.7
6 < dA < 13 : C = 3.3  O.lt/d
d/t: C 2.0
When
When
t2> 2.5 t1
use the smaller of
2.5t1 > t2 >t1 ,
Fig. 9.17 Bearing Coefficient C for Screwed Connections
use linear interpolation
h
'
'1
Design for Tension
dW
7/x_t ], tensile strength f
\"1 \7/
t2 , tensile strength f
UN
(a) Valley (pan) fixed
TT n
t[ ,tensile strength f ul
t2 , tensile strength f
(b) Crest fixed
Fig. 9.18 Screws in Tension
79
n tMvmsmfor
teSf SYDNEY
Design for Tension
PullOut Failure
Eq. 5.4.3.2(2)
PullOver Failure (pan fastened)
Eq. 5.4.3.2(2)
where dw is the larger of the screw
head diameter and the washer
diameter but not greater than 12.5 mm
PullOver Failure (crest fastened)
c =
SYDNEY
0.54 (corrugated sheeting)
0.89 (wide pan trapezoidal sheeting)
0.79 (narrow pan trapezoidal sheeting
Combined tension and shear in
screwed connections
NAS 2012 has new rules for:
Combined shear and pullover (E4.5.1)
Combined shear and pullout (E4.5.2)
Combined shear and tension in screws
(E4.5.3)
80
1 TwruMMBrsiTroF
SsW SYDNEY
Welded connections
(a)
Butt weld
I.;'
'
spot weld (puddle weld)
seam welds
(e) Harebevel weld
Fig. 9.1 Fusion Weld Types
_____
Fai
we I
Geometry
Inclination failure
Weld shear
Failure
weld tearing
& plate tearing modes
(a) Single lap ioint (TNO tests)
Geometry
and
failure mode
(b) Double lap joint (Cornell tests)
81
Failure modes in longitudinal fillet welds
2N
!I A
Geometry
Transvi
plate
tearing
2N
mrnr
Weld shear
and tearing Failure
modes
at weld
contour
(a) Single lap joint (TNO tests)
lll
I
4N
4N
1 12> tj
Sheet tear
Geometry
and
failure mode
(b) Double lap joint (Cornell tests)
Fig. 9.4 Fillet Welds subject to
Longitudinal Loading
SYDNEY
Failure modes
HAZ Failure
a
a
Weld throat failure
82
SYDNEY
(b) Longitudinal (Fig. 9.4b)
(a) Transverse (Fig. 9.2b)
100
Theoretical Ultimate Load = 4V
Theoretical Ultimate Load = 2VW
STg 6T
WHt
Arc spot and arc seam welds
jt
Ud.
(a) Single thickness of sheet
Tnin mm
J_
o o
(c) Minimum edge distance (arc spot welds)
(b) Double thickncss of sheet
"min
(d) Geometry and minimum edge distance (arc seam welds)
Fig. 9.6 Arc Spot and Arc Seam Weld Geometry
83
&j)ISYDNEY
THE UNIVERSITY OF
Failure modes in arc spot welds
(a) Inclination failure
Buckled
plate
(b) Tearing and bearing at weld contour
Buckled
plate
(c) Edge failure
(d) Net section failure
(e) Weld shear failure
Flare welds
SYDNEY
t w is the lesser of
0.707twi and 0.707tW2
filled flush to surface or
(5/16)R filled flush to surface
0.833 tlw
fu
(a) Flarebevel weld
(b) Flare Vweld
Fig. 9.5 Flare Weld CrossSections
84
88
9.8.1 Welded Connection Design Example
Sydney
Problem
The 80 mm wide 2.5 mm thick G300 sheet is to be welded to the 5 mm
plate shown in Fig. 9.21 using either:
Longitudinal fillet welds, or
Combined longitudinal and transverse fillet welds,
(a)
(b)
determine the size of each weld to fully develop the design capacity
of the plate
I*W>
Tut isivmsnvoF
few SYDNEY
A.
Plate Strength for Full Plate
For a G300 steel, fy = 300 MPa and fu = 340 MPa
Clause 3.2
Use lesser of
Nt = Ag f=(bt) fy
(Eq. 3.2.2(1))
= (80 x 2.5) x 300
= 60000 N = 60.0 kN
N, = 0.85ktAnfu = 0.85kt (bt) fu
(Eq. 3.2.2(2))
= 0.85 x 1.0 x (80 x2. 5) x 340
= 578000 N = 57.8 kN
Hence the design capacity of the connection ( Nd) is given by
Nd=t, N,
= 0.90 x57.8
= 52.02 kN
85
n UMXtKMlYC*'
SYDNEY
Longitudinal Fillet Weld Design
B.
Clause 5.2.3.2(b)
El
Assuming
Vw = 0.75 t lwfu
Now (j>
(Eq. 5.2.3.2(3))
Vw< Nd where
<p= 0.55 for Clause 5.2.3.2(b)
52020
0.55(0.75x2.5x340)
0.55x0.75tf
1
2
= 1487?2m
148 n*
ML 74 in*
= 14mm = = 29.6 > 25
2
m t 2.5
niE usivf (tsirv of
WW SYDNEY
C.
Combined Longitudinal and Transverse Fillet Weld Design
Firstly, locate transverse fillet weld across full width of end of plate
as shown in Fig. 9.21(b).
Clause 5.2.3.3
WJtransverse
= t b f u = 2.5
= 68.0 kN
* 80 * 340
Now
</<p> = 0.60
(
$ VJ transverse = 40.8 kN
Hence required
(Eq. 5.2.3.3)
for Clause 5.2.3.3
(Nd)longitudjnal = Nd
$ ( vv) transverse
= 52.0240.8 = 11.22 kN
86
THUMVtKSin OF
SYDNEY
Try (lw)i=15 mm, hence
Hence for a longitudinal fillet weld each side,
2 <j>\/ = 2
7. 79 kN = 14.38 kN > 7122 kN
Hence use 15 mm additional fillet welds each side.
eorv'T w&co
SYI)\I
>
k&*1
$F7Hlzr&
?rec5i
7hj,
Power Actuated Fasteners (PAFs)
SU
Figure 2 PAF Geomeiric Variables Used in the Strength Prediction Model
New Clause E5 of NAS 2012
Includes tension (pull out) and shear
87
Rw nu usivfRsmr o"
W33 SYDNEY
PAF Design Rules in NAS 2012
E5.2.1 Tension strength  formula given based on section area
E5.2.2 Pullout  independent laboratory testing required
E5.2.3 Pullover  formula given similar to screws
E5.3.1 Shear strength formula given based on section area
E5.3.2 Bearing and tilting strength  new formula
E5.3.3 Pullout strength in shear  new formula
I"ftys 1 THfUSIVHlSITYOF
WSSf SYDNEY
Bolted connections have a greater propensity for bearing
failure and normally require washers
Screws can undergo tilting as well as bearing failure
Welds can have failure in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and
require special rules based on the parent metal strength
G450 Steel can now be designed according the AS/NZS
4600:2005
New rules have been developed for PAFs in the NAS 2012
88
DESIGN OF COLDFORMED
STEEL STRUCTURES
Design Examples
Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock
89
, insm i
SYDNEY
ColdFormed Steel Structures
Lecture 4
Design Examples of Lapped ZSection Purlin
and Lipped Channel Column in Compression
Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock AM FTSE
ip Sydney
Ex 5.8.4 Continuous Lapped ZSection Purlin
w = 1 kN/m
Brace
Lap (900 mm)
(a) Geometry
Fig. 5.24
2800 4200 3500 3500 4200 2800
(all dimensions in mm)
3.79 kNm at
brace point
Includes double
stiffness in lap
(b) Bending
Moment
Determine the maximum
uplift and downwards
design load on the
Zsection purlin
Distribution
3.42 kNm at
end of lap
2.75 kN
3.76 kNm at
end of lap
3.50 kN
Reverse signs
for uplift loading
Use the Effective Width
Method (EWM) and
Direct Strength Method
(DSM)
(c) Shear
orce
Diagram
3.80 kN at
end of lap
4.25 kN
3.05 kN at
end of lap
90
SYDNEY
ZSection purlin
79 mm
t = 1.5 mm
(D
yg
Internal corner radii (r j ) = 5mm
yparallel with web
xparallel with flanges
t = 1.5 mm
D = 203 mm
i
r = 5.75 mm
u = 1.57r
= 9.03 mm
c = 0.637r
= 3.66 mm
Ig = 0.149r3
= 28.3 mm3
I dn = 15 mm
(a) Crosssection
Bt
= 74 mm
i'Ns'
(b) Line element model
Fig. 5.23
nif university of
WW SYDNEY
Program THINWALL
Local and distortional buckling stresses
Distortional bucklina
Compression in wide flange ad = 222 MPa, A = 600 mm
Compression in narrow flange od = 236.7 MPa, A = 700 mm
Local buckling
Compression in wide flange al = 304.6 MPa, A = 120 mm
Compression in narrow flange al = 296.2 MPa, A = 120 mm
91
HWn nit isrxmsrrv of
SYDNEY
Lipped Zed Notepad file for PURLIN
n
o
o
Name
Grade
"Z20015S" "G450"
Name
Grade
"Z20015S" "G450"
E
D
F
T
L
R1
R2
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
203
74
79
fol b fod b
(MPa) (MPa)
300.4
229.4
15.0
1.5
5.0
5.0
fol c fod c
(MPa) (MPa)
58.0
105.9
The local and distortional buckling stresses are the mean
of the wide and narrow flange values from THINWALL
ral niF iMvutsmroF
WW SYDNEY
Solutions from PURLIN
Effective Width Method
Lowest load factor = 2.183 (cf 2.165 in DCFSS Ed 4th)
Flexuraltorsional buckling 2800mm from LH support
Section capacity
FT buckling
Distortional buckling
Shear capacity
Combined M&V
Bolt shear
2.690
2.183
2.235
4.066
2.386
3.905
92
Direct Strength Method
Lowest load factor = 2.235
Distortional buckling 2800mm from LH support)
This value is 2.2% higher than the EWM
THI LMVUMTYOr
r5 SYDNEY
Ex 7.6.3
Lipped Channel Column
Problem
Determine the nominal member axial capacity (A/c) for the lipped channel
section of length 2000 mm shown in Fig. 7.12 assuming the channel is loaded
concentrically through the centroid of the effective section and the effective
lengths in flexure and torsion are based on a lateral and torsional restraint
in the plane of symmetry at midheight. This is similar to a wall stud in a steel
framed house with a noggin (bridging) at midheight.
D = 100 mm
B = 75 mm
2000 mm
1000 mm
t = 1.5 mm
dL = 16.5 mm
1000 mm
fy = 300 MPa
Fig. 7.12
93
I425*1
rut 1mvfiwty of
SYDNEY
Example 7.6.3
Major and Minor Axis Second Moments of Area (Ix, ly) and
Torsion Constant (J) of Full Section accounting for Rounded Corners
lx = 7.116 x705 mm4
I =3.155 *105mm4
J = 304.37 mm4
Fig. 7.12
hPftl tmf iT.ivutsmrof
r5 SYDNEY
Warping Constant and Shear Centre Position for Full Section with Square
Corners
= 7. 632><105 mm4
= 37. 75 mm
= 7.521 x708mm6
= 65.61 mm
Fig. 7.12
94
AS 4100 1998
(% = 0.5)
0.8
fn = 10.658
AS/NZS 4600
1996
and A1SI 1996
AISILRFD 1991
0.877
AS 1538  1988
(unfactored)
kr=<fJfn
y
*oc
where
Fig. 7.3 Compression Member Design Curves
n iMVfK&mrop
Buckling Stresses of Full Section
WSW SYDNEY
Flexural buckling about the major xaxis
(Eq. 3.3.3.2(14))
= 865.35MPa
Flexural buckling about the minor xaxis
(Eq. 3.3.3.2(11))
= 1534MPa
Torsional buckling
543.94MPa
(Eq. 3.3.3.2(12))
n
n
n
n
o
n
n
n
rn Tin
SYDNEY
For a section monosymmetric about the xaxis, the critical stress foc
is the lesser of the minor axis flexural buckling stress and the flexuraltorsional buckling stress
(Eq. 3.3.3.2(11))
D
(Eq. 3.4.3(1))
foc lower value = 369.95 MPa
SYDNEY
fn = (o.658Ac If
= 213.66MPa
c
c
(c) Line element model
(d) Effective widths
96
nif LMvutsrnror
SYDNEY
Actual
Effective
Effective
Actual
Supported
edge
(a) Stiffened element
(b) Unstiffened element
a
o
Fig. 4.3 Effective Stress Distributions
Winter Effective Width Formula
where
k = plate buckling coefficient (depends on boundary conditions)
SYDNEY
Boundary
Conditions
s.s
;
S.S
s.s
Uniform
Compression
p
s.sr
r~
Uniform
Compression
s.s_
Compression
s.s
Builtin
Builtin
S.S
Loading
1ivc
Uniform
Builtin
Uniform
Free
Compression
Buckling
Coefficient (k)
0.425
0.675
Half Wavelength
L =oo
L = 2b
l'"roc
The web is under pure
compression k = 4.0
Bending
1SS "
V's
The lip is under pure
compression so k = 0.43
Pure
Bending
V3
The flange is partially stiffened
by an edge stiffener and has
k between 0.43 and 4.0
Compression
F7
SSF
EH3
Bending
Compression
Pure
Shear
5.35
L =oo
9.35
L=b
L = Plate length, b = Plate width
Fig. 4.1 Plate Buckling Coefficients
97
Tllf t'NI\TRnrOP
WH SYDNEY
Element 1  Compression Lip
Clause 2. 3. 1 Uniformly compressed unstiffened element
d = dL (rt + t)
= 10 mm
k = 0.43
(Eq. 2.2.1.2(5)
(Eq. 2.2.1.2(4))
dse = d
= 12 mm since A< 0.673
Lip fully effective
(Eq. 2.4.2(10))
rl TMEUMVIHSrnrOF
r&f SYDNEY
Element 3 Flange flat
b
B 2(ri + t) =66 mm
=
b/t = 44
This value must not exceed 60 (Clause 2.1 .3.1(a))
(Eq. 2.4.2(13))
b /t > 0.328S Flange not fully effective without stiffener
Calculate buckling coefficient (k) and stiffener reduced effective width (d )
(Table 2.4.2)
(Eq. 2.4.2(7))
98
1 rHitsivfitsinrop
Pi? SYDNEY
Clause 2.2. 1.2 Effective width of flange Element 3 for strength (see Fig. 7.12)
(Eq. 2.2.1.2(5))
(Eq. 2.2.1.2(4))
(Eq. 2.2.1.2(3))
R*n
nil[ UMVmSfTYOF
Wfl SYDNEY
Element 5  Web
Clause 2. 3. 1 Uniformly compressed stiffened element
b = 91mm
k = 4.00
(Eq. 2.2.1.2(5)
(Eq. 2.2.1.2(4))
(Eq. 2.2.1.2(3))
bew=
pb = 68.65 mm
99
Ps%n
THUMVIKSITVOF
SYDNEY
n
n
o
D.
E.
Nominal Member Compression Capacity (A/c)
Ae =t (bew + 2bef +4u +2ds ) =317.09 mm2
Nc = Atf = 67.75 kN
Effective Area at Yield Stress (fy)
o
c
(Eq. 3.4.1(2))
Ae =t (bew + 2bef +4u +2ds )
=281.47 mm2
Nominal Section Compression Capacity (Ns)
F.
Ns = Aefy = 84.44 kN
(Eq. 3.4.1(1))
C
C
the iMviBsrnroF
SYDNEY
Design Axial Compressive Force (Nd)
0C = 0.85
Nd = lesser of (/>NS and </>Nc =
57.59 kN
c
c
100
rn
THEtMVIIBmrOP
WsW SYDNEY
Summary for Effective Width Method
1.
Compute buckling stresses (flexural and flexuraltorsional) of full
section for effective lengths about x, y and zaxes
2.
Compute critical stress fn
3.
Compute effective area (Ae) at the critical stress f* = fn
4.
Compute design load (Nd)
rut iMVE*vrror
htf SYDNEY
i
Lipped Channel Column
Example 10.5.1
(Direct Strength Method)
Determine the nominal member compression capacity (Nc) of the lipped channel
in Example 7.6.3 using the Direct Strength Method. The geometry is shown in
Fig. 7.12 and the dimensions in Example 7.6.3.
101
Signature Curve for CSection
THt LSIYtlCUTY OF
SYDNEY
Distortionai
mode
f0/
=218.6 MPa
_I
I I I I I11
_I
I II I I I
100
1000
0000
Buckle HalfWavelength (mm)
Fig. 10.4 Lipped Channel in Compression
From Program THINWALL
(http://sydney.edu.au/engineering/civil/case/thinwall.shtml)
ra IHElMVmSJIYOF
fe? SYDNEY
A. Compute the Elastic Local and Distortionai Buckling Stresses
and Loads using the Finite Strip Method
fol
fod
218.6 MPa at 90 mm halfwavelength
245.2 MPa at 650 mm halfwavelength
405.8 mm2
(Ex. 7.6.3)
fol
= 88.708 kN
fod
= 99.502 kN
102
THE UNIVERSITY OF
WW SYDNEY
B Compute the Nominal Member Capacity for Long Column Buckling(A/ce)
fL
from Ex 7.6.3
Nce = Afn
= 86. 703 kN (the mode is flexuraltorsional)
C Compute the Nominal Member Capacity for Local Buckling (/Vc/)
Since
jKQ
, use Eq. 7.2.1.3(2)
/
THE CNJVmiTYC*
WsW SYDNEY
D Compute the Nominal Member Capacity for Distortional Buckling (Ncd)
Since
, use Eq. 7.2.1 4(2)
103
11ntf uMvotsmrof
SYDNEY
E.
Nominal Member Compressive Capacity(N )
Nc is the least of Nce, Ncl and Ncd
Nc
= 74.254 kN
This can be compared with 67.75 kN in Example 7.6.3 using
the effective width method.
F.
Design Compressive Capacity (Nd)
Oc = 0.85
Nd = ())N
sydney
= 57.59 kN
Summary for Direct Strength Method
Compute buckling stresses (flexural and flexuraltorsional) of full
section for effective lengths about x, y and zaxes
Compute local (fol) and distortional (fod) buckling stresses from the
signature curve
Compute the long column capacities (Nce, Ncl and Ncd)
Compute nominal member capacity (Nc) and design load (Nd)
104