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Acftvv) l\) 67

Design of Cold -Formed

n
D

Australian steel institute

SteelStructuresSeminar

Presenter:

Professor Greg Hancock, Emeritus Professor, and


Professorial Research Fellow,
University of Sydney.

www.steel.org.au

DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED
STEEL STRUCTURES

Introduction to Cold-Formed Steel Design

Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock


2

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W? SYDNEY

Cold-Formed Steel Structures


Lecture 1
Introduction to Cold-Formed Steel Design
Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock AM FTSE

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Wsgl SYDNEY

Cold-Formed Steel Design


Standards

Australian/New Zealand Standard


AS/NZS 4600:2005
North American Specification - 2012
Developed by the AISI

Eurocode 3 Part 1.3

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SYDNEY

AS/NZS 4600 : 2005

Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Austrafcm/New Zealand Standard'


Cold-formed steel structures

Design of Cold-Formed
Steel Structures
(to AS.NZS 4600:2005)

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KW SYDNEY

North American Specification

North American Specification


for the Design of Cold-Formed
Steel Structural Members

2012 Edition

TM LMVEHHTY Of

r-5 SYDNEY

Eurocode 3 Part 1.3


BimnSTANOA*D

Eurocode 3 Design of
steel structures

Part 1-3: General rule*


Supplementary rule* for cold-formed
member* and nheetln#

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Australian/ New Zealand Standard


AS/NZS 4600:2005

Similar to the North American Specification

Increased range of steels G450 - G550 to


Australian Standard AS 1397
steels less than 1.0 mm thick can be
used for structural members, i.e. wall studs
and truss chords in steel framed houses

>0.90fy and 0.90fu used in G550 design

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WsW SYDNEY

AS 1397-2011

Coating Classes

Zinc (Z)

Zinc/Iron Alloy (ZF)*

Zinc/Aluminium (ZA)*

Australian Standard*
Continuous hot-dip metallic coated steal
sheet and stripCoatings of zinc and
zinc alloyed with aluminium and
magnesium

Zinc/Aluminium/Magnesium (ZM)*

Aluminium/Zinc (AZ)
Aluminium/Zinc/Magnesium (AM)"

New in AS 1397 -2011

SYDNEY

Roll-Forming Machine

SYDNEY

r*fcl

Punching and marking in C-Section

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WiW SYDNEY

Common Section Profiles and


Applications of Cold-Formed
Steel
Section 1.2

3a

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SYDNEY

(3) Roof and Wall Systems of Industrial,

Rural and Commercial Buildings

Section 1.2(a)

Tin 1 wvmsmroF

SYDNEY

Roof and Walls

"31*7*1

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2D Frame with Purlins

SHW SYDNEY

"N'5

SYDNEY

QtoVTVe.

"

Purlin and Cleat

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SYDNEY

Simple

Complex

Z (Zed) sections

Simple

Complex

C (Channel) sections
(a) Typical Sections

(b) Typical sheeting profiles for screwed connections

(c) Typical sheeting profiles for concealed fasteners

Innovative SupaZed Section

Fig. 1.1 Roof and Wall Section Profiles

THEUMVtRSfTYOP

SYDNEY

Concealed Fixed Kliplok Sheeting

Kliplok Concealed Fasteners

10

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n

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-.37 SYDNEY

n
n
n

(b) Steel racks for supporting storage pallets

o
o

Section 1.2(b)

n
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n

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SYDNEY

FIGURE t.3.1 (Input) ADJUSTABLE PALLET RACKING

c
c

11

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few SYDNEY

AS 4084-2012

New Features in 2012

Limit States Design to


AS/NZS 4600

Australian Standard*
Stool storage racking

Loading (action)
combinations for racks
Geometric non-linear
analysis (GNA)

Extended range of
test methods

SYDNEY

SYDNEY

n
n

(c) Structural members for plane and space


trusses

Section 1.2(c)

D
D

C
D

Tubular
top

chord
Tubular
-web
member

_ Tubular
bottom
chord

(a) Tubular truss

Bolted or welded connections


Channel
_ section

top chord

Channel or
~

tubular web
member

-Channel

(b) Channel section truss

Fig. 1.8 Plane Truss Frames

section
bottom
chord

DIE UMVEKSTTYOF

WW SYDNEY

(e) Domestic wall framing


and

(f) Floor bearers and joists


Sections 1.2(e) and (f)

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SYDNEY

Wall and floor


systems

Lipped or
unlipped
channel

stud

%
I 9% %
Noggin

Mechanical
or welded

k
connection

Bottom plate
(a) Mill framing

Particle board
sheeting
Hat section
joists

vj

A
i

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I

Deep hat section bearers


or UB bearers

Ajl
(b) Floor system

Fig. 1.10 Domestic Construction

14

Tltf UNIVERSITY OF

SYDNEY

Braced Wall Panel

SYDNEY

15

rm university of

SYDNEY

Two-storey steel house composed of G550 Steel

G550 Sheet Steels

SYDNEY

Deformed
elongated
grains
New grains
forming

Structure

composed
New grains
growing

entirely ol

new grains

Remnants
of deformed
grains

Cold reduced to thickness.


G550 less than 1.0 mm thick
Stress relief annealed.
Higher fy & fu and lower ductility - Anisot

16

SYDNEY

Typical Stress-Strain Curves


High strength steel G550

Conventional steel G300

Strain-hardening range

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SYDNEY

Roof trusses in Indonesia composed of


G550 Steel

SYDNEY

Shopping complex roof composed


of G550 Steel

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SYDNEY

Steel Framing Design Guide

Aligns with AS/NZS 1170 and


AS/NZS 4600

Guidance on roof systems,


wall systems, floor systems,
bracing systems, connectors
testing, durability, fabrication
and construction practice

Screw capacities tabulated

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WsW SYDNEY

(g) Steel decking for composite construction

Section 1.2(g)

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lMVEKSI7Y OF

W:W SYDNEY

Composite decking
*

Concrete

Reinforcing mesh

-S
Decking profile

Concrete

Ribbed decking

Intermittent indentations
in profile (Embossments)

Concrete

Interlocking trough sections

Fig. 1.12 Deck Profiles for Composite Slabs

Studs in decking

19

R1 t> LMvtitsrrror

WW SYDNEY

Portal frames, steel sheds and


garages

Aligns with AS/NZS 1170 and


AS/NZS 4600
AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE

Guidance on shed basics,


loads (actions), analysis,
design (especially effective
lengths), and connections

STEEL SHED GHOUP

Design Guide
Portal Frames
Steel Sheds and Garages

111

"

Detailed information on wind


actions

Thlf Guide applies to steel framed and predominantly steel clad


fhedt and garages manufacturedfrom materials certified or
tested for compliance with Australian Standards

June 2009

pWll

mi LMvmsm or

bW SYDNEY

Special considerations in cold-

formed steel design

Thinner sections

High strength steels


Cold-forming processes

Connections
Section 1.4

20

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SsW SYDNEY

Local buckling and post-local


buckling of ihin elements

(a)

Stiffened compression
element

(b) Unstiffened compression

(c) Edge stiffener

element

Multiple stiffened segment

Intermediat&J
stiffener

(d) Intermediate stiffener

(e) Effective width for


a stiffened element

(f) Effective width for


an unstiffened element

Fig. 1.16 Compression Elements

nu t NIVmiflY OF

SYDNEY

21

SYDNEY

Effective Width Method

Actual

Effective

Effective

Design of CoTd-Formcd
Steel Structures

(to AS/NZS 46002005)

Actual

Section 4.3
(a) Stiffened element

(b) Unstiffened element

Fig. 4.3 Effective Stress Distributions

Winter Effective Width Formula

where

k = plate buckling coefficient (depends on boundary conditions)

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SYDNEY

Effective Section in Bending

a
Fig. 4.13 Bending stress with effective widths

22

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Till CMWKSITY OF

WS SYDNEY

(a) Compression

Distortional buckling

(b) Flexure

Fig. 1.18 Distortional Buckling Modes

DM

23

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Flange buckling model

SYDNEY

Dsign of Cold-Formed
Steel Structures
(10 AS-NZS 4600:2005)

Shear centre of
flange and lip

Lentroid

Flange-web
junction

Section 5.3

of flange
and lip
a;

IT

2EI

T~

[b) Symmetric Web Bending

I'i.niijc

The flange may be


restrained by the web

-II' 1

o "T"

(c) Asymmetric Restrained


Web Bending

Fig. 5.9 Flange Distortions! Buckling Model

SYDMY

Flexural-torsional (lateral) buckling


Lateral

Buckling
Mode

Lateral

Buckling
Mode

(a) Iand T-sections bent about x-axis

Lateral

Buckling
Mode

Lateral

Buckling
Mode

(b) Hat and Inverted Hat Sections bent about y-axis

Fig. 5.1 Lateral Buckling Modes and Axes

24

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WW SYDNEY

Elastic buckling moment

The elastic buckling moment (/W0) of a simply


supported I-beam, monosymmetric I-beam or Tbeam bent about the x-axis perpendicular to the
web

where

Section 5.2

Bridging minimises flexural-torsional


buckling

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JM
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25

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Propensity for twisting

SH SYDNEY

Eccentricity from shear centre

(e)
Load (P)

Shear

Centroid

centre

Flexural
deformation
of shear
centre

Torsional
deformation

f
/
/

Torque = P e
(a) Eccentrically loaded channel beam

SYDNEY

Bridging minimises twisting

26

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n

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Bridging/ Bracing Systems

SYDNEY

n
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it

Bridging members x

Sheeting

Stiff
support

(a) Bridging or bracing members

Bridging may be omitted

/ Sheeting

fb) Alternating members

y5Sheeting

Cleats at supports

-3

Stiff

perimeter
member

ft?

(c) Diaphragm connected to perimeter support

Sheeting connected at ridge

Sheeting

Bridging may be omitted

(d) Opposing and balancing purlins and sheeting

c
c

c
o

no LMVUtsrrror

SYDNEY

Buckled web

Concentrated force

Fig. 6.6 Web Crippling of an Open Section

27

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SYDNEY

Web crippling under bearing

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Flanges restrained

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Flanges not restrained

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Web crippling empirical equation

WsW SYDNEY

Cold-Formed
Steel Suocturos

Dusjfln of

(to A&'NZS 46002005)


(i) Back lo back
channel beam

(ii) Single web

(iii) Single web

(stiffened or partially

(unstiffened

stiffened flange)

flange)

Section 6.6

(a) Restraint against web rotation

Bearings

FreeJ
endl-

HH

-t1~

New in AS/NZS 4600:2005

Bearing
fb) Bearing length and position

The design
equation is:

Rb =

7777777777777777777777777777777
7377/
Bearing surface
(c) Section geometry

CtwJv sin 0

Fig. 6.7 Factors affecting Web Bearing Capacity

28

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n
n
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fW j

THE t'MVERSTTY OF

WsW SYDNEY

Corrosion Protection

n
n
n

n
n
n

Zinc (Z, ZF), Aluminium-Zinc (ZA, AZ)or


Aluminium/Zinc/ Magnesium (ZM, AM) coating
protects the steel no matter how thin

Coated and painted steel can be passed


through roll forming machines without damage

OLD TASL&

SYDNEY

Coating classes for corrosion


conditions

Coating Class

Application

ZlOO

A very thin, smooth and ductile coating for higher finishes in


internal, protected environments, eg for refrigerators and
dryers (in conjunction with paints).

Z200

A light coating for internal protected environments such as


ducting and washing machines

Z275, Z350

General purpose coatings.

Z450, AZ150

Recommended coatings for typical exterior protection, eg


roofing and accessories, and cladding.

Z600, AZ200

Heavy duty coatings designed for culverts and box gutters.

29

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WsW SYDNEY

Connections in thin sheet steels


Bolted connections

Screwed connections

Welded connections
Riveted connections
Power actuated fasteners
(PAFs)

SYDN! 1

Bolted connections in shear

(a) Single bolt (rf = 1)

CP dr O

CP
l.5df 3df

(b) Three bolts in line of force (rf =t)

(c) Two bolts across line of force (r f = 1)

fd) Double shear (with washers)

'e) Single shear (with washers)

)kJ

QjsLb

Tojt

30

TUHlN

tj
(a) Thicknesses

(b) Nominal screw


diameter (df )

el . Pi
e]> 3df, pi >3df

e2>1.5df,p2>3df

(c) Minimum edge distances and pitches

Fig. 9.15 Screws in Shear

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r-5 SYDNEY

Bearing / Tilting Failure

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v x

31

*PW|

THE UNIVERSITY OF

r.-jrj SYDNEY

Welded connections

Arc spot weld (puddle weld)

Arc seam welds

(e)

Flare-bevel weld

Fig. 9.1 Fusion Weld Types

sydney

Failure modes in transverse fillet welds

.
Geometry

- Inclination failure
5k

Weld shear,
weld teanng Failure
If & plate teanng modes

(a) Single lap joint (TNO tests)

4w Sheet
tear

Geometry

and
failure mode

(b) Double lap joint (Cornell tests)

32

n
n

sydney

Failure modes in fillet welds

HAZ Failure

n
VmsID W)

3.0 mrr

Weld throat failure

I-4.-I
(a)

Single thickness of sheet

(c) Minimum edge distance (arc spot welds)

(b) Double thickncss of sheet

(d) Geometry and minimum edge distance (arc seam welds)

33

IMIfNIVfKmrOF

rjrj SYDNEY

Failure modes in arc spot welds

(a) Inclination failure

Buckled
plate
(b) Tearing and bearing at weld contour

Buckled
plate
(c) Edge failure

(d) Net section failure

(e) Weld shear failure

SYDNEY

Flare welds

-OTfe'K

w1

tw

ii
(a) Flare-bevel weld

is the lesser of

0.707twi and 0.707tW2

filled flush to surface or


(5/16)R filled flush to surface
X

Jl
(b) Flare V-weld

Fig. 9.5 Flare Weld Cross-Sections

34

SYDNEY

Power Actuated Fasteners (PAFs)

JL>8
Figure 2 PAF Geometric Variables Used in the Strength Prediction Model

New Clause E5 of NAS 2012


Includes tension (pull out) and shear

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WsW
SYDNEY

Second Order Elastic Analysis

Appendix 2 of NAS 2012

Members shall satisfy the provisions of Section C5 (Section


3.5 in AS/NZS 4600) with the nominal column strengths
determined using Kx and Ky = 1.0 (i.e. effective length leb in
AS/NZS 4600 equal to the actual length), and ax and ay = 1.0
and Cmx and Cmy = 1.0.
Flexural and axial stiffness shall be reduced using E* in place
of E
E* = 0.8 Tb E where Tb depends on the ratio of the load to the yield load and is
basically 1.0 for elastic problems and reduces above 0.5 Py

35

|">*74 1 fMf UNIVERSITY OF

WsW SYDNEY

Conclusions

High strength cold-formed sections can be


designed safely to AS/NZS 4600:2005

Cold-formed sections offer many


advantages over hot rolled sections including
high strength, light weight and ease of
fabrication
Cold -formed sections allow for innovative
building products to be developed

Gothic

j j

36

!
S

DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED
STEEL STRUCTURES
'

"

'

Direct Strength Method of Design of


Cold-Formed Beams/Purlins

Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock


37

THttMvtusrrrop

3ST SYDNEY

Cold-Formed Steel Structures


Lecture 2
Direct Strength Method of Design of ColdFormed Beams/Purlins
Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock AM FTSE

SYDNEY

Oitf?

Wirt}

&c7 1 v(r

Direct Strength Method (DSM)

First proposed by Schafer and Pekoz in 1998


Included in the 2004 Supplement to the North American
Specification as Appendix 1 and now in NAS 2007
Included in AS/NZS 4600:2005 as Section 7
Developed for columns and beams

Not developed explicitly for beam-columns


Not developed explicitly and calibrated for shear

38

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SYDNEY

American Iron and Steel Institute Design Guide

gr;

(D

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U

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1

0)

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SYDNEY

Channel Section in Bending

Assume uniform
bending

I= 1.5 nm

i=2(X).(XX)Ml,i

Applied stress

39

Finite strip subdivision of edge-stiffened


IP
plate
sydney

Cubic polynomial

transversely

Flexural

displacements
of plate
Membrane displacement
of edge stiffener
Linear
Sine curves
(b) Membrane and flexural buckling displacements

Gea
Signature curve of buckling stress versus
half-wavelength

sydney

For Beams
Each buckling moment
is calculated from the
buckling stress by
multiplying by the
gross section modulus
(Zf)

<rv
Local Mode (M0,)
\

Distortional Mode (Mod) Flexural-Torsional Mode (M0)


BvacK-Us
40

M i vwiumror

SYDNEY

Flexural-torsional, distortional and local


buckles

Local Buckle

Simulated
Wind Uplift
Testing

Distortional Buckle

IyW I mr iMNFRurvor

SW SYDNEY

DSM Flexural-Torsional Buckling Moment


Capacity (Mbe)

For

M0 < 0.56My

For 2.78M

>M0 >0.56M

Mbe = M0

10

Eq. 7.2.2.2(1)

10Mv

36M.

Eq. 7.2.2.2(2)
For

m0 > 2.imy

My
S3
\Mbe
=

Eq" 7-2 Z2(3)

where M0 = Elastic FT buckling moment

Mv = Yield moment of Gross Section

41

THEUMVEKSTYOF

SYDNEY

DSM Local Buckling Moment Capacity (Mbi)

Eq. 7.2.2.3(1)

Eq. 7.2.2.3(2)

where M0i = Elastic local buckling moment

Mbe = Flexural-torsional buckling moment capacity

/\/

SYDNEY

=mmm

Eq. 7.2.2.3(3)

DSM Distortional Buckling Moment


Capacity (Mbd)

Eq. 7.2.2.4(1)

Eq. 7.2.2.4(2)
where M0d = Elastic distortional buckling moment

Mv = Yield moment

Ad

Eq. 7.2.2.4(3)

42

1 nif isivfrmtv oj

Direct Strength Method for beams

WiSl SYDNEY

Distortional tests
Local tests
- Winter
- Local curve
Distortional curve

.....
x

cvtf

Mo% S

'lt0

Strength
versus

i qs ( 12.1 ) to (12.3) and (12.7) to (12.9)

Slenderness

12)/

Eqs 1 12. 10) to 1 12


and ( 12.16) to ( 12. 18)

VpaCA

JVJX)

(jp

or

M, is the
yield moment

" VM7u

q,vq

efctfo

LxA&yit*

Direct Strength Design Moment

sydney

The Direct Strength Design Moment is the least of:


pMbe
where

(p

cpMbl

and (pMbd

is the Capacity Reduction Factor equal to 0.9

43

Till isi\msin of

SYDNEY

Prequalified compression members


tails %1J

UMIT* *0* fM-Ql-AUIIKO COMTMOIO* Mnuu

For prequalified compression


members, use cp =0.85
For non-prequalified compression
members, use cp =0.80

4 *n

0-W

rPwl

THE LMVIKSITYOF

Ws57 SYDNEY

NAS 2012 has an extended range


of prequalified members including
return lips

Prequalified members subject to


bending

jflHHjBi

For prequalified members,


subject to bending, use cp =0.90

For non-prequalified members


subject to bending, use cp =0.80
NAS 2012 has an extended
range of prequalified members
including return lips

44

10.5.2 Simply Supported C-Section Beam


Example

1 nit t siviemr of

rif SYDNEY

Problem
Determine the nominal member moment capacity of the C-section beam
in Example 5.8.1 using the Direct Strength Method. The section geometry
is shown in Fig. 4.12 and the beam geometry in Fig. 5.22.
The section dimensions are given in Example 4.6.3 and the beam
dimensions in Fig. 5.22.
Fig. 5.22

Fig. 4.12
D = 200mm
B = 75 mm

t = 1.5 mm

dL = 16.5 mm
fy = 450 MPa

SYDNEY

From Example 5.8.1

C. Design Load on Braced Purlin

Clause 3.3.3.2.1 Members subject to lateral buckling- Open


section members (a) singly-symmetric sections.

C1.

Fig 5.22
Uplift on tension flange q

Elastic Buckling Moment


_ Lateral + torsional

brace when included

/ez= /ey= 3500 mm

/ez= /ey= 3500 mm

L = 7000 mm

M3
BMP

r" m5
m4

.
Mmax

(a) Loading and bending moment distribution

\mo

= 7wL2/128

CbAroXyjj oyJ oz
(Eq. 3.3.3.2(8))

M5 =
M6 =

C =

12-5(MmaJ

2.5(MmJ+3(M3)+4(M4)- -3(M5)I
(Eq. 3.3.3.2(9))

a
45

THFiMvttsmror

sydney

From Example 5.8.1

Buckling Stresses and Buckling Moment of Full Section

= 113.86MPa

, _ GJ

7T2EI.

Ar
ATo\ V

(Eq. 3.3.3.2(11))

(Eq. 3.3.3.2(12))

103.36MPa

Cb =

1.299

(Eq. 3.3.3.2(9))

M0=

7.612 kNm

(Eq. 3.3.3.2(8))

Yield Moment of Full Section


M=

15.269 kNm

(Eq. 3.3.3.2(7))

Signature Curve for C-Section

inn

\
\

Distortional
mode

r""i

Local
mode

</\V \j
1

\\pJy

f0/ = 303.9 MPa

10

1=256.2 MPa

i 1

100

1i

1 1

1000

Buckle Half-Wavelength (mm)

Co/yCTFrrfji

Fig.10.5 C-Secfion in Bending

From Program THINWALL


(http://sydney.edu.au/engineering/civil/case/thinwall.shtml)
Alternatively use CUFSM (www.ce.jhu.edu/bschafer/cufsm)

46

RB ITf LMVfitsmroF

WB SYDNEY

A. Compute the Elastic Local and Distortional Buckling Stresses


and Moments using the Finite Strip Method

fol
fod
Zxf

303.9 MPa at 120 mm half-wavelength

256.2 MPa at 600 mm half-wavelength

3.393 *104 mm3 (Ex. 5.8.1)

Mol= Zxffol

= 10.311 kNm

M0C) =

= 8.693 kNm

Zxf fod

[ |

r-9&]

r iMvuaiiYor

W? SYDNEY
B

Compute the Inelastic Lateral Buckling Moment Capacity (Mbe)

Since

Mbe = M0

=7.612 kNm

C Compute the Local Buckling Moment Capacity (Mbl)

Since

QjUQ

, use Eq. 7.2.2.3(2)

47

"*5*1

IHI lMVEKSITYOF

S-W SYDNEY

D Compute the Distortional Buckling Moment Capacity (Mbd)

Since

N\l>
I*Wll

l~

Ni

T>if t Mvursnt of

WSW SYDNEY

E.

Nominal Member Flexural Moment Capacity (Mb)

Mh is the least of Mbe, Mbl and M,


Mb

= 7.139 kNm

This can be compared with 6.665 kNm in Example 5.8.1


using the effective width method.

D
t:
D
D

48

[wl

rmcNivnsmroF

Pig SYDNEY

Summary

The Direct Strength Method (DSM) uses the same equations


for the flexural-torsional buckling moment and yield moment
of the full section as the Effective Width Method (EWM)
The DSM computes the elastic local buckling moment and
elastic distortional moment of the full section from the
"signature curve" and there is no need to compute effective
widths.
The DSM Moment Capacity is simply taken from the least of the
Inelastic Lateral Buckling Moment Capacity (Mbe)
Local Buckling Moment Capacity (Mbl)
Distortional Buckling Moment Capacity (Mbd)
wm

Sydney I Signature curves for C-Section and Supacee


Maximum
Stress in
Section at
Buckling
(MPa)

Buckle Half-Wavelenuth (mm)

49

ug

sydney

Failure Modes of SupaCee Section Members


M Test Series

/L~i

*'"1
With straps (local buckling)

M9n|

Without straps (distortional buckling)

ntflMVIKSfTYOF

WsW SYDNEY

New developments in DSM

2012 Edition of the North American Specification


has 3 significant extensions to the DSM. These are:

Inclusion of holes in both flexural and compression


members
Inclusion of inelastic reserve capacity beyond My for
stocky sections in bending
DSM design for shear, and combined bending & shear

50

Distortional buckling in compression


with holes

SYDNEY

Yielding at net section

NAS 2012 rules


courtesy of AISI

DSM curve (no holes)


Transition to P

Distortional
buckling with holes

d2'' y
Elastic buckling

Ad2

Assumptions for this plot

Based on research
at Johns Hopkins
University
(Moen and Schafer)

ynet-0'0Py
0.5

2
1
1.5
distortional slendernessA

Inelastic reserve capacity of beams

n\n

inelastic bending reserve

considered: sections
1.2.2.2.2 and 1.2.2.3.2
DSM Local Buckling Strength
DSM Distortional Buckling Strength

Elastic Buckling

inelastic bendinpX V.
reserve ignored:
sections 1.2.2.2.1
and 1.2.2.3.1

*-H) I

post-buckling

t03\,

as
2i-(l-0.24 ) V
IMy
M,

,05

slendcrncss

3
=

NAS 2012 rules courtesy of AISI (Shifferaw and Schafer JHU)

51

o
n

MPnl THECMVUrSITYOF

SYDNEY

n
n

DSM design for shear

Research by Pham and Hancock at the University


of Sydney
Approved for the 2012 Edition of the NAS as Ballot
326C

a
a
o
o

Considers the case of the whole section in pure


shear
Based on a signature curve for pure shear recently
developed at the University of Sydney

o
o
o

niHMvmsmroF

SYDNEY

Shear flow distributions in a lipped


channel

c
D

80 mm

Buckling modes from spline


finite strip method

SYDNEY

The intermediate stiffeners can


enhance the shear buckling
stresses

Plain C and Supacee with Aspect Ratio 1:1

The flanges and lips can have a


significant influence on improving
the shear buckling capacity of
thin-walled channel sections

Plain C and Supacee with Aspect Ratio 2:1

SYDM-Y

Shear design curves in DSM format

_ \04

Vcr

Vy /

v,

cr

V Vy

includes TFA
AlSI-Shear Curve

----

Elastic Buckling Curve

Tension Field Action Curve


DSM Proposal Curve for Shear

V=V,

excludes TFA
Vcr is the shear buckling load
of the whole section

53

Failure mode of SupaCee section


V Test Series

SYDNEY

TMF IMMHSin

w SYDNEY Shear Tests compared with DSM Shear Proposals


1.2
-n

a+

l -V

"V.'kx\.

--

A
O
O

X
X

X
X

+
a

4
X*0

AlSI-Shear Curve-without TFA


-Elastic
Buckling Curve-Vcr

Tension Field Action (TFA) Curve


DSM Proposed Curve for Shear-with TFA
C 15015
C 150 19
CI5024
C20015
C20019
C20024
SC15012
SC 15015
SCI 5024
SC20012
SC20015
SC20024
UMR-Shear Tests
UMR-Excluded Shear Tests

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

n. :/

\
\. m

N.

"

iii

1.2

1..

1.6

1.:

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.)

54

THE UNIVERSITY OF

SYDNEY

Buckling modes in pure shear

Local buckling

Distortional
buckling

n
n

WsW SYDNEY

Signature curve for plain lipped


channel in pure shear

Maximum Shear Stress


in Section at Buckling

(MPa)

iiiiim

Buckle Half-Wavelength (mm)

annum

TUf tMVEHyTYOF

WsW SYDNEY

DSM for shear - Conclusions

Extensions of the Direct Strength Method (DSM) of design


of cold-formed sections for shear have been proposed
The proposals are based on the shear buckling load Vcr
of the whole section in line with DSM philosophy
A signature curve for pure shear has been developed to
allow easy calculation of Vcr for use in the DSM
Local and distortional buckling modes in pure shear
have been identified using the SAFSM

The proposals have been approved as a ballot (CS 326C)


of the American Iron and Steel Institute Specification
Committee

(Sp

Sydney

__

DSM for Shear with Stiffeners

Research currently underway at the University of Sydney

. --->

56

SYDNEY

DSM for Shear with Holes

Research currently underway at the University of Sydney

<,120

* g.

(\aA

SYDNEY

DSM for Shear with Holes

OOOIS

1-6

n
n

THE UNIVERSITY OF

SYDNEY

DSM design for purlins


Vacuum test rig
with continuous
lapped purlins
under wind uplift

o
o
o
D

D
O

o
o

SYDNEY

Vacuum test rig

Simulated upwards loading Simulated downwards loading

58

SYDNEY

7 metre
simple span
One row of
bridging

nirc-NivfitHTYor

Vacuum rig test programs

SYDNEY

Table 1. Purlin-Sheeting Test Programs Performed at the University of Sydney


Series

Loading

Spans*

Bridging t

Sheeting Type

Rafter Fixing

SI

Uplift

3-span lapped

0,1.2

Screw fastened

Cleats

S2

Uplift

2-span lapped

0,1,2

Screw fastened

Cleats

S3

Uplift

Simply supported

0,1,2

Screw fastened

Cleats

S4

Downwards

3-span lapped

0,1

Screw fastened

Cleats

S5

Uplift

Simply supported

0, 1,2

Concealed fixed

Cleats
Cleats

S6

Uplift

3-span lapped

Concealed fixed

S7

Uplift

Simply supported

0,1,2

Screw fastened

Cleats

S8

Uplift

Simply supported
3-span lapped

1,2

Screw fastened

Cleats

* 3x7.0 m spans with 900 mm laps between bolt centres for 3-span lapped configuration
2x10.5 m spans with 1500 mm laps between bolt centres for 2-span lapped configuration
1x7.0 m span for simply supported configuration.
t 0: Zero rows of bridging in each span
1 : One row of bridging in each span
2: Single and double spans: Two rows of bridging in each span
Triple spans: Two rows of bridging in the end spans, one row in the central span

59

n
n
n

n
n
o
o
o

Till UNIVERSITY i

$ sydney

Flexural-torsional buckling model for Mo

Cb approach uses BMD between brace points


Mm*

m3

Mi

MS

= Elastic buckling moment


(a) Positive moment (or negative) alone

12.5M,,,

1mm 2.5Mmax + 3M3 + 4M4 + 3M5

m4n

m3

_pfc
Ms

(b) Positive and negative moments

o
o

sydney

Flexural-torsional buckling model for M0

FELB (Finite Element

Sheeting screw fastened to top flange

d5

Lateral Buckling)

Lap

Lap

i~i
UP*.
*
-

Lateral and torsional brace

End span

Interior span
(a) Element

Subdivision

inward

FELB approach models full


length lapped purlin

fciHffi

N.

\\/

- outward

Lateral
of centroid

Outward loading

Lateral
of centroid

- outward \

""yInward

loading

(c) Buckling modes

Fig. 5.6 BMD and Buckling Modes for Half Purlin

60

IM UMVBOmrOF

Sydney
SYDNEY

Design programs PURLIN 4600 and SUPAPURLIN

Deform

Stress

Strength

Service

f *? O

Bridging
Span Rows

2
3

Locations

|7iJ I 50 1 50
| 33 1 B!| 33
|7jJ 1 50 1 50
pfij I 50 1 50
r-ji 50 ) 50 1

SupaPurlin 1J)
Analysis and Design of Supa Purlins Al
Copyright 2003 - University of SydneT
SERVICEABILITY DESIGN

Maximum Deflection
The maximum deflection is 5 = -53.92 n
Located at 4000 mm from left support
This represents a span/deflection ratio I

rii_ |

Ffjl

ri!
rdl I|

Fzjl 50| 50;'

Fd I-

rn

P"~

Al Equal to Span 1

Inwards

C Outwards

Combined bending and shear


Interaction relationships

61

niE lSIVFRMTVOF

SYDNEY

Experimental rig for V and MV tests


Loading Rain

bphencal Head

Iwo C hannel

Section Members
LVDT 7

Load Transfer
Plate
rlali Round

BU]

LVD 8

A|_ ip-. LVUTs 1,4

200- V Series
400- Series

LVDT* 3.6

200- V Series
400-1- Senes

50

Shear Diagram

m:

Moment Diagram

Interaction with Ms] \


Vv based on DSM p

AC15015
C15019

C 15024
A

C20015

C20019
o C20024

X SC15012
X SC15015
+ SCI5024
X SC20012

X SC20015
S SC20024

62

THE UNIVERSITY OF

SYDNEY

Comparisons with tests


FELB approach

O Test Lead/ EWMLoad

Test Load/ ESMLoad (Proposal 2)

A Test Load/ EWMLoad - LbwrAords

12.5

A Test Load/ ESMLoad(Proposal 2) Dcrv\rr\ards

12.0

1.5

a
I

10.0'
1/0

1/1

1/2

2/0-0

2/1-1

2/2-2

3/0-0-0

3/1-1-1

3/2-1-2

Span IBridging Configuration

riir

Comparisons with tests


Cb approach

iwvEBTTTor

SYDNEY

[&o
7.0

6.0

5.0
4.0 +

Test Load/ EWMLoad


Test Load/DSMLoad (Proposal 2)

A Test Load/ EWMLoad - Downwards


A Test Load/ E6MLoad (Proposal 2) - Downwards

3.0

2.0

1.0

1l

0.0

1/0

1/1

1/2

2/04)

2/1-1

2/2-2

3/0-0-0

Span IBridging Configuration

3/1-1-1

3/2-1-2

SYDNEY

Sheeting shear and flexural


stiffnesses

Line of support

(b) Sheeting shear stiffness (k )

Line of support
(a) Plan of sheeting

(c) Sheeting flexural stiffness (k)

SYinn

Effect of torsional restraint of sheeting (krs)

Sheeting

Torsion
Stage

Vertical Bending

Stage

(a) Deflection

Flange

element
Conventional

Spring stiffness
K

bending theory
with Icomputed
for twisted section

Torsion Stage

Vertical Bending Stage

(b) Models

64

0p[VJ\

Ml

mi isiviksiTY or

SYDNEY

NCTVTdD

Conclusions

The DSM and EWM methods have been compared with


a range of vacuum rig tests on purlin sheeting systems
with single, double and triple spans.

Both methods produced safe designs with the DSM


slightly less conservative than the EWM in general.
An extension of the DSM to shear and combined bending
and shear has been proposed with the section moment
capacity Ms based on Msi The proposals produce safe designs.

65

DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED
STEEL STRUCTURES

Connections
j

!
I

:
.

Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock


66

n
nn
WjW

lMVFRVTY OP

SYDNEY

Cold-Formed Steel Structures


Lecture 3

Connections
Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock AM FTSE

Connections in thin sheet steels


Bolted connections

Screwed connections
Welded connections

Power actuated fasteners (PAFs)

67

nil i v\!Km;yi>-

Bolted Connection in Shear

sydney

Geometry

(a) Single bolt (ff

-=

1)

0 0df
I.Sdf 3df
lb) Three bolts in line of force (rr y )

'

[c) Two bolts across line of force (rf = 1

[d) Double shear (with washers)

(e) Single shear (with washers)

SYO\l Y

Failure Modes in Bolted Connections in


Shear

(a) Tearout failure of sheet (Type I)

Buckled
plate
(b) Bearing failure of sheet material (Type II)

(c) Tension failure of net section (Type III)

(d) Shear failure of bolt (Type IV)

68

ii

Sydney

Failure Modes in G550 Steel Bolted


Connections

0.42
Iranv.

(a) End tearout failure

(.550

CPU

(b) Bearing Failure

(c) Net Section Tension Failure

Tlif LMVftSmrOF

SsW SYDNEY

Tearout and bearing failures

Failure Type
I
II
Iand II
a n and III

Tearout Failure of Sheet (Type I

ime university or

Tearout and bearing failures

Snw SYDNEY

_ fu/fy> 1.08

s-*
:/

SNs\ fbu
fu

/
0

a"7

Failure Type
o I
a 11
Iand II

dh

e/dh
(b) Single shear

---

/>

connectionsfwithoutVashers

Tearout Failure of Sheet (Tvpe

Bearina Failure of Sheet (Tvoe II

Bearing coefficient C

SYDNEY

1
1AS/NZS 4600 : 2005, NAS

d/t <10: C = 3.0


10 < d/t < 22 : C = 4 - O.lt/d
d/t > 22 : C = 1.8

AS/NZS 4600: 1996 AISI


50

Eurocode
CSA-S136
d/t <10 : C = 3.0
10 < d/t < 15 : C = 30t/d

d/t >15: C = 2.0

15
d/t

20

25

30

Fig. 9. 13 Bearing Coefficient C for Bolted Conections

The modification factors depends on the type of bearing and


is specified in Table 5.3.4.2(A) of AS/NZS 4600

70

Sp SYDNEY

Modification factor a for bearing

Table 5.3.4.2(A)
Single shear and outside sheets of double shear
With washers under both bolt head and nut

1.00

Same as above without washers or with only one washer 0.75

Inside sheets of double shear with or without washers

(jg)

IN \i V.

.,

'

I wSYDNEY

1.33

Modification factor a for bearing

New in NAS 2012 Table E3.3.1-2


Single shear and outside sheets of double shear
With short slotted holes parallel to the applied load and without
washers under both bolt head and nut, or with only one washer
0.70

Single shear and outside sheets of double shear


with short slotted holes perpendicular to the applied load and
without washers under both bolt head and nut, or with only one
washer
0.50

Inside sheets of double shear using short slotted holes


perpendicular to the applied load with or without washers
0.90

71

a
SYDNEY

Net section failures

a
(1 -0.9rf + 3rf (df/sf)

f o One

Bolts < a Two


Three

0.1+ 3.0
Multiple bolts case

df/sf
(a) Single shear with washers

SYDNEY

Net section failures

(1 - rf + 2.5rf(df/sf))

f o One

Bolts < a Two


* Three

df/Sf

Multiple bolts case

(b) Single shear without washers

<0wl

IHFLMUHSJTVt*

357 SYDNEY

Shear Failure of Bolt (Type IV)

The nominal shear capacity (\/J of a bolt specified in Clause 5.3.5.1


of AS/NZS 4600 is the same as specified in AS 4100. It is given by:
0.62

fuf (nnAc + nxA0)

For combined tension and shear (same as AS41 00):

sydney

Example 9.8.2 Bolted Connection Design Example

Problem

Design a bolted connection in single shear to fully develop the


strength of the net section of the sheet using bolts in the line
of action of the force as shown in Fig. 9.9(b).
Use M12 bolts of strength grade 4.6 with washers under both head and nut.

Fig. 9.9(b)

73

die iMVMsmr of

WjW SYDNEY

A.
Plate Strength for Net Plate
Clause 5.3. 1
df = 12 mm
dh = diameter of standard hole
= df + 2.0 = 14 mm
Clause 3. 2
An = (b-dh)t = {80 - 14)2.5= 165 mm2

Nt is the lesser of

(Eq. 3.2.2(1))

Nt=\fy
= (80 x2.5)

300

= 60000 N
= 60.0 kN

(Eq. 3.2.2(2))

Nt= 0.85 kt An fu

= 0.85 x 1.0 x 165 x 340


= 47685 N
= 47.69 kN < 60.0 kN

vn ITHCCMVUSITYOF

SW SYDNEY

Hence

Nd =

(p

Nt

= 0.90 x 47.69

= 42.92 kN

Clause 5.3.3

Where washers are provided under both the bolt head


and the nut for multiple bolts in the line parallel to the force.

Nf = fuAn
Nf = 340 x
Now

0=0.55

(Eq. 5.3.3(3))

165 = 56.1 kN

for single shear connections in Clause 5.3.3(a)

<f>Vw = 0.55 *56.1 =30.85 kN

<42.92 kN

74

p*yT|

niECMYMsmrof

WW SYDNEY

Number of Bolts Required


B.
Strength Grade 4.6, hence fuf - 400 MPa
Clause 5.3.5. 1

Vfv = 0.62fufAo
= 0.62 x 400
= 28048 N
= 28.05 kN

Hence

(Eq. 5.3.5.1(2))
113.1

= 0.80 for Clause 5.3.5.1


<t> Vtv = 0.80 x 28.05 = 22.44 kN
3(/> Vlv = 67.32 kN > 30.85 kN

If the shear plane contains the bolt thread, then the minor diameter area of the
bolt should be used for this calculation. In this case 30V/v = 43.3 kN > 30.H5 kN

run wvtptsfiYor

riW SYDNEY

C.
Check Bearing Capacity
Clause 5.3.4.2

Vb

aC

fu dft

(Eq. 5.3.4.2)

Table 5.3.4.2(A) (Modification Factor d)


Single shear with washers under both bolt head and nut

a =1.0

Table 5.3.4.2(B) (Bearing Factor C)

MS9M

m
Hence

Vb

= 3.00

fudft

= 3.00 x340

12 x 2.5 = 30600 N

= 30.6 kN
= 0.60 as given in Clause 5.3.4.2
<f>Vb= 78.36 kN
3</>Vb = 55.08 kN > 30.85 kN

75

nafel
jSJ
SYDNI \

IMF UMVERSTY Of

D.

Tearout

Clause 5.3.2

Use e = 25 mm

te fu
= 2.5 *25 *340 = 21250 N
= 2125 kN

Vf =
Now
since

$=
fu/fy =
</>Vf =
3</>Vf =

( Eq. 5.3.2(2))

0.70 for Clause 5.3.2


1.13 > 1.08
0.70 x 21.25 = 14.88 kN
44.63 kN > 30.85 kN

Also the distance from the centre of a standard hole to the


end of the plate must be greater than or equal to 1.5df =18 mm < 25 mm
and distance between centre of bolt holes must be greater than
or equal to 3df = 36 mm > e + 6 mm = 31 mm. Hence bolt hole spacing
W
is governed by the 3df requirement and not tearout.

I#] nulmvimirror

WsW SYDNEY

I I
Sf

i>d4

0 C
I
1.5df| 3df

(b) Three bolts in line of force (r f =-)

Final solution is three M12 Grade 4.6 bolts in line spaced 36 mm


between the centres of the bolt holes and 25 mm from the end of the plate
to the centre of the last bolt hole. Design load capacity is 30.85 kN
which is controlled by the plate strength design capacity and not the bolt
capacity in shear or plate bearing capacity.

76

TIIE UNIVERSITY 0T

SsW SYDNEY

Block shear rupture


ffs*

---

-A/

V-

fuAnt0.60fuAnv

Ch-.z-o-

p
_q~Agv
L_
I
S*
(a)

Small shear force and large


tension force

6Z?

0.60,, fjAj,

9
Us*
(b) Large shear force and
small tension force

Fig. 9.20 Block Shear Rupture

n\n

Screw connections in shear

MB*
(a) Thicknesses

el

(b) Nominal screw


diameter (df )

Pi
ej> 3df, pi>3df

e2>1.5df,p2>3df

(c) Minimum edge distances and pitches

Fig. 9.15 Screws in Shear

77

mi t vunsmroF

SYDNEY

Tilting Failure of Screwed Connections

n
n

042/042 C.550

SYDNEY

Bearing Failure of Screwed Connections

78

-u

to

Design for Shear

TMELMVOHmrOF

SYDNEY

When

t2 < t1

use the smallest of


CSA-S136
d/tlO

dA < 15 : C = 30t/d

d/tl5: C = 2.0

AS/NZS 4600 1996 A1S1

C-2.7

AS/NZS 4600 : 2005

d/t6: C-2.7
6 < dA < 13 : C = 3.3 - O.lt/d
d/t: C 2.0

When

When

t2> 2.5 t1

use the smaller of

2.5t1 > t2 >t1 ,

Fig. 9.17 Bearing Coefficient C for Screwed Connections

use linear interpolation


h

'

'1

Design for Tension


dW|

7/x_t ], tensile strength f

\"1 \7/

t2 , tensile strength f

-U-N

(a) Valley (pan) fixed

TT n
t[ ,tensile strength f ul

t2 , tensile strength f
(b) Crest fixed

Fig. 9.18 Screws in Tension

79

n tMvmsmfor

teSf SYDNEY

Design for Tension

Pull-Out Failure
Eq. 5.4.3.2(2)
Pull-Over Failure (pan fastened)

Eq. 5.4.3.2(2)
where dw is the larger of the screw
head diameter and the washer
diameter but not greater than 12.5 mm
Pull-Over Failure (crest fastened)

c =

SYDNEY

0.54 (corrugated sheeting)


0.89 (wide pan trapezoidal sheeting)
0.79 (narrow pan trapezoidal sheeting

Combined tension and shear in


screwed connections

NAS 2012 has new rules for:


Combined shear and pullover (E4.5.1)
Combined shear and pullout (E4.5.2)
Combined shear and tension in screws
(E4.5.3)

80

1 TwruMMBrsiTroF

SsW SYDNEY

Welded connections

(a)

Butt weld

I.;'

'

spot weld (puddle weld)

seam welds

(e) Hare-bevel weld

Fig. 9.1 Fusion Weld Types

_____

Fai
we I

Geometry

Inclination failure
Weld shear
Failure
weld tearing
& plate tearing modes

(a) Single lap ioint (TNO tests)

Geometry
and
failure mode

(b) Double lap joint (Cornell tests)

81

Failure modes in longitudinal fillet welds

2N-

!I A

Geometry

Transvi

plate
tearing

2N

mrnr

Weld shear
and tearing Failure
modes
at weld

contour

(a) Single lap joint (TNO tests)

lll

I
4N

4N-

1 12> tj
Sheet tear

Geometry
and
failure mode

(b) Double lap joint (Cornell tests)

Fig. 9.4 Fillet Welds subject to


Longitudinal Loading

SYDNEY

Failure modes

HAZ Failure

a
a

Weld throat failure

82

SYDNEY

(b) Longitudinal (Fig. 9.4b)

(a) Transverse (Fig. 9.2b)

100
Theoretical Ultimate Load = 4V

Theoretical Ultimate Load = 2VW

STg 6T-

WHt

Arc spot and arc seam welds

jt

U-d.|
(a) Single thickness of sheet

Tnin mm

J_

-o o

(c) Minimum edge distance (arc spot welds)

(b) Double thickncss of sheet

"-min

(d) Geometry and minimum edge distance (arc seam welds)

Fig. 9.6 Arc Spot and Arc Seam Weld Geometry

83

&j)ISYDNEY

THE UNIVERSITY OF

Failure modes in arc spot welds

(a) Inclination failure

Buckled

plate
(b) Tearing and bearing at weld contour

Buckled

plate
(c) Edge failure

(d) Net section failure

(e) Weld shear failure

Flare welds

SYDNEY

t w is the lesser of

0.707twi and 0.707tW2

filled flush to surface or


(5/16)R filled flush to surface

0.833 tlw

fu

(a) Flare-bevel weld

(b) Flare V-weld

Fig. 9.5 Flare Weld Cross-Sections

84

88

9.8.1 Welded Connection Design Example

Sydney

Problem
The 80 mm wide 2.5 mm thick G300 sheet is to be welded to the 5 mm
plate shown in Fig. 9.21 using either:
Longitudinal fillet welds, or
Combined longitudinal and transverse fillet welds,

(a)
(b)

determine the size of each weld to fully develop the design capacity
of the plate

I*W>|

Tut isivmsnvoF

few SYDNEY

A.
Plate Strength for Full Plate
For a G300 steel, fy = 300 MPa and fu = 340 MPa
Clause 3.2
Use lesser of

Nt = Ag f=(bt) fy

(Eq. 3.2.2(1))

= (80 x 2.5) x 300


= 60000 N = 60.0 kN

N, = 0.85ktAnfu = 0.85kt (bt) fu

(Eq. 3.2.2(2))

= 0.85 x 1.0 x (80 x2. 5) x 340


= 578000 N = 57.8 kN

Hence the design capacity of the connection ( Nd) is given by

Nd=t, N,

= 0.90 x57.8
= 52.02 kN

85

n UMXtKMlYC*'

SYDNEY

Longitudinal Fillet Weld Design

B.

Clause 5.2.3.2(b)

El

Assuming

Vw = 0.75 t lwfu
Now (j>

(Eq. 5.2.3.2(3))

Vw< Nd where

<p= 0.55 for Clause 5.2.3.2(b)

52020

0.55(0.75x2.5x340)

0.55x0.75tf
1
2

= 1487?2m

148 n*
ML 74 in*
= 14mm = -= 29.6 > 25
2
m t 2.5

niE usivf (tsirv of

WW SYDNEY

C.

Combined Longitudinal and Transverse Fillet Weld Design

Firstly, locate transverse fillet weld across full width of end of plate
as shown in Fig. 9.21(b).
Clause 5.2.3.3

WJtransverse

= t b f u = 2.5
= 68.0 kN

* 80 * 340

Now
</<p> = 0.60
(
$ VJ transverse = 40.8 kN
Hence required

(Eq. 5.2.3.3)

for Clause 5.2.3.3

(Nd)longitudjnal = Nd

$ ( vv) transverse

= 52.02-40.8 = 11.22 kN

86

THUMVtKSin OF

SYDNEY

Try (lw)i=15 mm, hence

Hence for a longitudinal fillet weld each side,

2 <j>\/ = 2

7. 79 kN = 14.38 kN > 7122 kN

Hence use 15 mm additional fillet welds each side.

eorv'T w&co

SYI)\I

>

k&*1

$F7-Hlzr&

?rec-5i

7-hj,

Power Actuated Fasteners (PAFs)

SU

Figure 2 PAF Geomeiric Variables Used in the Strength Prediction Model

New Clause E5 of NAS 2012


Includes tension (pull out) and shear

87

Rw| nu usivfRsmr o"

W33 SYDNEY

PAF Design Rules in NAS 2012

E5.2.1 Tension strength - formula given based on section area


E5.2.2 Pull-out - independent laboratory testing required
E5.2.3 Pull-over - formula given similar to screws

E5.3.1 Shear strength -formula given based on section area


E5.3.2 Bearing and tilting strength - new formula
E5.3.3 Pull-out strength in shear - new formula

I"ftys 1 THfUSIVHlSITYOF

WSSf SYDNEY

Bolted connections have a greater propensity for bearing


failure and normally require washers

Screws can undergo tilting as well as bearing failure

Welds can have failure in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and
require special rules based on the parent metal strength

G450 Steel can now be designed according the AS/NZS


4600:2005

New rules have been developed for PAFs in the NAS 2012

88

DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED
STEEL STRUCTURES

Design Examples

Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock


89

, insm i

SYDNEY

Cold-Formed Steel Structures


Lecture 4
Design Examples of Lapped Z-Section Purlin
and Lipped Channel Column in Compression
Emeritus Professor Gregory Hancock AM FTSE

ip Sydney

Ex 5.8.4 Continuous Lapped Z-Section Purlin


w = 1 kN/m
Brace
Lap (900 mm)

(a) Geometry

Fig. 5.24

2800 4200 3500 3500 4200 2800


(all dimensions in mm)

3.79 kNm at
brace point

Includes double
stiffness in lap

(b) Bending

Moment

Determine the maximum


uplift and downwards
design load on the
Z-section purlin

Distribution
3.42 kNm at
end of lap

2.75 kN

3.76 kNm at
end of lap

3.50 kN

Reverse signs

for uplift loading

Use the Effective Width


Method (EWM) and
Direct Strength Method
(DSM)

(c) Shear

orce
Diagram

3.80 kN at
end of lap

4.25 kN

3.05 kN at
end of lap

90

SYDNEY

Z-Section purlin

79 mm

t = 1.5 mm

(D

yg
Internal corner radii (r j ) = 5mm

yparallel with web


xparallel with flanges

t = 1.5 mm

D = 203 mm
i

r = 5.75 mm
u = 1.57r
= 9.03 mm
c = 0.637r
= 3.66 mm
Ig = 0.149r3
= 28.3 mm3

I dn = 15 mm

(a) Cross-section

Bt

= 74 mm

i'Ns'

(b) Line element model

Fig. 5.23

nif university of

WW SYDNEY

Program THIN-WALL

Local and distortional buckling stresses

Distortional bucklina
Compression in wide flange ad = 222 MPa, A = 600 mm
Compression in narrow flange od = 236.7 MPa, A = 700 mm

Local buckling
Compression in wide flange al = 304.6 MPa, A = 120 mm
Compression in narrow flange al = 296.2 MPa, A = 120 mm

91

HWn nit isrxmsrrv of


SYDNEY

Lipped Zed Notepad file for PURLIN

n
o
o

Name

Grade

"Z20015S" "G450"
Name

Grade

"Z20015S" "G450"

E
D
F
T
L
R1
R2
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

203

74

79

fol b fod b
(MPa) (MPa)

300.4

229.4

15.0

1.5

5.0

5.0

fol c fod c
(MPa) (MPa)

58.0

105.9

The local and distortional buckling stresses are the mean


of the wide and narrow flange values from THIN-WALL

ral niF iMvutsmroF

WW SYDNEY

Solutions from PURLIN

Effective Width Method


Lowest load factor = 2.183 (cf 2.165 in DCFSS Ed 4th)
Flexural-torsional buckling 2800mm from LH support
Section capacity
FT buckling
Distortional buckling
Shear capacity
Combined M&V
Bolt shear

2.690
2.183
2.235
4.066
2.386
3.905

92

Direct Strength Method


Lowest load factor = 2.235
Distortional buckling 2800mm from LH support)
This value is 2.2% higher than the EWM

THI LMVUMTYOr

r-5 SYDNEY

Ex 7.6.3

Lipped Channel Column

Problem
Determine the nominal member axial capacity (A/c) for the lipped channel
section of length 2000 mm shown in Fig. 7.12 assuming the channel is loaded
concentrically through the centroid of the effective section and the effective
lengths in flexure and torsion are based on a lateral and torsional restraint
in the plane of symmetry at mid-height. This is similar to a wall stud in a steel
framed house with a noggin (bridging) at mid-height.
D = 100 mm
B = 75 mm

2000 mm
1000 mm

t = 1.5 mm
dL = 16.5 mm

1000 mm

fy = 300 MPa

Fig. 7.12

93

I425*1

rut 1mvfiwty of

SYDNEY

Example 7.6.3

Major and Minor Axis Second Moments of Area (Ix, ly) and
Torsion Constant (J) of Full Section accounting for Rounded Corners

lx = 7.116 x705 mm4


I =3.155 *105mm4

J = 304.37 mm4

Fig. 7.12

hPftl tmf iT.ivutsmrof

r-5 SYDNEY

Warping Constant and Shear Centre Position for Full Section with Square
Corners
= 7. 632><105 mm4
= 37. 75 mm
= 7.521 x708mm6
= 65.61 mm

Fig. 7.12

94

AS 4100- 1998

(% = -0.5)

0.8

fn = 10.658
AS/NZS 4600
1996
and A1SI 1996

AISI-LRFD- 1991

0.877

AS 1538 - 1988

(unfactored)

kr=<fJfn
y

*oc

where

Fig. 7.3 Compression Member Design Curves

n iMVfK&mrop

Buckling Stresses of Full Section

WSW SYDNEY

Flexural buckling about the major x-axis

(Eq. 3.3.3.2(14))

= 865.35MPa

Flexural buckling about the minor x-axis

(Eq. 3.3.3.2(11))

= 1534MPa

Torsional buckling

543.94MPa

(Eq. 3.3.3.2(12))

n
n
n
n
o

n
n
n

rn Tin

SYDNEY

For a section mono-symmetric about the x-axis, the critical stress foc
is the lesser of the minor axis flexural buckling stress and the flexuraltorsional buckling stress
(Eq. 3.3.3.2(11))

D
(Eq. 3.4.3(1))

foc- lower value = 369.95 MPa

SYDNEY

fn = (o.658Ac If

= 213.66MPa

c
c
(c) Line element model

(d) Effective widths

96

nif LMvutsrnror

SYDNEY

Actual

Effective

Effective

Actual

Supported
edge

(a) Stiffened element

(b) Unstiffened element

a
o

Fig. 4.3 Effective Stress Distributions

Winter Effective Width Formula

where

k = plate buckling coefficient (depends on boundary conditions)

SYDNEY

Boundary
Conditions

s.s
;

S.S

s.s

Uniform
Compression

p
s.sr
r~

Uniform
Compression

s.s_

Compression

s.s
Built-in
Built-in

S.S

Loading

1-ivc

Uniform

Built-in

Uniform

Free

Compression

Buckling
Coefficient (k)

0.425
0.675

Half Wavelength

L =oo
L = 2b

l'"roc

The web is under pure


compression k = 4.0

Bending

1SS "
V's

The lip is under pure


compression so k = 0.43

Pure
Bending

V3

The flange is partially stiffened


by an edge stiffener and has
k between 0.43 and 4.0

Compression

F-7

SSF

EH3

Bending

Compression
Pure
Shear

5.35

L =oo

9.35

L=b

L = Plate length, b = Plate width

Fig. 4.1 Plate Buckling Coefficients

97

Tllf t'NI\TRnrOP

WH SYDNEY

Element 1 - Compression Lip


Clause 2. 3. 1 Uniformly compressed unstiffened element
d = dL- (rt + t)

= 10 mm

k = 0.43
(Eq. 2.2.1.2(5)
(Eq. 2.2.1.2(4))

dse = d

= 12 mm since A< 0.673

Lip fully effective


(Eq. 2.4.2(10))

rl TMEUMVIHSrnrOF

r&f SYDNEY

Element 3 Flange flat


b
B- 2(ri + t) =66 mm
=
b/t = 44

This value must not exceed 60 (Clause 2.1 .3.1(a))


(Eq. 2.4.2(13))

b /t > 0.328S Flange not fully effective without stiffener

Calculate buckling coefficient (k) and stiffener reduced effective width (d )


(Table 2.4.2)

(Eq. 2.4.2(7))

98

1 rHitsivfitsinrop

Pi? SYDNEY

Clause 2.2. 1.2 Effective width of flange Element 3 for strength (see Fig. 7.12)

(Eq. 2.2.1.2(5))

(Eq. 2.2.1.2(4))

(Eq. 2.2.1.2(3))

R*n

nil[ UMVmSfTYOF

Wfl SYDNEY

Element 5 - Web
Clause 2. 3. 1 Uniformly compressed stiffened element
b = 91mm

k = 4.00
(Eq. 2.2.1.2(5)
(Eq. 2.2.1.2(4))

(Eq. 2.2.1.2(3))

bew=

pb = 68.65 mm

99

Ps%n

THUMVIKSITVOF

SYDNEY

n
n
o

D.

E.

Nominal Member Compression Capacity (A/c)


Ae =t (bew + 2bef +4u +2ds ) =317.09 mm2

Nc = Atf = 67.75 kN
Effective Area at Yield Stress (fy)

o
c

(Eq. 3.4.1(2))

Ae =t (bew + 2bef +4u +2ds )

=281.47 mm2

Nominal Section Compression Capacity (Ns)

F.

Ns = Aefy = 84.44 kN

(Eq. 3.4.1(1))

C
C

the iMviBsrnroF

SYDNEY

Design Axial Compressive Force (Nd)


0C = 0.85

Nd = lesser of (/>NS and </>Nc =

57.59 kN

c
c

100

rn

THEtMVIIBmrOP

WsW SYDNEY

Summary for Effective Width Method

1.

Compute buckling stresses (flexural and flexural-torsional) of full


section for effective lengths about x, y and z-axes

2.

Compute critical stress fn

3.

Compute effective area (Ae) at the critical stress f* = fn

4.

Compute design load (Nd)

rut iMVE*vrror

htf SYDNEY
i

Lipped Channel Column


Example 10.5.1
(Direct Strength Method)

Determine the nominal member compression capacity (Nc) of the lipped channel
in Example 7.6.3 using the Direct Strength Method. The geometry is shown in
Fig. 7.12 and the dimensions in Example 7.6.3.

101

Signature Curve for C-Section

THt LSIYtlCUTY OF

SYDNEY

Distortionai

mode

f0/

=218.6 MPa

_I

I I I I I11

_I

I II I I I

100

1000

0000

Buckle Half-Wavelength (mm)


Fig. 10.4 Lipped Channel in Compression

From Program THINWALL


(http://sydney.edu.au/engineering/civil/case/thinwall.shtml)

ra| IHElMVmSJIYOF

fe? SYDNEY

A. Compute the Elastic Local and Distortionai Buckling Stresses


and Loads using the Finite Strip Method

fol
fod

218.6 MPa at 90 mm half-wavelength

245.2 MPa at 650 mm half-wavelength


405.8 mm2

(Ex. 7.6.3)

fol

= 88.708 kN

fod

= 99.502 kN

102

THE UNIVERSITY OF

WW SYDNEY

B Compute the Nominal Member Capacity for Long Column Buckling(A/ce)

fL

from Ex 7.6.3

Nce = Afn

= 86. 703 kN (the mode is flexural-torsional)

C Compute the Nominal Member Capacity for Local Buckling (/Vc/)

Since

j|KQ

, use Eq. 7.2.1.3(2)

|/

THE CNJVmiTYC*

WsW SYDNEY

D Compute the Nominal Member Capacity for Distortional Buckling (Ncd)

Since

, use Eq. 7.2.1 4(2)

103

11ntf uMvotsmrof

SYDNEY

E.

Nominal Member Compressive Capacity(N )

Nc is the least of Nce, Ncl and Ncd


Nc

= 74.254 kN

This can be compared with 67.75 kN in Example 7.6.3 using


the effective width method.
F.

Design Compressive Capacity (Nd)

Oc = 0.85

Nd = ())N

sydney

= 57.59 kN

Summary for Direct Strength Method

Compute buckling stresses (flexural and flexural-torsional) of full


section for effective lengths about x, y and z-axes
Compute local (fol) and distortional (fod) buckling stresses from the
signature curve
Compute the long column capacities (Nce, Ncl and Ncd)
Compute nominal member capacity (Nc) and design load (Nd)

104