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ISSN 2229-5518

Absorption Refrigeration System based on First

Law of Thermodynamics

Satish Raghuvanshi, Govind Maheshwari

Abstract The continuous increase in the cost and demand for energy has led to more research and development to utilize available

energy resources efficiently by minimizing waste energy. Absorption refrigeration systems increasingly attract research interests.

Absorption cooling offers the possibility of using heat to provide cooling. For this purpose heat from conventional boiler can be used or

waste heat and solar energy. Absorption system falls into two categories depending upon the working fluid. These are the LiBr-H2O and

NH3-H2O Absorption Refrigeration system. In LiBr-H2O system water is used as a refrigerant and LiBr is used as an absorbent, while in

NH3-H2O system ammonia used as an refrigerant and water is used as an absorbent, which served as standard for comparison in studying

and developing new cycles and new absorbent/refrigerant pairs. The objective of this paper is to present empirical relations for evaluating

the characteristics and performance of a single stage Ammonia water (NH3-H2O) vapour absorption system. The necessary heat and mass

transfer equations and appropriate equations describing the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid at all thermodynamic states are

evaluated. An energy analysis of each component has been carried out and numerical results for the cycle are tabulated. Finally the

variations of various thermodynamic parameters are simulated and examined.

1 INTRODUCTION

In view of shortage of energy production and fast increasing

energy consumption, there is a need to minimize the use of

energy and conserve it in all possible ways. Energy conservation (i.e., energy saved is more desirable than energy produced) is becoming a slogan of the present decade and new

methods to save energy, otherwise being wasted, are being

explored. Recovering energy from waste heat and/or utilizing

it for system efficiency improvement is fast becoming a common scientific temper and industrial practice now days. The

present energy crisis has forced the scientists and engineers all

over the world to adopt energy conservation measures in various industries. Reduction of the electric power and thermal

energy consumption are not only desirable but unavoidable in

view of fast and competitive industrial growth throughout the

world. Refrigeration systems form a vital component for the

industrial growth and affect the energy problems of the country at large. Therefore, it is desirable to provide a base for

energy conservation and energy recovery from Vapour Absorption System. Although, the investigations undertaken in

this work are of applied research nature but certainly can

create a base for further R & D activities in the direction of

energy conservation and heat recovery options for refrigeration systems and the analysis can be extended further to other

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Systems. In recent years,

research has been devoted to improvement of Absorption Refrigeration Systems (ARSs). Mechanical Vapour Compression

Design and Thermal engineering inDevi Ahilya University, indore,India,

PH-09009008253. E-mail:satishraghuwanshi.24@gmail.com

Dr. Govind maheshwari, professor inMechanical EngineeringDepartrment

in Devi Ahilya University,Indore,India. PH-09826247653.

Apart from this, recent studies have shown that the conventional working fluids of vapour compression system are causing ozone layer depletion and green house effects.

However, ARSs harmless inexpensive waste heat,

solar, biomass or geothermal energy sources for which the cost

of supply is negligible in many cases. Moreover, the working

fluids of these systems are envoi mentally friendly [1-3]. The

overall performance of the absorption cycle in terms of refrigerating effect per unit of energy input generally poor, however,

waste heat such as that rejected from a power can be used to

achieve better overall energy utilization. Ammonia/water

(NH3/H20) systems are widely used where lower temperature

is required. However, water/lithium bromide (H20/LiBr) system are also widely used where moderate temperatures are

required (e.g. air conditioning), and the latter system is more

efficient than the former [4-6].

The objective of this paper is to evaluate thermodynamic properties and tabulated also energy transfer rate in

each components are calculated and tabulated with the help of

empirical relation. Mass flow rate and heat rate in each components of the system are evaluated and tabulated. The coefficient of performance of the system is determining for various

temperatures ranges. The result of this study can be used either for sizing a new refrigeration cycle or rating an existing

system.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Figure 1 shows the schematic block diagram of a

simple absorption refrigeration system it consist of an absorber, a pump, a generator and a pressure reducing valve to re-

IJSER 2011

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ISSN 2229-5518

place the compressor in vapour compression refrigeration system. The other component of the system is same (condenser,

evaporator and expansion valve). In this system the NH 3 is

used as a refrigerant and the water is used as an absorbent. In

this system the low pressure ammonia vapour refrigerant

leaving the evaporator enters the absorber, where its absorbed by the cold water in the absorber. The water has an

ability to absorb a very large quantity of ammonia vapour,

and the solution thus formed is known as aqua ammonia solution. The absorption of ammonia vapour in water lowers the

pressure in the absorber which turn draw the more ammonia

vapour from the evaporator and thus raise the temperature of

the solution. Some form of cooling arrangement (usually water

cooling) is employed in the absorber to remove the heat of

solution evolved here, this is necessary in order to increase the

absorption capacity of water, because of higher temperature

water absorb less ammonia vapour, the strong solution thus

formed in absorber is pumped to the generator by the liquid

pump. The pump increases the pressure of solution up to the

10 bar. The strong solution of ammonia in the generator is

heated by some external source such as gas, steam, solar energy. During the heating process ammonia vapour is driven off

from the solution at higher pressure and leaving behind the

hot week solution in the generator. The weak ammonia solution flows back to the absorber at low pressure after passing

through the pressure reducing valve. The high pressure ammonia vapour from the generator is condensed in the condenser to high pressure liquid ammonia thus liquid ammonia

is passed to the expansion valve through the receiver and then

to the evaporator. This is the complete working of simple vapour absorption refrigeration cycle.

1. At point1, 4 and 8, there is only Saturated Liquid.

2. At point10, there is only Saturated Vapour.

3. Pumping is isentropic.

4. Assume weak solution contain more percentage of refrigerant and less percentage of absorbent and strong solution contain more percentage of absorbent and less percentage of refrigerant.

5. Percentage of weak solution at state 1, 2 and 3 and Percentage of strong solution at state 4, 5 and 6 will remain same.

6.

The

Temperatures

at

Thermodynamic

state

11,12,13,14,15,16,17 and 18 are the external circuit for water

which is use to input heat for the components of system. As

Shown in fig 1

For Generator,

Inlet Temperature of Water = 100C

Outlet Temperature of Water = 90C

For condenser,

Inlet Temperature of Water = 20C

Outlet Temperature of Water = 24C

For Absorber,

Inlet Temperature of Water = 20C

Outlet Temperature of Water = 24C

For Evaporator,

Inlet Temperature of Water = 20C

Outlet Temperature of Water = 12C

8. We have divided our system into two pressure limits, one is

high pressure limit and other is low pressure limit, in the following system we are taking high pressure from the table corresponds to generator temperature (T7) and low pressure corresponds to evaporator temperature (T10)

P1 = P6 = P9 = P10 = Low pressure

P2 = P3 = P4 = P5 = P7 = P8 = High pressure

Refrigeration System

THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS

For carrying out thermodynamic analysis of the proposed Vapour Absorption Refrigeration system, following

assumption are made: [5]

analysis [5]

Mass flow rate of Refrigerant = 0.05 kg/s

Effectiveness of heat exchanger ( ) =0.7

Generator Temperature =TG=T4=T7 = 50C

IJSER 2011

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ISSN 2229-5518

Absorber Temperature=TA=T1=T2= 20C

Evaporator Temperature=TE=T10=T9= 2.5C

Percentage of weak solution Xw= 55.3

Percentage of strong solution Xs= 56

A. Energy Analysis

GENERATOR

On balancing the energy across the generator, one can say;

Qg+ Q3 = Q4 + Q7

(1)

Since:

Q3=m3.h3

(2)

Q4=m4.h4

(3)

Q7=m7.h7

(4)

Balancing the concentration across the Generator, one can say,

m3.X3 = m4.X4

(5)

Putting the value of m3, X3 and X4 in Equation 5,

we will get,

m1

m4 Xs

(6)

Xw

m

m

6

10

X

1

X

(7)

6

1

(h4) at thermodynamic state 3 and 4,

help of table at TG=T7

Using equation 2, 3 and 4, one can calculate Q3, Q4 and Q7

putting the value of Q3 Q4 and Q7 one can calculate QG

Qg = (m7h7) + (m4h4) - (m3h3)

(9)

We also know that heat supplied to the generator is,

Qg = m114.2 (T12-T11)

(10)

On comparing equation (9) with (10), one can get m11

Similarly by using energy balance, one can calculate m 11

m11

(8)

(m 7 h 7 ) (m 4 h 4 ) - (m 3 h 3 )

4.2 (T11 - T12 )

(11)

CONDENSER

On balancing the energy across the condenser, one can

say;

Qc + Q8 = Q7

(12)

Since,

Q8=m8.h8

Q7=m7.h7

(13)

(14)

table at TC = T8

With the help of equation 13, 14, one can calculate

Q7 and Q8

On putting the value of Q7 and Q8 in equation 13, one can get

IJSER 2011

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ISSN 2229-5518

Qc = (m7h7)-(m8h8)

of table at T10

We have already found out m1 and m6 by using equation 5 and

6 for calculating T5, one can use the relation of effectiveness of

Heat Exchanger

(15)

Qc =m154.2 (T16-T15)

(16)

T5 - -

Similarly by using energy balance, one can calculate m 15

m15

T4 - T2

(T4 - T2 ).

(28)

With the help of equation 25, 26 and 27, one can calculate Q1,

Q6, and Q10

(m 7 h 7 ) - (m 8 h 8 )

4.2 (T16 - T15 )

T4

On putting the value of Q1, Q6, and Q10 in equation 24, one can

get,

(17)

EVAPORATOR

On balancing the energy across the Evaporator, one can

say;

Qe+Q9 =Q10

(18)

Since,

Q9 = m9.h9

(19)

Q10 = m10.h10

(20)

Enthalpy at thermodynamic state 9, calculated with the help of

table at T9

Enthalpy at thermodynamic state 10, calculated with the help

of table at T10

With the help of equation 19, 20, one can calculate

Q9 and Q10

On putting the value of Q9 and Q10 in equation 18, one can get,

Qe = (m10h10)-(m9h9)

(21)

Qe= m17 4.2 (T18-T17)

(22)

On comparing equation (21) with (22), one can get m17

Similarly by using energy balance, one can calculate m 17

m17

(m10 h 10 ) - (m 9 h 9 )

4.2 (T18 - T17 )

(23)

ABSORBER

On balancing the energy across the Absorber, one can say,

Qa+Q1 =Q6+Q10

(24)

Q1=m1.h1

Q6=m6.h6

Q10= m10.h10

(25)

(26)

(27)

(29)

Qa = m13 4.2 (T14-T13)

(30)

Similarly by using energy balance, one can calculate m 13

m13

( m 6 h6 ) ( m10 h10 ) ( m1 h1 )

4.2 (T14 T13 )

(31)

Thermodynamic properties at the various states, energy flow rate at the various components of the system, Coefficient of performance of the system by using input parameters

being calculated through the mathematical model on MATLAB. Summary of the same has been given in tables

Effect of Generator Temperature on Coefficient of Performance:It can be seen from the Figure 2, as the Generator temperature increases, Coefficient of Performance of the system

decreases. This is due to the increase in the enthalpy of refrigerant which thereby increases in the generator load. This system can be operated with a relative low generator temperature

to reach low evaporator temperature with an acceptable system COP, which is main advantage of this refrigeration system, as it could then utilize industry or civil waste heat and

solar energy since fluid temperatures of this kind of heat

source are generally low.

Since,

Using Equation 8, one can estimate the enthalpy (h1) and (h6)

at thermodynamic state 1 and 6

IJSER 2011

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ISSN 2229-5518

0.2298

COP

COP

0.2296

0.60

0.2294

0.55

0.2292

0.50

COP

COP

0.2290

0.45

0.40

0.2288

0.2286

0.35

0.2284

0.30

0.2282

0.25

0.2280

25

30

35

40

0.2278

45

Generator Temperature in C

20

40

60

80

Absorber Temperature C

Temperature

Coefficient of Performance:It can be seen from the Figure 3, as the Temperature of inlet water to Generator increases, Coefficient of Performance of

the system decreases. This is due to the increase in the temperature difference of inlet and outlet water which thereby

increases the generator load.

Effect of Evaporator Temperature on Coefficient of Performance:It can be seen from the Figure 5, as Evaporator Temperature decreases, Coefficient of Performance of the system increases. This is due to increase in the Evaporator load.

0.25

COP

0.20

COP

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

100

120

140

160

180

200

Effect of Absorber Temperature on Coefficient of Performance:It can be seen from the Figure 4, as Absorber Temperature decreases, Coefficient of Performance of the system increases. This is due to decrease in the generator load.

IJSER 2011

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ISSN 2229-5518

Tabulation of the calculated Energy flows at the various components for the Ammonia -Water Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System:-

COP

0.240

0.238

0.236

0.234

COP

0.232

0.230

0.228

0.226

0.224

0.222

0.220

-15

-10

-5

10

15

20

Evaporator Temperature C

Effect of Effectiveness of Heat exchanger on Coefficient of

Performance:It can be seen from the Figure 6, as Effectiveness of

Heat Exchanger increases, Coefficient of Performance increases. Heat exchanger used to increase the performance of Refrigeration system, it exchange the heat from hot fluid to cold

fluid, which thereby the temperature of cold fluid increases

before entering to the generator, so as in the generator there is

less heat input require and hence COP of system is increases.

CONCLUSIONS

In this Paper, the first Law of Thermodynamics is applied to a single stage Ammonia-Water Vapour Absorption

Refrigeration system, the performance analysis of each component is calculated through mathematical model on MATLAB 7.0.1. Followings are the conclusion made:

1.

with increasing inlet water Temperature to generator

(T11) keeping the outlet water temperature to generator (T12) is constant.

2.

the system decreases.

3.

4.

5.

of the system is also increases.

0.32

0.30

0.28

COP

COP

0.26

0.24

0.22

0.20

0.18

0.16

0.14

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80

Tabulation of the calculated Thermodynamic properties at the

various, Thermodynamic States for the NH3-H2O Vapour Absorption System:-

project can be applied as a useful tool for evaluation and improvement of the absorption systems; it provides a simple and

effective method to identify how losses at different devices are

interdependent and where a given design should be modified

for the best performance.

IJSER 2011

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ISSN 2229-5518

REFERENCES

[1] N.Bennani, M.Prevost and A.Coronas. 1989.Absorption heat

pump cycle: Performance analysis of water-glycerolmixture. Heat

Recovery System &CHP.9(3):257-263.

[2] P.Bourseau and R.Bugarel. 1986. Absorption-diffusion machines: comparison of performances of NH3-H2O and NH3-NaSCN.

Int.J.Refrig. Vol. 206-214.

[3] D.Butz and K.Stephan. 1989. Dynamic behavior of an absorption heat pump. Int.J.Refrig.Vol.12:204-212.

[4] M.A.R. Eisa and F.A.Holland. 1986. A study of the performance

parameter in a water-lithium bromide absorption cooler. Energy Res.

Vol.10: 137-144.

[5] Da-Wen Sun Thermodynamic design Data and optimum design

maps for

absorption refrigeration system. Received 5 august

1996, Vol.17 No.3.pp 211, 1997

[6] Xu GP, Dai YQ. Theoretical analysis and optimization of a

double-effect parallel flow type absorption chiller. Applied Thermal

Engineering 1997; 17(2):157170.

[7] K. Stephan, History of absorption heat pumps and working pair

developments in Europe, Int. J Refrig.6 160-166.

IJSER 2011

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