Part I
Flow Measurement in
Closed Conduit
Summary
The objectives of this experiment were to get familiarized with various flow
measuring devices, such as venturi meter, orifice plate, rotameter, etc., for measurement
of discharge in closed conduits and to determine the loss coefficients for the various
fittings in the system.
The loss coefficient, K was found by making use of the following expression.
g c P
V2
K
where P is the pressure drop, is the density of fluid and v is the velocity of the fluid.
The pressure drop across a particular device was measured at different flow rates to
obtain the various loss coefficients of the various devices.
Once the various loss coefficients were obtained, the flow rate across each line
when all three lines were opened was calculated, and the sum of the flow rates was found
to be close to the actual flow rated used which showed that the loss coefficients obtained
were rather accurate as well.
CONTENTS
Part I: Flow Measurement in Closed Conduit
Sections
Page
Title
Summary
Introduction
II
Theoretical Background
III
IV
Discussion
24
VI
Conclusion
33
VII
References
33
Appendices
I Introduction
The objectives of the experiments were to:
1. To get familiarized with various flow measuring devices, such as venturi meter,
orifice plate, rotameter, etc., for measurement of discharge in closed conduits.
2. To determine the loss coefficients for the various fittings in the system.
3. To determine to individual flow rates in each line when all 3 lines were opened.
Flow rate measurements are important not only in the laboratory but also in the
industrial plants, serving as a basis for proper monitoring and control. As a result, we
must be able to account for the losses due to pipe material, pipe fittings as well as the
flow measuring devices in the system. By measuring pressure, elevation and sometimes
velocity, measurement of losses can be accomplished.
The aim of this experiment is to get familiarized with the different flow measuring
devices, such as the venturi meter, orifice meter and rotameter, which are often used for
the measurement of discharge in closed conduits. The choice of a flow meter is
influenced by the accuracy required, range, cost, ease of reading and service life. The
simplest and cheapest device that gives the desired accuracy is then appropriately chosen.
The various fittings loss coefficients are being investigated. The flow in a piping
system may be required to pass through a variety of fittings, bends or abrupt changes in
area. Additional head loss arises as a result of flow separation. For flow through pipe
bends and fittings, the loss coefficient, K is found to vary with pipe size (diameter) in
much the same manner as the friction factor, f, for flow through a straight pipe. Pressure
at different points of the closed conduits is measured and the results are then used for the
determination of the loss coefficient, K for the various fittings in the system
For a good plant design, it is essential to know the values of head losses as well as to
account for them in the design. Given the wide range of flow meters available nowadays,
it is also important for engineers to possess knowledge of the relative advantages and
disadvantages, as well as limitations, of the different types of flow measuring devices
available. Often, the simplest and most economical device that will be able to cope with
the desired accuracy range will be preferred.
The study of loss coefficients for the various fittings in a piping system is an essential
requirement for understanding the flow behavior within the system.
II Theoretical Background
Water is used as the flowing fluid in this experiment and is pumped from the
holding vessel into the piping system consisting of three parallel lines with different
components.
Line 1 consists of:
Smooth bore pipe, rough bore pipe, gradual expansion, sudden contraction, a 90o
bend, a 180o bend, and a 90o elbow.
It can be closed or opened by the control of the isolation valve.
Line 2 consists of:
Diaphragm valve, ball valve, globe valve and needle valve.
It can be closed by the control of any one valve or opened by all the valves.
Line 3 consists of:
Orifice meter and venturi meter.
The closure and open of this line is controlled by the isolation valve.
The combined flow passed through a rotameter and then flowed back to the
holding vessel.
In pipe lines, the total head loss is made up of both the frictional head loss and the
head loss due to fittings (e.g. valves, elbows)
(hL)total = (hL)frictional + (hL)fittings
where (hL)frictional = frictional head loss = 2ffLV2/Dg
(hL)fittings = head loss due to fittings = P/ = KV2/2 gc
In this experiment, we are only concerned about the head loss due to fittings.
(hL)fittings = P/ = KV2/2gc
The loss coefficient, K is defined as follows:
g c P
V2
K
where
P
Pressure drop
Density of fluid
Loss coefficient
For a particular device, if the pressure drop and the flow rate are known, the loss
coefficient can be found by plotting (gc P/) against V2/2). The slope is then the loss
coefficient, K.
Once the various loss coefficients are obtained for the various devices, the flow
rates in each individual line can be calculated by finding out V, the velocity of the fluid
using the same equation above. The total flow rates of the 3 lines should be equal to the
actual flow rate used if the loss coefficients are accurately obtained.
2.
3.
diaphragm valve
4.
ball valve
5.
globe valve
6.
needle valve
7.
isolation valve
Valves
gradual expansion
9.
sudden contraction
10.
bend
11.
elbows
12.
orifice meter
13.
venturi meter
14.
rotameter
15.
holding vessel
16.
pump
17.
Meters
Others
Switch on the power for the digital pressure gauge and the pump. Open the gate valve for
1. The bypass was ensured to be opened and the pump started.
2. The gate valve for line 1 was opened while the valves for line 2 and 3 were
closed.
3. The bypass valve was closed partially and the knob of the rotameter adjusted to a
flow rate of 10 l/min.
4. The pressure readings at tap points 110, 21 and 22 were taken down and
recorded.
5. The flow rate was varied covering the range of flow rates from 10 l/min to
65 l/min to obtained 4 different runs.
6. The same procedure for line 2 (with line 1 and 3 closed) was repeated and
pressure readings at tap points 1115, 21 and 22 were taken down and recorded.
7. The same procedure for line 3 (with line 1 and 2 closed) was repeated and
pressure readings at tap points 1622 were taken down and recorded.
8. All three lines were opened and pressure readings at all tap points were taken
down and recorded.
9. The flow rate was varied covering the range of flow rates from 20 l/min to
75 l/min to obtain 4 different runs.
3.2 Precautions Taken
All valves in the lines other that the one to be studied were ensured to be
closed.
The flow rate through lines 2 and 3 were kept below 30 l/min to prevent
damage to the valves in the lines.
Device
Rough Bore Pipe
180o Bend
0.0221
Sudden Contraction
0.0317
Gradual Expansion
0.0317
90o Elbow
0.0221
90o Bend
0.0221
0.0221
Diaphragm Valve
0.0166
Ball Valve
0.0166
Globe Valve
0.0166
Needle Valve
0.0166
Orifice Meter
0.0127
Venturi Meter
0.0127
Rotameter
0.0221
Set
Number
Flow
rate
(l/min)
Point
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
21
22
10
30
50
65
22.602
22.644
22.678
22.651
22.616
22.617
22.659
22.679
22.724
22.73
22.522
22.223
Pressure (psi)
18.273 12.527
19.073 14.632
19.132 14.866
19.296 15.263
19.227 15.123
19.358 15.285
19.416
15.72
19.45
15.81
19.564 16.082
19.667 16.301
17.783 11.432
17.275 10.593
6.688
10.29
10.72
11.395
11.073
11.333
12.023
12.225
12.655
13.029
4.87
3.687
Set
number
Flow rate
(l/min)
10
20
25
30
Point
11
12
13
14
15
21
22
22.457
21.395
21.331
21.167
19.332
20.335
20.013
Pressure (psi)
20.97
20.507
18.822 18.321
18.554 17.222
17.777 17.209
13.418
9.649
15.236 10.486
15.046 10.045
19.946
15.655
15.58
13.442
1.751
7.922
8.429
Set number
10
Flow rate
(l/min)
Point
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
10
22.308
22.27
22.295
22.108
22.255
22.26
21.959
20
25
Pressure (psi)
21.893 20.288
20.653 18.872
20.723 18.027
20.394 18.604
20.602 17.837
22.593 19.83
20.202 19.378
30
19.778
17.185
19.366
19.085
19.146
19.131
18.604
Set number
Flow rate
(l/min)
Point
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
1
20
2
40
3
60
4
75
Pressure (psi)
20.944
21.009
21.021
21.023
21.008
21.012
21.025
21.037
21.041
21.058
21.077
21.023
21.016
20.98
20.905
21.044
20.895
20.977
20.841
20.944
20.830
20.456
17.683
17.895
17.966
17.984
17.927
17.991
18.025
18.037
18.056
18.082
18.191
18.049
18.033
17.96
17.503
18.225
17.338
17.58
17.141
17.513
17.165
16.502
13.706
14.225
14.32
14.406
14.372
14.425
14.553
14.565
14.619
14.679
14.961
14.609
14.549
14.437
13.502
14.906
13.666
12.802
13.511
12.531
12.731
11.712
9.541
10.48
10.588
10.794
10.707
10.787
10.979
11.044
11.123
11.212
11.714
11.142
11.069
10.842
9.32
11.721
8.403
9.522
8.109
9.283
8.008
8.488
11
Q(m3/s)
0.000167
P1
P (psi)
P2
22.602
22.644
0.042
P (Pa)
289.6
Velocity
0.53
Velocity2
0.2809
V=Q/A
= 0.000167 * 4 / * 0.02002
= 0.53 m/s
K = (gcP * 2 ) / ( * V2 )
= (1*289.6*2) / (1000 * 0.2809)
= 2.062
Second Method:
Plot a graph of P vs V2 .
12
From the best fit line, the equation is found be to y = 2094.2x 90.246
Hence, Gradient = 2094.2 = K / 2
Therefore, K = 2094.2 * 2 / 1000
= 4.18
For line 1:
Rough Bore Pipe
13
Q (l/min)
10
30
Q (m3/s)
P1 (psi)
P2(psi)
P (psi)
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
1.67 x 104
22.602
22.644
0.042
289.6
0.53
2.062
5x 104
18.273
19.073
0.8
5515.8
1.59
4.364
8.33 x 104
12.527
14.632
2.105
14513.4
2.65
4.133
1.08 x 103
6.688
10.29
3.602
24834.8
3.45
Average K:
4.173
3.683
K (mtd 1)
50
65
1800 Bend
Q (l/min)
Q (m3/s)
P2 (psi)
P3
(psi)
P
(psi)
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
10
1.67 x 104
22.644
22.678
22.644
22.678
0.43
2.535
30
5x 104
19.073
19.132
19.073
19.132
1.3
0.481
50
8.33 x 104
14.632
14.866
14.632
14.866
2.17
0.685
65
1.08 x 103
10.29
10.72
10.29
10.72
K (mtd1)
2.82
Average K:
Sudden Contraction
P3 (psi)
P4
P
(psi)
(psi)
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
0.746
1.112
Q (l/min)
Q (m /s)
10
1.67 x 104
22.678
22.651
0.027
186.16
0.21
8.443
30
5x 104
19.132
19.296
0.164
1130.7
0.63
5.698
50
8.33 x 104
14.866
15.263
0.397
2737.2
1.06
4.872
65
1.08 x 103
10.72
11.395
0.675
4653.9
Gradual Expansion
P4 (psi)
P5
P
(psi)
(psi)
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
22.651
22.616
0.035
241.32
0.21
10.944
19.296
19.227
0.069
475.74
0.63
2.397
Q (l/min)
Q (m /s)
10
1.67 x 104
30
5x 10
4
1.37
Average K:
K (mtd1)
4.959
5.17633
K (mtd1)
14
50
8.33 x 104
15.263
15.123
0.14
952.26
65
1.08 x 103
11.395
11.073
0.322
2220.1
1.37
Average K:
Q (l/min)
Q (m3/s)
P6 (psi)
900 Elbow
P7
P
(psi)
(psi)
10
1.67 x 104
22.617
22.659
30
5x 104
19.358
50
8.33 x 104
65
1.08 x 103
1.06
1.695
2.366
1.615
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
K (mtd1)
0.042
289.6
0.43
3.133
19.416
0.058
399.9
1.3
0.473
15.285
15.72
0.435
2999.2
2.17
1.274
11.333
12.023
0.69
4757.4
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
2.82
Average K:
1.196
1.519
Q (l/min)
Q (m3/s)
P7 (psi)
900 Bend
P8
P
(psi)
(psi)
10
1.67 x 104
22.659
22.729
0.07
482.6
0.43
1.492
30
5x 104
19.416
19.45
0.034
234.4
1.3
0.277
50
8.33 x 104
15.72
15.81
0.09
620.5
2.17
0.264
65
1.08 x 103
12.023
12.225
0.202
1392.7
Q (l/min)
Q (m3/s)
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
10
1.67 x 104
22.729
22.735
0.006
41.3
0.43
3.803
30
5x 104
19.45
19.667
0.217
1496.2
1.3
1.771
50
8.33 x 104
15.81
16.301
0.491
3385.3
2.17
1.438
65
1.08 x 103
12.225
13.029
0.804
5543.4
K (mtd1)
2.82
Average K:
2.82
Average K:
0.35
0.596
K (mtd1)
1.394
2.102
15
Rotameter
P22
P
(psi)
(psi)
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
Q (l/min)
Q (m /s)
P21 (psi)
10
1.67 x 104
22.522
22.223
0.299
2061.5
0.43
22.299
4
K (mtd1)
30
5x 10
17.783
17.275
0.508
3502.5
1.3
4.145
50
8.33 x 104
11.432
10.593
0.839
5784.7
2.17
2.457
65
1.08 x 103
4.87
3.687
1.183
8156.4
2.82
Average K:
2.051
7.738
Figure 2: Plot of Pressure Drop Vs FLow Rate for line 1 devices. (Only the rough bore pipe is plotted
on the secondary axis)
16
Device
Gradient
K (mtd 2)
y = 2094.2x  90.246
2094.2
4.1884
1800 bend
y = 364.65x  20.32
364.65
0.7293
Sudden Contraction
y = 2560.4x  119.03
2560.4
5.1208
Gradual Expansion
y = 1053.6x  65.9
1053.6
2.1072
900 Elbow
y = 619.84x 141
619.84
1.23968
900 Bend
y = 128.55x + 215.39
128.55
0.2571
y = 691.27x + 104.44
691.27
1.38254
Rotameter
y = 775.67x + 2057.4
775.67
1.55134
For Line 2:
Diaphragm Valve
17
Q (l/min)
Q (m3/s)
10
1.67 x 104
22.457
21.395
1.062
7322.207
0.77
24.700
20
3.33 x 104
20.97
18.822
2.148
14809.89
1.54
12.489
25
4.17 x 104
20.507
18.321
2.186
15071.89
1.92
8.177
30
5.00 x 104
19.946
15.655
4.291
29585.3
2.31
11.089
P11 (psi)
P12(psi)
P (psi)
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
Average K:
K (mtd 1)
14.114
Ball Valve
Q (l/min)
Q (m3/s)
10
P12 (psi)
P13 (psi)
P (psi)
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
K (mtd1)
1.67 x 104
21.395
21.331
0.064
441.2629
0.77
1.488
20
3.33 x 104
18.822
18.554
0.268
1847.789
1.54
1.558
25
4.17 x 104
18.321
17.222
1.099
7577.312
1.92
4.111
30
5.00 x 104
15.655
15.58
0.075
517.105
2.31
0.194
Average K:
1.838
Globe Valve
Q (l/min)
Q (m3/s)
10
P13 (psi)
P14 (psi)
P (psi)
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
1.67 x 104
21.331
21.167
0.164
1130.736
0.77
3.814
20
3.33 x 104
18.554
17.777
0.777
5357.208
1.54
4.518
25
4.17 x 104
17.222
17.209
0.013
89.63153
1.92
0.049
30
5.00 x 104
15.58
13.442
2.138
14740.94
2.31
5.525
Average K:
K (mtd1)
4.619
Needle Valve
Q (l/min)
Q (m3/s)
10
P14 (psi)
P15 (psi)
P (psi)
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
1.67 x 104
21.167
19.332
1.835
12651.84
0.77
42.678
20
3.33 x 104
17.777
13.418
4.359
30054.14
1.54
25.345
25
4.17 x 104
17.209
9.649
7.56
52124.18
1.92
28.279
30
5.00 x 104
13.442
1.751
11.691
80606.33
2.31
30.212
Average K:
K (mtd1)
31.628
Rotameter
18
Q (l/min)
Q (m3/s)
10
P21 (psi)
P22 (psi)
P (psi)
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
K (mtd1)
1.67 x 104
20.335
20.013
0.322
2220.104
0.77
24.014
20
3.33 x 104
15.236
15.046
0.19
1309.999
1.54
3.461
25
4.17 x 104
10.486
10.045
0.441
3040.577
1.92
5.118
30
5.00 x 104
7.922
8.429
0.507
3495.63
2.31
4.137
Average K:
8.148
19
Device
Equation of Lines in
Fig 5
Gradient
K (mtd 2)
Diaphragm Valve
y = 4352.8x + 3653.1
4352.8
8.7056
Ball Valve
y = 348.22x + 1552.3
348.22
0.69644
Globe Valve
y = 2350.2x  1713.4
2350.2
4.7004
Needle Valve
y = 14468x + 502.97
14468
28.936
Rotameter
y = 3121.5x + 3749.7
3121.5
6.243
20
For Line 3:
Orifice Meter
Q (l/min)
Q (m3/s)
10
1.67 x 104
22.308
22.27
0.038
261.9999
1.31
0.305
20
3.33 x 104
21.893
20.653
1.24
8549.469
2.63
2.472
25
4.17 x 104
20.288
18.872
1.416
9762.942
3.29
1.804
30
5.00 x 104
19.778
17.185
2.593
17878.04
3.95
2.292
P16 (psi)
P17(psi)
P (psi)
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
K (mtd 1)
Average K:
1.718
Venturi Meter
Q (l/min)
Q (m3/s)
10
1.67 x 104
22.295
22.255
0.04
275.7893
1.31
0.321
20
3.33 x 104
20.723
20.602
0.121
834.2627
2.63
0.241
25
4.17 x 104
18.027
17.837
0.19
1309.999
3.29
0.242
30
5.00 x 104
19.366
19.146
0.22
1516.841
3.95
0.194
Average K:
0.250
P18 (psi)
P20 (psi)
P (psi)
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
K (mtd1)
Rotameter
Q (l/min)
Q (m3/s)
10
1.67 x 104
22.26
21.959
0.301
2075.315
1.31
21.439
20
3.33 x 104
20.593
20.202
0.391
2695.841
2.63
7.123
25
4.17 x 104
19.83
19.378
0.452
3116.419
3.29
5.246
30
5.00 x 104
19.131
18.604
0.527
3633.524
3.95
4.300
P21 (psi)
P22 (psi)
P (psi)
P (Pa)
V (m/s)
Average K:
K (mtd1)
9.527
21
Figure 6: Plot of Pressure Drop Vs FLow Rate for line 3 devices (Only the venturi meter is plotted on
the secondary axis)
Figure 7: Plot of Pressure Drop Vs Velocity^2 from Line 3 devices (only venturi meter is plotted on
the secondary axis)
22
Device
Orifice Meter
y = 1198x  1386.9
Venturi Meter
Rotameter
Gradient
K (mtd 2)
1198
2.396
y = 92.065x + 177.28
92.065
0.184
y = 1036.8x + 1887.9
1036.8
2.074
23
Device
K (mtd 1)
K (mtd 2)
K ave
3.683
4.188
3.936
1800 bend
1.112
0.729
0.921
Sudden Contraction
5.176
5.121
5.149
Gradual Expansion
1.615
2.107
1.861
900 Elbow
1.519
1.240
1.379
900 Bend
0.596
0.257
0.427
2.102
1.383
1.742
Diaphragm Valve
14.114
8.706
11.410
Ball Valve
1.838
0.696
1.267
Globe Valve
4.619
4.700
4.660
Needle Valve
31.628
28.936
30.282
Orifice Meter
1.718
2.396
2.057
Venturi Meter
0.250
0.184
0.217
ROtameter
7.738
8.148
9.527
1.551
6.243
2.074
5.880
V Discussion
1.
From the pressure drop versus flow rate graphs as illustrated in figure 1, 3 and 5,
it can be observed that generally pressure drop increases as flow rate increases. This is
because pressure drop is directly proportional to the square of the velocity as seen in the
equation
g c P
V2
K
. Increasing flow rate also increases the velocity as the diameter
24
The loss coefficient is obtained by the equation based calculation (method 1) and
graphical determination (method 2). In method 1, K was calculated using the equation,
g c P
V2
K
where V2 is determined by the flow rate used. The K is than evaluated at
all the flow rate used and arithmetic K average is found. In method 2, P versus V2 was
plotted using the best fit method (by linear regression) and the gradient of the line was
obtained. With the gradient, K was calculated. Since two different methods are used to
determine K, it is expected to obtain K values which differ slightly.
The loss coefficient K is used to express the amount of head loss associated with
various devices, pipes and fitting in addition to flow separation and mixing as these
obstruct the smooth flow of the fluid. A large K means greater energy loss with the device
or fitting and small K means lesser energy loss. Generally, devices and fittings of smaller
diameter, larger loss coefficients are recorded while devices and fittings of larger
diameter have smaller loss coefficient. With respect to pipes, a rough bore pipe has a
larger loss coefficient as more work has to be done against friction while a smooth bore
pipe. Valves also have a higher loss coefficient. These observations are justified as
devices with small internal diameters and valves by the structural design nature interrupt
fluid flow and rough pipes increase friction which results in the increase of loss
coefficient.
Significance of Reynolds number is ignored as all experiments were conducted
as high Reynolds number and hence this factor will not significantly affect the loss
coefficient.
Relative advantages and disadvantages of various discharge measuring devices Orifice
Meter, Venturi Meter and Rotameter.
Device
Advantages
Disadvantages
25
Orifice
meter
rates
4. Extensive industrial use
Venturi
meter
drop is required.
Rotameter
3. It is expensive
flowing upward
rate
3. Allows the flow rate to be
machine
adjusted
2)
We classify all the pipe fittings into 4 categories: pipes, valves, meters and other pipe fittings.
Comparison of K between Valves, Meters and Pipes
Generally the K values for valves are much greater than the values of meters and
pipes. This can be attributed to the fact that the internal diameter and hence the cross sectional
area of the valve are reasonably smaller than that of meters and pipes (With reference to table 1).
26
With smaller internal diameter, the restrictions to fluid flow increases which results in greater
pressure drop. Given the same flow rate, a smaller diameter for fluid flow increases the velocity
of fluid flow. Frictional losses are proportional to fluid velocity hence increasing fluid velocity
(by increasing flow rate) increases the frictional loss. Hence, all valve devices have high loss
coefficient. However, the sudden contraction has a relatively high loss coefficient of 5.149 as the
sudden contraction of diameter creates eddy currents and vortex rings within the fluid flow.
Comparison of K between pipes
The rough bore pipe has a higher loss coefficient as compared to the smooth bore
pipe. The rough bore pipe has higher friction and hence more work has to be done to overcome
friction as compared to smooth bore pipe.
Comparison of K between bends and elbows
The K value for the 90 elbow was the highest, followed by that of the 180 bend, and
lastly the 90 bend. The more abrupt the directional change in fluid flow, the greater the loss in
energy, giving rise to a higher loss coefficient. These energy losses can be attributed to the
formation of eddy currents. Hence for the 90 degree elbow, the change in fluid flow is the most
abrupt resulting in the higher pressure loss. Similarly, comparing the 180 degree and 90 degree
bend, the 180 degree bend has a larger loss coefficient due to the larger change in magnitude of
fluid flow.
Comparison of gradual expansion and sudden contraction
From theoretical knowledge, it is expected that the loss coefficient for sudden
contraction to be larger than that of gradual expansions as in sudden contraction the fluid
enters a constriction resulting in greater energy loss. This result is also proven in the
experiments.
27
saddlelike structure of the valve. Likewise, this causes a greater disturbance in fluid flow
hence having a reasonable loss coefficient. However, both the ball valve and globe valve
have relatively low loss coefficients due to the rounded interiors which do not
significantly obstruct the fluid flow and reduces energy loss.
Comparison of K between discharge measuring devices
The K value for the orifice meter was much higher than the one for the venturi meter. (10
times larger) This result can be attributed to the structural design of the discharging measuring
device.
The cross sectional expansions and contractions are gradual in venturi meter which gives
rises to small loss coefficients as fluid flow is not significantly disrupted and reducing energy
loss.
However, in the orifice meter, the position of the orifice plate collides with the fluid flow
head on. In addition, the formation of eddy currents at the downstream of the orifice meter also
contributes to the head loss.
3.
g c P
V2
K
 (1)
Q1 average = ( Qi ) / i
QT = Q1 + Q2 + Q3
P (Pa)
Kave
V2 (m2/s2)
V(m/s)
A (m2 )
Qi
Line 1
Rough Bore Pipe
180 bend
6474.15
3.936
3.29
1.81 0.000314
5.70 x 104
744.63
0.921
1.62
1.27 0.000384
4.88 x 104
28
1420.32
5.149
Gentle Expansion
599.84
1.861 
90 elbow
1323.79
1.379
1.92
1.39 0.000384
5.32 x 104
90 Bend
448.16
0.427
2.10
1.45 0.000384
5.56 x 104
1158.32
1.742
1.33
1.15 0.000384
4.42 x 104
0.55
5.86 x 104
Sudden Contraction
0.74 0.000789

0.000384 
11.41
0.69
0.83 0.000216
1.80 x 104
503.32
1.27
0.79
0.89 0.000216
1.93 x 104
Globe Valve
1565.10
4.66
0.67
0.82 0.000216
1.77 x 104
Needle Valve
10493.78
30.28
0.69
0.83 0.000216
1.80 x 104
Diaphragm Valve
Ball Valve
Q2 Average
1.83 x 104
Line 3
Orifice Meter
22876.72
2.06
22.24
4.72 0.000127
5.98 x 104
Venturi Meter
1647.84
0.22
15.19
3.90 0.000127
4.94 x 104
Q3 Average
5.46 x 104
QT = Q1 + Q2 + Q3
= 5.29 x 104 + 1.83 x 104 + 5.46 x 104
= 0.001258 m3/s
P (Pa)
Kave
V2 (m2/s2)
V(m/s)
A (m2 )
Qi
Line 1
Rough Bore Pipe
180 bend
3578.37
3.94
1.82
1.35 0.000314
4.24 x 104
655.00
0.92
1.42
1.19 0.000384
4.57 x 104
29
Sudden Contraction
Gentle Expansion
592.95
234.42
5.15
0.23
1.86 
3.79 x 104
0.48 0.000789

0.000384 
90 elbow
882.53
1.38
1.28
1.13 0.000384
4.34 x 104
90 Bend
82.74
0.43
0.39
0.62 0.000384
2.39 x 104
786.00
1.74
0.90
0.95 0.000384
3.64 x 104
11.41
0.43
0.65 0.000216
1.41 x 104
Ball Valve
413.68
1.27
0.65
0.81 0.000216
1.75 x 104
Globe Valve
772.21
4.66
0.33
0.58 0.000216
1.25 x 104
Needle Valve
6446.58
30.28
0.43
0.65 0.000216
1.41 x 104
Diaphragm Valve
Q2 Average
1.45 x 104
Line 3
Orifice Meter
8549.47
2.06
8.31
2.88 0.000127
3.65 x 104
Venturi Meter
1868.47
0.22
17.22
4.15 0.000127
5.26 x 104
Q3 Average
4.46 x 104
QT = Q1 + Q2 + Q3
= 3.83 x 104 + 1.45 x 104 + 4.46 x 104
= 0.000974 m3/s
P (Pa)
Kave
V2 (m2/s2)
V(m/s)
A (m2 )
Qi
Line 1
1461.68
3.94
0.74
0.86 0.000314
2.71 x 104
180 bend
489.53
0.92
1.06
1.03 0.000384
3.96 x 104
Sudden Contraction
124.11
5.15
0.05
0.22 0.000789
1.73 x 104
30
Gentle Expansion
393.00
1.86 
0.000384 
90 elbow
234.42
1.38
0.34
0.58 0.000384
2.24 x 104
90 Bend
82.74
0.43
0.39
0.62 0.000384
2.39 x 104
310.26
1.74
0.36
0.60 0.000384
2.29 x 104
979.05
11.41
0.17
0.41 0.000216
8.96 x 105
Ball Valve
110.32
1.27
0.17
0.42 0.000216
9.03 x 105
Globe Valve
503.32
4.66
0.22
0.46 0.000216
1.01 x 104
Needle Valve
3150.89
30.28
0.21
0.46 0.000216
9.87 x 105
Q2 Average
9.48 x 105
Line 3
Orifice Meter
6115.63
2.06
5.95
2.44 0.000127
3.09 x 104
Venturi Meter
461.95
0.22
4.26
2.06 0.000127
2.61 x 104
Q3 Average
2.85 x 104
QT = Q1 + Q2 + Q3
= 2.55 x 104 + 9.48 x 105 + 2.85 x 104
= 0.000635 m3/s
P (Pa)
Kave
V2 (m2/s2)
V(m/s)
A (m2 )
Qi
Line 1
448.16
4.19
0.21
0.46 0.000314
1.45 x 104
180 bend
82.74
0.73
0.23
0.48 0.000384
1.83 x 104
Sudden Contraction
13.79
5.12
0.01
0.07 0.000789
5.79 x 105
Gentle Expansion
103.42
2.11 
0.000384 
31
90 elbow
89.63
1.24
0.14
0.38 0.000384
1.46 x 104
90 Bend
110.32
0.26
0.86
0.93 0.000384
3.55 x 104
117.21
1.38
0.17
0.41 0.000384
1.58 x 104
8.71
0.09
0.29 0.000216
6.33 x 105
48.26
0.70
0.14
0.37 0.000216
8.06 x 105
Globe Valve
248.21
4.70
0.11
0.32 0.000216
7.03 x 105
Needle Valve
517.10
28.94
0.04
0.19 0.000216
4.09 x 105
Diaphragm Valve
Ball Valve
Q2 Average
6.38 x 105
Line 3
Orifice Meter
1027.32
2.40
0.86
0.93 0.000127
1.17 x 104
Venturi Meter
227.53
0.18
2.47
1.57 0.000127
1.99 x 104
Q3 Average
1.58 x 104
QT = Q1 + Q2 + Q3
= 1.74 x 104 + 6.38 x 105 + 1.58 x 104
= 0.000396 m3/s
QT ( m3/s)
Q1 (m3/s)
Q2 (m3/s)
Q3 (m3/s)
QT (Calculated) (m3/s)
% error
0.00125
5.29 x 104
1.83 x 104
5.46 x 104
0.001258
0.64
0.001
3.83 x 104
1.45 x 104
4.46 x 104
0.000974
2.67
0.000667
2.55 x 104
9.48 x 105
2.85 x 104
0.000635
5.04
0.000333
1.74 x 104
6.38 x 105
1.58 x 104
0.000396
15.90
Since the percentage errors are relatively small, the approximate individual flow rate in
each line can be taken as the summarized values in the table above. The relative low
percentage errors suggest that the K values obtained earlier on were rather accurate.
32
Table 17: Comparison of actual flow rates and calculated flow rates
Error Analysis
1. Assumptions

Flow is incompressible
33
VI Conclusion
The loss coefficients for the various fittings and devices were calculated from the
experimental data. The K values obtain were then used to calculate the flow rate through
each fitting. The results obtained were then compared with the flow rate recorded by the
rotameter. As discussed in question 3 of the discussion section, the flow rates calculated
are sufficient close to the recorded values. The percentage errors were found to be rather
low. Thus we can conclude that the experiment was fairly accurate.
From this experiment, we learned how the geometry of a fitting affects the head
loss. In general, it was observed that if there was a sudden increase or decrease in the
cross sectional area of the pipe, the loss coefficient would be greater than if these changes
were gradual. The needle valve was found to be the device which posses the highest K
value.
A better understanding of the various devices and the various flow meters was
achieved. Familiarization of the applications and limitations of the flow meters was also
obtained.
VII References
1. Fox, R.W., McDonald, A.T., Pritchard, P.J., Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics,
6th Ed., Wiley (2004)
2. Welty, J.R., et al, Fundamental of momentum, heat and mass transfer, 4th ed.
Wiley (2001)
3. Gerhart, PM & Gross, RJ, "Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics", AddisonWesley.
4. Munson, BR, Young, DF & Okiishi, TH, "Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics",
John Wiley & Sons.
5. Mays, L. W. editor. 1999. Hydraulic design handbook. McGrawHill Book Co
34
Appendix
Needle Valve
From the above picture, it can be seen that the needle like plunger gives rise
to significant constriction fluid flow giving rise to the largest loss coefficient.
(http://www.tpub.co
css/h1018v2_54.htm
m/content/doe/h1018v2/
)
Diaphragm Valve
35
The rounded
structure reduces
energy loss.
(http://www.valve
diagnostics.com/medi
a/pictures/globe.
gif)
Ball Valve
36
Rounded surface of the ball reduces energy loss hence giving rise to a small
loss coefficient.
(http://www.spiraxsarco.com/resources/steamengineeringtutorials/pipelineancillaries/isolationvalvesrotarymovement.asp)
Venturi Meter
37
(http://www.flowmeterdirectory.com/images/flowmeter_prof_001.gif)
Orifice Meter
Part II
38
Centrifugal Pump
Characteristics
39
Summary:
The objective of this experiment was to determine the performance curve of the pump and
to verify pump laws. In this experiment, centrifugal pump was selected as the experimental
system and water was used as the fluid medium. Experiment was carried out at 6 different pump
speeds. At each speed, flow rate of water through the pump was varied between the minimum and
maximum possible flow rate. The recorded reading was then used to plot the performance curve
of the pump and to verify the pump laws.
For our experiments, we have concluded that centrifugal pump behaves ideally according to
Pump Affinity Law at higher pump speed.
40
CONTENTS
Part II: Centrifugal Pump
Page
Title
34
Summary
35
Introduction
37
II
Theoretical Background
38
III
44
IV
46
Discussion
53
VI
Conclusion
55
VII
References
55
Appendices
41
I. Introduction:
In chemical industry, engineers often face the problems of pump failures. Thus in order to
protect the pumps and to choose the right system for use in the industry, it is important for
engineers to have a good understanding of the process as well as having thorough knowledge of
the mechanics of the systems. On top of that, they also need to have the ability to observe the
performance of the system over times. This can be done by conducting experiment to obtain the
performance curve of the pump, which is one of our main objectives of the experiment.
Another objective of this experiment was to verify pumps laws. Pumps law is the general
law that the centrifugal pump is obeying. This law states that the flow rate of liquid is directly
proportional to the pump speed, thus the pump speed in the industry is adjusted according to this
law. Therefore it is very important this law is verified so that the system designed in industry
would not be under or overestimated from the ideal system.
In our experiment, we varied the pump speed for six times. For each pump speed, we
varied the flow rate six times as well using the control valve. Readings recorded were then used
to plot performance curve and to verify the pump law. Water was used as the fluid medium in this
experiment.
42
43
Centrifugal pump converts the input power from turbine or electric motor into kinetic
energy in the liquid. This is done by accelerating the liquid with turbine or electric motor which
acts as the revolving device, also known as impeller. The kinetic energy is then changed into
pressure energy of liquid that is being pumped. Kinetic energy in the liquid is obstructed by
creating a resistance in the flow. The first resistance is created by the pump volute (casing) which
serves as an obstruction to the flow of liquid and thus slows the flow of liquid. The kinetic that
decreased as liquid flow decreases is converted into pressure energy.
Mechanisms
44
acceleration resulted. As fluid leave the center of impeller, a region of low pressure is then
created. This will induce more fluid to flow in from a higher pressure region. This will thus
ensure the continuous flow of fluid into the impeller. As the impeller blades are curved, the fluid
is made to move in a tangential and radial direction due the centrifugal force. Energy of liquid
generated by this centrifugal force is termed as kinetic energy. When nonviscous liquid such as
water is being used as the fluid medium, head is used to measure the kinetic energy generated.
Head is measurement of the height of the liquid column with the kinetic energy of the liquid
created by the pump.
45
out of the impeller with relative velocity tangential to the blades. The velocity triangles for the
fluid particles entering and leaving the impeller are as shown.
Figure 81
respectively
where
m : mass of fluid flowing through the impeller
u1 : the fluid velocity at the impeller inlet
u2 : the fluid velocity at the impeller outlet
1 : the angle between u1 and the tangential direction at the blade
2 : the angle between u2 and the tangential direction at the blade
The torque acting on the fluid, , is the rate of change of angular momentum with time,
= Ho  Hi
= m(r2 u2cos2  r1 u1cos1)
Therefore, the power required is
46
P =
= m(r2 u2cos2  r1 u1cos1)
where is the (angular speed) rotational speed of the impeller.
Assuming there is no prerotation at the impeller inlet, r 1=0, the above equation is further
simplified to:
h = r2 u2 cos 2 / g
(1)
(2)
(3)
A plot of the above equation will results a linear relationship between H and Q (Euler Line).
However the actual characteristics curve of the centrifugal pump shows a sharper decline of the
head H over the increase of flow rate Q. This is shown in the figure below:
47
The possible factors that might bring about the sharp decrease of the head H are:
1. Prerotation of fluid on entering the impeller
2. Interblade rotation of the fluid
3. Losses at entrance of the impeller and in the subsequent diffusing process
4. Leakage through the impeller
48
The general function of the pump operation will have the form:
f ( Q, N, D, r, , H) = 0
Applying dimensional analysis, we obtain the following relations:
Q = C1 x N x D3
H = C2 x N2 x D2 x
and since power required for the pump is directly proportional to the product of Q and H :
P = C3 x N3 x D5 x
With the diameter of the impeller (D) and density of fluid () kept constant, the 3 affinity
laws can be written as
1.
Q2/Q1 = N2/N1
2.
H2/H1 = (N2/N1)2
3.
P2/P1 = (N2/N1)3
49
50
51
52
Ensure that the control valve at the suction side of the pump was fully open and the valve at
discharge side was closed before you switch on the pump.
2.
Stand clear of the motor and pump when setting the control switch of the inverter to run
position. If the pump does not run after switch on, switch it off immediately and inform the
lab demonstrator.
3.
4.
If water is spilled around the electrical points, inform the lab demonstrator immediately.
N(rev/min) = 1450
F
(kg)
Q (m3/h)
P0
(kgf/cm2)
Pi
(mmHg)
Hs
(m)
H
(m)
Pf
(W)
(Nm)
(rad/sec)
Pp (W)
E (%)
0.40
3.60
0.200
100
3.36
3.36
32.95
0.55
151.90
83.55
39.44
0.38
3.00
0.225
100
3.61
3.61
29.50
0.52
151.90
78.99
37.35
0.36
2.00
0.250
100
3.86
3.86
21.03
0.49
151.90
74.43
28.26
0.34
1.00
0.275
100
4.11
4.11
11.20
0.47
151.90
71.39
15.68
(Nm)
(rad/sec)
Pp (W)
E (%)
N(rev/min) = 1750
F
(kg)
Q (m3/h)
P0
(kgf/cm2)
Pi
(mmHg)
Hs
(m)
H
(m)
Pf
(W)
53
0.54
5.00
0.300
125
4.70
4.70
64.02
0.74
183.33
135.66
47.19
0.50
4.00
0.350
100
4.86
4.86
52.96
0.69
183.33
126.50
41.87
0.60
3.00
0.400
100
5.36
5.36
43.81
0.82
183.33
150.33
29.14
0.44
2.00
0.425
100
5.61
5.61
30.57
0.60
183.33
110.00
27.79
N(rev/min) = 2050
F
(kg)
Q (m3/h)
P0
(kgf/cm2)
Pi
(mmHg)
Hs
(m)
H
(m)
Pf (W)
(Nm)
(rad/sec)
Pp (W)
E (%)
0.66
6.00
0.425
150
6.29
6.29
102.82
0.91
214.76
195.43
52.61
0.62
5.00
0.500
125
6.70
6.70
91.27
0.85
214.76
182.55
50.00
0.58
4.00
0.550
100
6.86
6.86
74.76
0.80
214.76
171.81
43.52
0.54
3.00
0.600
100
7.36
7.36
60.16
0.74
214.76
158.92
37.86
N(rev/min) = 2350
F
(kg)
Q (m3/h)
P0
(kgf/cm2)
Pi
(mmHg)
Hs
(m)
H (m)
Pf (W)
(Nm)
(rad/sec)
Pp (W)
E (%)
0.84
7.00
0.575
150
7.79
7.79
148.57
1.15
246.19
283.12
52.47
0.74
5.00
0.725
125
8.95
8.95
121.93
1.02
246.19
251.11
48.56
0.66
3.00
0.825
100
9.61
9.61
78.55
0.91
246.19
224.03
35.06
0.58
1.00
0.900
75
10.02
10.02
27.30
0.80
246.19
196.95
13.86
(Nm)
(rad/sec)
Pp (W)
E (%)
N(rev/min) = 2650
F
(kg)
Q (m3/h)
P0
(kgf/cm2)
Pi
(mmHg)
Hs
(m)
1.00
8.00
0.750
200
10.22
10.22 222.75
1.37
277.62
380.34
58.57
0.90
6.00
0.925
150
11.29
11.29
184.57
1.24
277.62
344.25
53.61
0.80
4.00
1.050
100
11.86
11.86
129.26
1.10
277.62
305.38
42.33
H (m)
Pf (W)
54
0.70
2.00
1.125
100
12.61
12.61
68.72
0.96
277.62
266.52
25.78
N(rev/min) = 2900
F
(kg)
Q (m3/h)
P0
(kgf/cm2)
Pi
(mmHg)
Hs
(m)
H (m)
Pf (W)
(Nm)
(rad/sec)
Pp (W)
E (%)
1.18
10.00
0.800
250
11.40
11.40
310.58
1.62
303.81
492.17
63.11
1.10
8.00
1.000
200
12.72
12.72 277.25
1.51
303.81
458.75
60.44
0.98
6.00
1.175
150
13.79
13.79 225.44
1.35
303.81
410.14
54.97
0.86
4.00
1.300
100
14.36
14.36 156.51
1.18
303.81
358.50
43.66
Calculation
Sample calculation of first experimental run
D = 0.11 m, Q = 10.00 m3/hr (max value)
Fluid Velocity, v = 4Q / D2
= 0.292 m/s
Fluid Velocity Head, Hv = v2 / 2g
= 4.35x 103 m (negligible compared to Hs)
55
Po Pi
( = 1000 kg/m3 for water, g = 9.81 m/s2)
g
= 3.36 m >> Hv
Fluid Total Head, H = Hs + Hv Hs = 3.36 m
g H Q
3600
Fluid Power, Pf =
L = 0.14 m, F = 0.40 kg
Torque,
= FxL
= (0.40 x 9.81) x 0.14
= 0.55 Nm
N = 1450 rpm
Angular velocity, = 2 x 22/7 x N
1 rps
60 rpm
= 2 x22/7 x 1450 / 60
= 151.90 rad / sec
Pump Power, Pp = x
= 0.55 x 151.90
= 83.55 W
56
Pump Efficiency, E =
Pf
Pp
100%
57
N=1450rpm
N=1750rpm
N=2050rpm
Q/N
H/N2
Q/N
H/N2
Q/N
H/N2
0.0024828
1.59764E06
0.00285714
1.5343E06
0.00292683
1.49639E06
0.002069
1.71655E06
0.00228571
1.58663E06
0.00243902
1.59401E06
0.0013793
1.83546E06
0.00171429
1.74989E06
0.00195122
1.63213E06
0.0006897
1.95436E06
0.00114286
1.83153E06
0.00146341
1.75111E06
N=2350rpm
N=2650rpm
N=2900rpm
Q/N
H/N2
Q/N
H/N2
Q/N
H/N2
0.0029787
1.41033E06
0.00301887
1.45505E06
0.00344828
1.35525E06
0.0021277
1.62043E06
0.00226415
1.60749E06
0.00275862
1.51226E06
0.0012766
1.73998E06
0.00150943
1.68872E06
0.00206897
1.63954E06
0.0004255
1.81427E06
0.00075472
1.79552E06
0.00137931
1.70738E06
58
Discussion
As can be observed from Figure 6 above, the curves did converge but did not converge to
one curve. The curves are relatively closer to each other at lower values of H/N 2.
This deviation at higher values could be due to systematic and experimental error.
The graph of Q/N against H/N2 should converge due to the following reason:
Q = C1 x N x D3
H = C2 x N2 x D2 x , according to the affinity laws.
59
Therefore, a plot of Q/N and H/N2 should converge as they are independent of pump
speed. Figure 6 ,hence, verified the first and second pump affinity laws. The third pump affinity
law (P = C3 x N3x D5 x ) is thus also verified as it is directly proportional to the product of Q and
H which are the first and second pump affinity laws.
Q = C1 x N x D3
H = C2 x N2 x D2 x
P = C3 x N3x D5 x
The above 3 pump affinity laws are useful as they allow us to predict the effect of varying
pump speed, fluid density and etc on the flow rate, head and power of the pump. For example, if
pump speed was increased by 10% (keeping all other variables constant)
Flow rate, Q will increase by 1.1 times
Head, H will increase by: (1.1)2 = 1.21 times
Power, P will increase by: (1.2)3 = 1.331 times.
Error Analysis
60
The experimental data deviates from the ideal case due to the following inevitable systematic and
experimental errors.
1. The pump efficiency laws are based on ideal fluid which has no viscosity. Inaccuracy of
data could have arised from the nonideality of water.
2. Constant fluctuations in the readings of N and flow rates were observed. This could be
due to the turbulent flow in the system which affected the sensitivity of the tachometer
and rotameter. An average reading was taken and hence this could compromise the
accuracy of the data collected.
3.
It was prone to parallax error while taking the readings of pressure and flow rates. Also,
the scale of the pressure gauge was large and it could only be used to read for a multiple
of 25. These errors could have been minimized with the usage of digital pressure meters.
4.
It was also noted when the flow rate was varied, the pump speed also changed.
These fluctuations might have affected the accuracy of the collected data.
V Discussion
From the experimental plot of H against Q, it is observed that the curve of H against Q
concaves downwards. Hence the curve deviates from the theoretical Eulers linear line. This is
because experimental total heat loss includes the loss due to prerotation of the fluid entering
impeller, interblade rotation and frictional losses during diffusion of the fluid whereas the
theoretical head loss does not account for such losses. The following figure shows the types of
losses within the centrifugal pump which accounts of the deviation.
61
Figure 111: Effects of losses on the pump head against flow rate curve
62
This is not the case in our experimental plot as the range of flow rates was not large
enough to form the complete curves. Only half of the efficiency curves was obtained during our
experiment and the best efficiency point could not be determined. We should have used a larger
range of flow rates so that the best efficiency point could be estimated.
VI Conclusion
From this experiment, we were able to determine the performance curve of the pump at different
pump speeds and fluid flow rates. The shape of the actual pump curves were then compared with
the Euler line. It was found that as the speed increases, kinetic energy also increases, which was
indicated by H. However, as flow rate increases, H decreases due to increased resistance by the
first casing on water. From the performance curve, we also concluded that at higher pump speeds,
the process is more efficient and more consistent with the theoretical pump.
The Pump Affinity Laws were verified by plotting Q/N against H/N 2 for various pump speeds.
From our experimental curves, the law is verified when pump speed is at high value. Hence, only
at higher pump speed would the centrifugal pump tend towards ideality according to the Pump
Affinity Law. The curves were observed to converge to a single curve, which shows that Q/N and
H/N2 are constant for different pump speeds as the pump constant C and impeller diameter D
63
were kept constant for all experimental readings. Thus, the 3 pump affinity laws were verified and
found to be accurate.
VII References
64