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The cell theory states:

Cells are the building blocks of all plants and animals


Cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells
Cells are the smallest units that perform all vital physiological
functions
Each cell maintains homeostasis at the cellular level
Homeostasis at higher levels reflects combined, coordinated action
of many cells

Cell biology
Cytology, the study of the structure and function of cells
The human body contains both somatic and sex cells

A typical cell
Is surrounded by extracellular fluid, which is the interstitial fluid of
the tissue
Has an outer boundary called the cell membrane or plasma membrane

The Cell Membrane


Cell membrane functions include:

Physical isolation
Regulation of exchange with the environment
Structural support
The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with proteins, lipids and
carbohydrates.

Membrane proteins include:

Integral proteins
Peripheral proteins
Anchoring proteins
Recognition proteins
Receptor proteins
Carrier proteins
Channels

Membrane carbohydrates form the glycocalyx


Proteoglycans

Glycolipids
Glycoproteins

The Cytoplasm
The cytoplasm contains:
The fluid (cytosol)
The organelles the cytosol surrounds

Organelles
Nonmembranous organelles are not enclosed by a membrane and
always in touch with the cytosol
Cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, ribosomes, proteasomes
Membranous organelles are surrounded by lipid membranes
Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes,
mitochondria

Cytoskeleton provides strength and flexibility

Microfilaments
Intermediate filaments
Microtubules
Thick filaments

Microvilli
increase surface area

Centrioles
Direct the movement of chromosomes during cell division
Organize the cytoskeleton
Cytoplasm surrounding the centrioles is the centrosome

Cilia
Is anchored by a basal body
Beats rhythmically to move fluids across cell surface

Ribosomes
Are responsible for manufacturing proteins
Are composed of a large and a small ribosomal subunit
Contain ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

Can be free or fixed ribosomes

Proteasomes
Remove and break down damaged or abnormal proteins
Require targeted proteins to be tagged with ubiquitin

Endoplasmic reticulum
Intracellular membranes involved in synthesis, storage, transportation and
detoxification
Forms cisternae
Rough ER (RER) contains ribosomes
Forms transport vesicles
Smooth ER (SER)
Involved in lipid synthesis

Golgi Apparatus
Forms secretory vesicles
Discharged by exocytosis
Forms new membrane components
Packages lysosomes

Lysosomes and Peroxisomes


Lysosomes are
Filled with digestive enzymes
Responsible for autolysis of injured cells
Peroxisomes
Carry enzymes that neutralize toxins

Membrane flow
Continuous movement and recycling of membranes
ER
Vesicles
Golgi apparatus
Cell membrane

Mitochondria
Responsible for ATP production through aerobic respiration
Matrix = fluid contents of mitochondria
Cristae = folds in inner membrane

The Nucleus
The nucleus is the center of cellular operations
Surrounded by a nuclear envelope
Perinuclear space
Communicates with cytoplasm through nuclear pores

Contents of the nucleus


A supportive nuclear matrix
One or more nucleoli
Chromosomes
DNA bound to histones
Chromatin

The genetic code


The cells information storage system
Triplet code
A gene contains all the triplets needed to code for a specific
polypeptide

Gene activation and protein synthesis


Gene activation initiates with RNA polymerase binding to the gene
Transcription is the formation of mRNA from DNA
mRNA carries instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm

Translation is the formation of a protein


A functional polypeptide is constructed using mRNA codons
Sequence of codons determines the sequence of amino acids
Complementary base pairing of anticodons (tRNA) provides the
amino acids in sequence

How Things Get Into and Out of Cells


Permeability
The ease with which substances can cross the cell membrane
Nothing passes through an impermeable barrier
Anything can pass through a freely permeable barrier

Cell membranes are selectively permeable

Diffusion
Movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to low
Continues until concentration gradient is eliminated

Osmosis
Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane in response to
solute differences
Osmotic pressure = force of water movement into a solution
Hydrostatic pressure opposes osmotic pressure
Water molecules undergo bulk flow

Tonicity
The effects of osmotic solutions on cells
Isotonic = no net gain or loss of water
Hypotonic = net gain of water into cell
Hemolysis
Hypertonic = net water flow out of cell
Crenation

transport
Carrier mediated transport
Binding and transporting specific ions by integral proteins
Cotransport
Counter-transport
Facilitated diffusion
Compounds to be transported bind to a receptor site on a carrier
protein

Active transport
Active transport
Consumes ATP
Independent of concentration gradients
Types of active transport include
Ion pumps
Secondary active transport

Vesicular transport: material moves into or out of cells in


membranous vesicles
Endocytosis is movement into the cell
Receptor mediated endocytosis (coated vesicles)
Pinocytosis
Phagocytosis (pseudopodia)
Exocytosis is ejection of materials from the cell

The transmembrane potential


Difference in electrical potential between inside and outside a cell
Undisturbed cell has a resting potential

The Cell Life Cycle


cell division

Cell division is the reproduction of cells


Apoptosis is the genetically controlled death of cells
Mitosis is the nuclear division of somatic cells
Meiosis produces sex cells

Interphase
Most somatic cells spend the majority of their lives in this phase
Interphase includes
G1
S
G2

Mitosis, or nuclear division, has four phases

Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

Mitotic rate and cancer


Generally, the longer the life expectancy of the cell, the slower the
mitotic rate
Stem cells undergo frequent mitoses
Growth factors can stimulate cell division

Abnormal cell division produces tumors or neoplasms


Benign
Malignant (invasive, and cancerous)
Spread via metastasis
Oncogenes

Differentiation

Process of specialization
Results from inactivation of particular genes
Produces populations of cells with limited capabilities
Differentiated cells form tissues