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# Speed Control

## 3.5. Pre-Laboratory Assignments

3.5.1. PI Controller Design To Given Specifications
In this section you will practice design of a controller for a specified response to reference
signals. One of the key tasks in design is to assess fundamental limitations and assess the
performance that can be achieved. The obtained design will then be verified by an
experimental procedure in Section 3.6.5.
The following problem will be investigated: use the mathematical model of the process to
design a PI controller that gives a step response with:
i) no overshoot.
ii) the following closed-loop undamped natural frequency:
# 0!"! 16.0 \$&&
)
% s )(
The relation between motor velocity and motor voltage can be modeled by the following
transfer function:
K
G # , V ( s ) !"!
[3.2]
+ s!*! 1
1. Using the PI control law [3.1] and the process transfer [3.2], determine the closed-loop
block diagram used for speed control. Include the simulated disturbance voltage Vsd.
Solution:
The closed-loop block diagram for speed control can be represented as shown in
Figure 3.2 below:

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Speed Control
2. Assuming no disturbance, determine the closed-loop transfer function, G!,r(s), from reference to output, as defined below:
, m( s )
G # , r( s )!"!
R( s )
Solution:
Either through block diagram reduction of Figure 3.2 or by combining Equations [3.1]
and [3.2], we find that the closed-loop transfer function from reference to output is:
K ( kp b sp s!*! ki )
G # , r( s ) !"! 2
[3.s1]
+ s !*! ( K kp !*! 1 ) s!*! K ki

3. One possible way to design a controller is to choose controller gains which give a specified characteristic polynomial. One possibility is to choose gains which give the following quadratic characteristic equation:
s 2 !*! 2 - # 0 s!*! # 0

[3.3]

Determine the PI controller parameters kp and ki so that the closed-loop system satisfies
the specified characteristic equation [3.3]. That is to say derive kp and ki as functions of
!0, ", K, and #.
Solution:
Identifying the denominator of Equation [3.s1] with Equation [3.3] leads to:
K kp !*! 1
!"! 2 - # 0
+
and:
K ki
+

!"! # 0

2 - # 0 + !.! 1
kp !"!
and
K

k i!"!

#0 +
K

[3.s2]

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Speed Control
4. Choose " to get the fastest possible response without overshoot (i.e. critically damped),
as dictated by the design requirements.
Solution:
To get a response without overshoot we choose critical damping, i.e. " = 1, and a
controller with no set-point weighting, i.e. bsp = 0.

5. Using kp, ki, and " as previously determined and assuming a controller with no set-point
weighting (bsp = 0), express G!,r(s) under a fully-factored form. Determine the closedloop system time response equation to a unit step input.
Solution:
The closed loop transfer function [3.s1] then becomes:
G # , r( s ) !"!

#0

( s!*! # 0 )

[3.s3]

Applying the inverse Laplace transform, the step response in the time domain can be
expressed by:
# m( t ) !"! 1 !.! ( 1 !*! # 0 t ) e

( .# t )
0

[3.s4]

6. Using the above closed-loop time response equation to a step, the 2% settling time, Ts,
can be expressed as a function of !0, as shown below:
5.8
T s!"!
#0
Assuming that the closed-loop system meets the design specifications, evaluate its 2%
settling time.
Solution:
Evaluating the above equation with the design requirement of !0 = 16 rad/s results in
the following settling time value:
0
T s!"! 0.362 [ s ]
[3.s5]

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Speed Control
7. Assume that the motor represents the velocity loop in a manufacturing process and that
under normal operating conditions the maximum nominal motor speed !nom at which the
motor operates is defined as follows:
# nom !"! 150.0 \$&&
))
[3.4]
% s (
In order to derive the shortest achievable settling time Ts, calculate the maximum
acceleration, amax, achievable by the motor with the attached inertial load. To do so,
assume that the maximum allowable constant current, Imax, is 0.6 A. Justify this
assumption.
Solution:
As derived in Chapter 2, the maximum achievable current at the speed !nom is given
by:
V max !.! k m # nom
I !"!
max
Rm
Evaluating the above equation according to the parameters given in Table A.2 and
Equation [3.4] results in Imax = 0.7 A. Therefore the assumption of Imax = 0.6 A respects
the system physical limitations.
The maximum torque produced by the motor, Tmax, is given by:
T max !"! k m I
max

[3.s6]

The maximum acceleration amax can be derived from Newton's second law of motion,
as shown below (assuming no friction):
T max
a max !"!
[3.s7]
Jeq
Equations [3.s6] with [3.s7] are evaluated with km = 0.0502 N.m/A, Imax = 0.6 A, and
Jeq = 22.1x10-6 kg/m2, as calculated in Equation [2.s9]. This leads to the following
maximum achievable angular acceleration amax:
a max !"! 1362.9 \$& 2 ')
[3.s8] 0
&% s )(

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Speed Control
8. The motor should switch speed between -!nom and +!nom as fast as possible. A simple
estimate of the minimum achievable settling time is the transition time needed to make
that change assuming full acceleration. Calculate the shortest time, Ts_min, to make the
speed transition under the assumption that the motor uses maximum achievable
acceleration.
Solution:
Assuming a constant and maximum acceleration amax and a change in speed of 2!nom,
the shortest transition time to change speed can be expressed as follows:
2 # nom
T s_min !"!
a max
Evaluating the above equation with Equations [3.4] and [3.s8] results in the following
estimate of the fastest achievable settling time:
T s_min !"! 0.220 [ s ]
[3.s9]

9. Does the designed closed-loop system respect the process physical limitations?
Solution:
To be within the process physical capabilities, Ts must be slower (i.e. greater) than the
fastest achievable (i.e. minimum) value calculated in [3.s9]. Since this is verified by
Equation [3.s5], the designed closed-loop system respects the process physical 0
limitations.

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Speed Control
10.Evaluate the PI controller parameters, kp and ki, satisfying the design requirements.
Hint:
Use the nominal values of the process parameters K and #, as evaluated in Section
2.5.3.6.
Solution:
As calculated during the Modelling laboratory, the nominal process parameters K and
! resulting from Section 2.5.3 Question 6 are such as:
+ !"! 0.0929 [ s ]
K !"! 19.9 \$&&
)
and
% V s )(
Using " = 1 and !0 = 16 rad/s, the controller parameters, as determined in [3.s2], can
be evaluated as follows:
Vs '
V '
kp !"! 0.0995 \$&&
ki!"! 1.20 \$&&
))
))
and
[3.s10]
%
%
(
(

11.In a first design we have used the set-point weight bsp = 0. An alternative design with
faster response will now be investigated. It will be shown that faster response can be
obtained by using a larger value of bsp.
To do this, a PI controller that gives the following transfer function from reference to
output:
#0
G # , r( s ) !"!
[3.6]
s!*! # 0
will be designed.
Using both proportional and integral gains previously designed, determine and calculate
bsp such that the system closed-loop transfer function is of the form [3.6].

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Speed Control
Solution:
With the choice of proportional and integral gains determined in [3.s2], the transfer
function from reference to motor speed [3.s1] becomes:
2

G # , r( s ) !"!

( . 1 !*! 2 # 0 + ) b sp s!*! # 0 +
+ ( s!*! # 0 )

Equating the above equation with [3.6] gives the following system to solve for bsp:
2

( . 1 !*! 2 # 0 + ) b sp s!*! # 0 +
+ ( s!*! # 0 )

!"!

#0
s!*! # 0

Doing this results in the following expression for bsp, which ensures the desired zero
placement and thus closed-loop transfer function [3.6]:
#0 +
b sp !"!
. 1 !*! 2 # 0 +
Evaluating the above relation with # = 0.0929 s and !0 = 16 rad/s, leads to:
bsp !"! 0.751
Note To Instructor:
When compared to Equation [3.s3], the smaller order closed-loop transfer function
[3.6] is obtained through pole-zero cancellation. The parameter bsp enables to create
and place a zero in the s-plane at -!0.

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Speed Control
12.Determine the system time response equation to a unit step input. For an asymptotically
stable system, the 2 % settling time, Ts, is defined as the time required for the amplitude
of oscillation to decay permanently to within a 2% margin around the steady-state value.
Using the system closed-loop time response equation to a step and considering that e-4 /
0.02, express Ts as a function of !0.
Solution:
Multiplying Equation [3.6] by 1/s and applying the inverse Laplace transform, the step
response in the time domain results in:
# m( t ) !"! 1 !.! e

( .# t )
0

At t = Ts, the amplitude of oscillation has decayed to within 2 % of the step change.
Therefore, equating the exponential decay term in Equation [3.s4] with e-4 and solving
for Ts, results in the following approximation for the settling time:
4
T s!"!
[3.s11]
#0

Since Ts " 0.25 s is greater than the process corresponding minimum achievable value,
0
as calculated in Equation [3.s9], the obtained closed-loop system respects the process
physical limitations.

13.Assuming that the closed-loop system meets the design specifications, evaluate its 2 %
settling time. Verify that the controller design with bsp 0 0 provides a faster response.
Does it satisfy the system physical limitations?
Solution:
Evaluating Equation [3.s11] with !0 = 16 rad/s results in the following settling time
value:
T s!"! 0.250 [ s ]
Ts " 0.25 s being lesser than the settling time expressed in Equation [3.s5] verifies that
a faster response can be obtained by using a larger value of bsp.