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Q.2 Differentiate between pre and post purchase behaviour.
Ans- Pre-Purchase Behavior
When a consumer realizes the needs, he goes for an information search. He does the same, so that he can
make the right decision. He gathers the information about the following −

Product Brands

Products Variations

Product Quality

Product Alternatives.

The consumer can gather information about a product depending on his age, gender, education and
product’s price, risk and acceptance.
Types of Search Activities
The information search activity can be classified into various types such as the following −
Specific kind of activities are directly related to the problem. These kinds of requirements need
immediate assistance.
Consumers go on with their research for a particular period of time if they decide or if they want to buy a
particular product. Ongoing activities basically show the work in progress.
Now, anything that we observe incidentally or just accidentally or naturally comes under incidental
research. Such information can be observed in our daily routine lives.
Following are the information sources available −
The information sources are of two types which are listed under

Internal Sources − Internal sources includes the consumer himself. Here he himself recalls the
information that is stored in his memory and uses his experiences.

External Sources − External sources of information include all sorts of interpersonal
communication with the external environment such as friends, family, marketing people, through
advertisements, etc.

Post-Purchase Behavior

Opinion leaders are members of reference groups who influence others’ purchase decisions. and beliefs and attitudes. social class. These factors are what consumers use to interact with their world. after making a purchase. I. and lifestyles.Factors influencing a purchase Cultural factors: Are there any cultural factors that affect consumer buying decisions for your product/service? The underlying elements of every culture are the values.The determinants of consumer behaviour can be grouped into three major captions namely. consumers may sometimes even return or exchange the product Q. of that behavior as they are transmitted from one generation to the next. learning.All the activities and experiences that follow purchase are included in the post purchase behavior. culture. life cycle. It is dynamic.Consumer Decision Making Process . etc. A high level of post-purchase dissonance is negatively related to the level of satisfaction which the consumer draws out of product usage. psychological and sociological. It mainly occurs due to a large number of alternatives available. motivation. Individual Factors: Identify and understand the individual factors that affect consumer buying decisions Personal or individual factors include gender. Culture is pervasive. Que-Explain the key determinants of buyers’ behaviour in respect of any example at your choice. Economic Determinants: Economic scientists were the first among social scientists to study consumers and their behaviour and provided the details about the solutions to the consumer and consumption problems. myths. They sometimes regret their decisions made. Family members also influence purchase decisions. It is learned from parents. and laws that shape the behavior of the cultures. giving order to society. culture.1 What are the various factors that influence Consumer decision making process? Ans. To reduce post-purchase dissonance. Psychological Factors: Identify and understand the psychological factors that affect consumer buying decisions An individual’s buying decisions are further influenced by the following psychological factors: perceptions. and peers. personality. adapting to changing needs. encompassing all the things consumers do without conscious choice. The seller can mention or even highlight the important features or attributes and benefits of the product to address and solve their concerns if any. rituals. The marketers sometimes need to assure the consumer that the choice made by them is the right one. language. children tend to shop in patterns like their parents’. consumers with similar characteristics generally have similar consumption patterns. reference groups. and subculture. family life cycle stage. good performance of alternatives or attractiveness of alternatives. and subculture. Consumers may use products or brands to identify with or become a member of a reference group. It is functional. An attempt is made to elucidate these with least complications. Marketers often define their target markets in terms of consumers’ life cycle stage. or products. consumers experience post-purchase dissonance. Social Factors: social factors that affect consumer buying decisions Social factors include family. economic. . customs. self-concept. opinion leaders. social class. age. Usually. Ans. as well as the artifacts. teachers.

it is the future income expectations of the consumer that influences such consumer behaviour. smell and sense internally something or some event or some relation. Liquid assets of consumers are the assets held in the money or near-money forms of investments.The basic economic determinants among others are: 1. Perception is the process whereby stimuli are received and interpreted by the individual and translated into a response. organises and interprets physical stimuli. 2. bank deposits. To perceive is to see. The best examples of this kind are hard cash. In other words. It is worth the noting here that the force and vitality of a tendency to spend or save depends on the nature of consumer needs. fulfillment of one will lead to the fulfillment of higher motives. he spends less now and saves more and vice versa. If there are bleak prospects of future expected income. attitude and personality. hear. Even if consumer income goes down. `3. we are more concerned with ‘disposable income’ and “discretionary income’. touch. 2. Family income: Where a consumer is the member of a joint family. for family income is the aggregate of individual income of all the members of the family. bank balance. II. 1. shares and bonds and saving certificates. 4. Consumer liquid assets: It is the consumer liquid asset position that influences the consumer behaviour. Income means purchasing power. When we talk of income in marketing sense. the buyer behaviour is influenced by the family income rather than the individual income. Motivation: Motivation is the ‘why’ of behaviour. Personal income: One’s income is the reward for one’s economic efforts. taste. perception is the process by which the mind receives. Consumer income expectations: Many a times. The level of standard of living: The consumer behaviour has the impact of the established standard of living to which he is accustomed. . Psychological Determinants: Psychologists have also provided certain clues as to why a consumer behaves this way or that way. the consumer spending will not come down proportionately because. the input of marketing becomes more and more deep and subtle. It does not mean that one can ignore the individual income. perception leads to thought and thought leads to action. According to him. 6. The major psychological determinants internal to the individual are motivation perception learning. it is very difficult to come down from an established standard of living. It is the optimism or the pessimism about consumer income that determines the level of current spending. Perception: Marketing management is concerned with the understanding of the process of perception because. The implications are that as we move up in the ladder. It is an intervening variable between stimulus and response and a governing force of consumer behaviour.

Studies have proved beyond doubt that consumers judge product or service quality by price. Let us take some such cases: Product and brand perception: Good many studies have been made of the ways in which the consumers perceive the products and the brands they choose regularly.Perception has its own impact on consumer behaviour or consumer decision-making. This goes on establishing that there is going to the direct or positive relationship between price and demand where marketer is cared to gain. Another aspect of this price perception is psychological pricing. Price perception: Price is another element of marketing mix where perception has its implications. Therefore. Sociological Determinants: In the area of psychological determinants. ‘Higher the price better the quality’ that goes. III. it is a must for a marketer to examine all the factors that impinge on the construction of a brand image to ascertain their effects on consumer perception of the company’s marketing mix. Pratik’s typical buying pattern (for biscuits) might involve going to the kirana store once a week and the supermarket twice a month. However. timing etc. duration. the sociologists and social psychologists have attempted to explain the behaviour of a group of individuals and the way in which it affects and conditions and individual’s behaviour in marketing or purchase decisions.The reasoning behind such pricing strategies is that consumers are likely to perceive used in cutprice sales promotions to increase the feeling that a price has been drastically reduced. buying patterns indicate how consumers purchase goods or services but are highly susceptible to change.encompassing frequency. These groups of individuals as determinants are: (1) Family (2) Reference groups (3) Opinion leaders (4) Social class and (5) Caste and culture.Definition: Buying Pattern Buying pattern refers to the typical way in which consumers buy goods or avail services. who has taken up a job at a multinational and follows the 9-to-9 work schedule. consider Pratik. for both major and fill- . a fresh college graduate. In simple words. Ans. It is brand images and the brand differentiation that play vital role in perception in addition to the physical characteristics of the product. quantity. For example. Unit II Que-Describe the relationship between consumer personality traits and buying pattern. the consumer behaviour was seen from the stand point view of an individual.

5.from work group. .2 Depict through a diagram Maslow’s hierarchy need theory and establish its relation with marketing of any product. Since he lives alone in his apartment. dominance. Q. Esteem needs . warmth. food. respect from others. 1954) hierarchy of needsincludes five motivational needs. Joint Family System. Pratik’s trips to the two stores would come down drastically and buying pattern would change significantly. stability. Biological and Physiological needs . affection and love. intimacy. freedom from fear. self-fulfillment. AnsMaslow (1943) stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs.What is a Joint Family? A joint family is a large undivided family where more than one generation live together at a common house. self-respect. sex. sleep. Self-Actualization needs from elements. security.air. shelter. bigbasket) that encourages buying larger SKUs. It is a form of family where the grand-parents.realizing personal potential. 4. family. independence. romantic relationships. seeking personal growth and peak experiences. friends. drink. often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. . When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fulfill the next one. he generally opts for smaller SKUs (Stock Keeping Units) and more variety. 2. Now consider the launch of an online portal for groceries (e. Love and belongingness needs . Safety needs . The earliest and most widespread version of Maslow's (1943.g. law. Since it’s much more convenient for Pratik to order biscuits and groceries online. status. prestige. 3. Unit III Write short note: trips. and so on. order. The original hierarchy of needs five-stage model includes: 1. mastery.achievement.

and not to other similar stimuli. which is when we respond not only to the original stimulus. That is Stimulus Generalization. however. Advantages of Joint Family  It is the best pattern of living that is most conducive to the growth. he would not agree to her marriage until her senior cousin sister is married. For example. Even if a daughter of a junior brother is selected by someone because of her beauty or brilliance.  The joint mess. because he learns to distinguish only the specific sound that means food is coming. Stimulus Discrimination. mother. he starts barking and running to the door. Each member is guaranteed the minimum subsistence for living. b. but even there the forces of decay are creeping in. As a result. The concept of Stimulus Discrimination follows from the idea of Stimulus Generalization.  It supports all the members of the family. Proper care is taken for old.  High earning members often insults the low earning members. the spirit of oneness prevails in a Joint family system. Naturally those who are benefitted by the generosity of others remain obliged and grateful. It. and children live unitedly at one home. Eventually.Stimulus Discrimination is when we learn to respond only to the original stimulus. runs on an understanding of mutual adjustment. he begins to get excited as soon as any family member arrives in their car. your dog eventually learns that it is only the sound of your car pulling up at the driveway that's worth getting excited about.  The basic necessities of all the family members are taken care of.father.  Sometimes some crooked member of the family plot to torture and exploit another innocent member of the family. naturally. Everytime he hears any car pull up at the driveway.  Finally. the first thing you do is feed your dog. The joint family is gradually becoming a passing phenomenon. your dog gets excited as soon as he hears your car pulling up at the driveway. still survives in some rare instances. But if none of the other family members ever feed the dog as soon as they arrive home. and learns to ignore all other car sounds as . whenever you come home from work. barking and running to the door. Old and elderly people are respected. physically weak and disabled family members. They exploit the goodness and principled behaviour of its partners. thinking that he will get fed as well. widowed. but also to other similar stimuli. That is Stimulus Discrimination.  In marriages also the grooms for marriageable girls become a concern for all the elders in the family. Disadvantages of Joint Family  It often creates parasites who love to feed on other’s income. They share common rights in the household property and their daily-expenses are met from the common fund.

social stratification occurs.e. Types of Social Stratification: The major types of stratification are (i) Caste . Ans. All societies arrange their members in terms of superiority. inferiority and equality. (iv) Gumplowioz and other contended that the origin of social stratification is to be found in the conquest of one group by another. It involves a hierarchy of social groups. In one word. Origin of Stratification: i) According to Davis. Q.Meanings: Social stratification is a particular form of social inequality. (iii) According to Karl Marx. They have a similar life style. i. according to some commonly accepted basis of valuation in a hierarchy of status levels based upon the inequality of social positions. (ii) Professor Sorokin attributed social stratification mainly to inherited difference in environmental conditions. social stratification. social stratification has come into being due to the functional necessity of the social system. Stratification is a process of interaction or differentiation whereby some people come to rank higher than others.not relevant to his getting fed. Members of a particular layer have a common identity. when individuals and groups are ranked.3 Explain the framework of Social Stratification. social factors are responsible for the emergence of different social strata. Social stratification means division of society into different strata or layers.

Brent Shakeshaft is VP. After the war. Background The formula for Dove was originally developed during World War & bodywash. with an estimated value of $4. Kantar's Brandz ranking placed Dove as the world's 8th most valuable personal care brand.8bn. based in New York. Management & Marketers Dove's long-serving VP-global brand development Fernando Machado stepped down in 2014 to join Burger King. It is also explained as a change in a content of long term memory and behavior. However the original product was found to have an unfortunate irritant effect on skin. The Dove brand now serves as an umbrella for products in four main groups . skin nourishing treatments. Dove cleansing. global marketing. skincare lotions and haircare . deodorants. and certainly one of the group's most high profile brands in recent years as the result of a clever marketing campaign that has consistently generated headlines and accolades since 2004. Dove has since moved into less directly competitive markets such as deodorant and haircare. firming lotions. and several varieties of bar soap. below Nivea and Clinique but above Olay. Laurent Boury is now global brand VP for Dove. or "real" masterbrand.Product. which they apply to future buying behavior. underarm deodorant. body washes. scientists at Lever Brothers continued to experiment with the formulation in a bid to reduce the scum produced by ordinary detergents.Dove soap Dove is Unilever's biggest personal care brand. Que. shampoos. Originally positioned in the 1990s as a rival to P&G's Olay. anti-ageing cleansers.2 How does opinion leaders influence consumers’ choice of any product? Ans.Theories of learning’s Consumer learning can be defined as a process through which they acquire information and experience about a consumption. and has established a unique niche as arguably the beauty industry's most down-to-earth. In 2014. It was actually designed for the US Army.and more than 100 different lines including facial wipes. Behavioral Approach . which required a detergent for soldiers that would lather with sea-water.(ii) Class (iii) Estate (iv) Slavery Q.

then even in the absence of one of the stimuli the remaining one produces the same resultant behavior. and this causes you to do certain things (behavior). the basic perspective on motivation looks something like this: In other words.e. It emphasizes the role of mental process rather than the repetition and association of rewards with the stimuli.Behavioral learning theories aren’t much of process oriented but rather it focuses on the inputs and outputs i. Classical and Instrumental. . There are two main theories under the umbrella of behavioral approach to discuss the learning. stimuli that one has been exposed to and the resultant behavior. It elaborates the phenomena of information processing and how the consumer store. because you value stuff that I have but you don't. This is fortunate. or allowing you to move on to other ones). such as go to work. we can trade in such a way that we are both happier as a result. Classifying Needs People seem to have different wants. and I value stuff that you have that I don't. the former one stores the nonverbal and pictorial information. retain and retrieve that information. Classical theory suggest that when two stimuli are closely linked together that produce a specific learned result. This theory splits the brain into right and left brain. Overall. it seems obvious that people do things. Theories of MotivationAt a simple level. in order to get stuff they want and to avoid stuff they don't want. and this can then change which needs/wants are primary (either intensifying certain ones. One of the theories under this approach is hemispheral lateralization theory. But it also means we need to try to get a handle on the whole variety of needs and who has them in order to begin to understand how to design organizations that maximize productivity. which satisfy those needs (satisfaction). because in markets this creates the very desirable situation where. you have certain needs or wants (these terms will be used interchangeably). Cognitive Approach Cognitive learning theory on the other hand discusses that learning takes place as a result of consumer thinking.

clients. in both the work and home context. This turns out to be exceedingly difficult. growth. personal growth esteem approval of community belongingness family. air. (Some of the instances. training. job security. war. They must be fulfilled before the others are activated. friends. in which the needs at the bottom are the most urgent and need to be satisfied before attention can be paid to the others. work safety. subordinates's pointless to worry about whether a given color looks good on you when you are dying of starvation. like "education" are actually satisfiers of the need. supervisors.Part of what a theory of motivation tries to do is explain and predict who has which wants. hobbies. or being threatened with your life. teams. recognition. health insurance Heat. advancement. There is some basic common sense here -. base salary According to Maslow. clubs safety freedom violence physiological food water sex from family. lower needs take priority. There are some basic things that take precedence over all else. depts. creativity friends. religion.) Need Home Job selfactualization education. Many theories posit a hierarchy of needs. high responsibilities status. Maslow Maslow's hierarchy of need categories is the most famous example: self-actualization esteem belongingness safety physiological Specific examples of these types are given below. . coworkers.