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Key coding


Data Capture
Edge matching and rubber sheeting

Assistant Professor
Dept. of Civil Engineering
MES College of Engineering




Need to have tools to transform spatial data of various
types into digital format


Need to automate the input process as much as

Data input is a major bottleneck in application of GIS

possible, but:

technology. Costs of input often consume 80% or

editing problems later

more of project costs

Essential to find ways to reduce costs and maximize

automated input can create bigger

Source documents (maps) may often have to be

Many commercial GIS operations generate most of


their revenue through data input

automated input

Data input is labor intensive, tedious, and error-prone




quality requirements


Sharing of digital data is one way around the input
bottleneck. More and more spatial data is becoming
available in digital form


Data input to a GIS involves encoding both the locational
and attribute data

The locational data is encoded as coordinates on a
particular cartesian coordinate system


There are two methods for spatial data acquisition

Primary methods




Remote Sensing

Source maps may have different projections and scales
Several stages of data transformation may be needed to
bring all data to a common coordinate system

Attribute data is often obtained and stored in tables
(Database Management System)


ground water potential maps and other thematic maps. GEOTIFF. mineral resource maps etc. moon rise. Geological survey of India: Geological maps. Sybase. DGPSLIDAR (Hyper spectral data) Matrix of height values. Time of sun rise. government surveying organisation Topology. moon set. unmanned areal vehicle(UAV).   Automatic line following. DEM. CIB. weather information including day and night.10/16/2014 INPUT OF SPATIAL DATA-CONTINUE  Sl. etc. Central water commission: Command area maps Naval Hydrography department: Naval Hydrography charts National Atlas and Thematic mapping organisation: Atlas and other thematic maps State settlement survey and land records Departments: Cadastral maps SOURCES OF SPATIAL DATA MODES OF DATA INPUT: INPUT DEVICES  Grid overlay  keyboard  Digitizer  Scanner  Data in digital format (Total station. Oracle. district resources maps. CADRG Secondary methods Digitization. TIN Sl. urban maps. XWD. Eg. marine survey. PostgreSQL. waste land maps. semi major axis. DTED-0/1/2. GIF. National bureau of soil survey and land use planning: soil map All India soil and land use survey: soil and land use maps Forest survey of India: Forest maps Central Ground water board: Hydrology maps National remote sensing agency: Land use maps. origin of the coordinate center. city guide maps etc. sunset. organisation S57/ S56 electronic navigation charts. TIFF  scanning 3 Vector map Field survey. census data fields stored in various RDBMS. PCX. semi minor axis. DXF 4 Attribute data Field survey. Hydrographic and maritime survey. Input data type Source Topology /format 6 Marine navigation charts Marine survey. data type Source Topology /format 1 Raster scanned data Scanner. BIP. statistical Textual records binding several attribute observation. temperature and wind speed etc. tourist maps. GPS) 2 . GRD.often saved as header information of the main file 9 Almanac and meteorological data Almanac tables. Digitiser output DGN. remote sensing. DVD. As meta data or supporting data to the main spatial data. NITF. approximating the height of a particular grid of earth’s surface. digital photogrammetry. 5 Elevation data Sensors. centre with an earth fixed reference frame 8 Projection parameters Geodetic survey organisations or agencies. coast and island map data 7 Ellipsoid parameters/ geodetic datum/ geo referenced information/ coordinate system information Geodetic survey. NMEA. coast and island survey. Input No. oblique photography Matrix of pixels with the header containing the boundary information. AGENCIES            INVOLVED IN SPATIAL DATA COLLECTION Survey of India: Topographic maps. GPS. flattening/ eccentricity. 2 Satellite image satellite BIL. the orientation of the axis with respect to the axis of the earth. No.

g.Y. A0) and different accuracy (0. and used to label cells in grid  After filling in the grid. A2. when the number of points/lines/areas are limited  Because of its high accuracy. sometimes it is used in applications that need high quality e. numbers or codes are typed into the computer to produce a raster layer  Pretty antiquated method.Z).10/16/2014 KEYBOARD GRID OVERLAY Grid on clear material is overlaid on map Identity of each cell in the grid is determined by what map features are in a particular cell  Number or code is assigned to each class of map features. cadastral mapping PROCEDURE DIGITISER TABLE  Registration  •Large flat table •Surface is underlain • a very fine mesh of wires •Cursor •Buttons allow user to send instructions to the computer •The position of cursor registered by reference to its position above the wire mesh     Digitiser table Digitising point features    Map fixed on the table top Five or more control points Geographic coordinates are noted Digitising control points –digitiser coordinates Recorded as single digitised point Unique code number Digitising line features    Series of points joined by straight line segments Point mode and stream mode Unique code number  Digitising area features  Adding attribute information    Start and end points of a line join to form an area Attribute data may be added to polygon features by linking to centroid Manually or automatically DIGITIZATION  Digitization is a process of converting existing maps to digital form (vector format)  A digitizer is connected to a computer and map features are followed manually  Digitizers are available at different sizes (A4.05 mm)  Example of digitizers are CalComp 9500 and Summagraphic 3 . A3. but it is  more accurate  It is suitable for small areas i.e. or angle and distance  Input through keyboard is time consuming. seldom used   Keyboard entry (X.

etc). HP 4 . device doesn’t know which line is which also broken lines (dashes.10/16/2014 DIGITIZING-CONTINUE   DIGITIZING-CONTINUE Digitizing the map contents can be done in two  subjectively.g. sample lines at regular time or distance intervals (more complex parts of the line should have more samples. 1000 dpi)  Example of Scanners are UMAX-S12. A3. contours along a cliff. two point mode operators will not Point mode: the operator identifies the points to code a line in the same way be captured explicitly by pressing a button  In point mode the operator selects points different modes: point or stream  Stream mode: points are captured at set time Stream mode generates large numbers of points. A0) and different accuracy (300 dpi.PROBLEMS  Paper maps are unstable  If the map has stretched or shrunk in the interim.. lines that converge then diverge (e. undershoots complex need less samples)  2. less  Discrepancies across map sheet  User error causes overshoots. road intersections.)  Line following technology can be reproduced in a software environment (line tracing software) SCANNING  Scanning is a process of converting existing maps to digital form (raster format)  A scanner is connected to a computer and map features are scanned automatically  Scanners are available at different sizes (A4. 600dpi.  Errors occur on these maps  Maps are meant to display information  Types of scanners: Line following and drum  Line following placed on a line and follow line using a guiding device such as a laser  Two short comings:  1. many of which may be redundant intervals (typically 10 per second) or on movement of the cursor by a fixed amount SCANNERS DIGITIZING. A2. interrupted by label etc.

Allows you to remove map from tablet to allow others to access it. Sometimes marked directly on the map or on clear overlay. geometric.10/16/2014 SCANNERS-PROBLEMS MAP PREPARATION AND THE DIGITIZING   Scanners are generally very expensive  Editing can take nearly as long as manual  digitizing would have taken  Scanners should be thought of as time-saving  devices only when maps are clear. identification of nodes vs. and temporal resolutions Institutional problems related to remote sensing data include availability of data (limited coverage. vertices The digitizing process usually starts with telling the computer about the coordinate system that the map is in. smaller cell size) Sample more for more information REMOTE SENSING: SPECIAL RASTER DATA INPUT  Manual digitizing.more complex features at larger scales require more detail (more vertices. but not data that is too accurate for your purpose Check to see if data are already available Keep coverages simple and use the same map to extract different coverages when possible How Much to Input:  Scale dependent  General rule .attempts to account for errors caused by the "shaky hand”. education and training. Same idea for line features. Digitizer operates in its own cartesian coordinate system. Essentially defines a distance for maximum separation . lines not become nodes and nodes don’t become just points  Building of topology  Correcting of digitizing errors  Transformation and projection  Adding attribute data  Checking the accuracy of attribute data    Remote Sensing data is considered as special raster data (in digital form). the are snapped together. show good contrast. It is essential to locate these precisely because they provide the reference for all other spatial data entered content WHAT TO INPUT SETTING UP DIGITIZING ENVIRONMENT TO HANDLE ERRORS   Fuzzy tolerance . cloud cover). Image processing software can be used to extract/classify remote sensing imagery (cover later in the semester) Attention should be paid to geometric and radiometric corrections and method of classification (supervised/unsupervised). and contain a relatively simple amount of Identification of features to be digitized. different radiometric. and organizational infrastructure 5 . cost. Sometimes. Can be done before digitizing starts or can be implemented in post-digitizing editing process Other variables: Material of map shrink/swell with changes in humidity and temperature and stable medium such as plastic (Mylar) is preferred METHODS OF VECTOR INPUT       Define your purpose before hand and make sure the data you are using are suitable for the goals of your project and pre-plan carefully Use the most accurate data. Registration marks  Location of nodes. Based on the idea that you will not be able to place the cursor exactly the same location twice. then put it back on and register the input system using tic marks. need to establish relationship between digitizer coordinates and map coordinates (Transformation) Registration points or tick marks identified. If two nodes are within the limits of fuzzy tolerance.

8 mm tape.10/16/2014 EXTERNAL DATABASES An efficient method of building a GIS database is to limit the amount of time and cost necessary to develop database  A plenty of data already available in different digital format an in different media 9-inch tape.  Need to evaluate data for its utility/quality for projects and ability to import  Meta-data or data dictionary should be prepared for the GIS database (information about the content)  6 . etc. CD-ROM.