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Black Powder Grades & Equivalent Sizes (in mm

)
Sporting Grades (G)
Grain Size (in mm)
Blasting Grades (A)
Grain Size (in mm)
1FA
8.0-4.0
Cannon Grade
4.76-1.68
2FA
4.76-1.68
1FG
1.68-1.19
4FA
1.68-.84
2FG
1.19-.59
3FG
.84-.29
5FA
.84-.297
4FG
.42-.15
7FA
.42-.149
Meal D
.42
5FG
.149
Fine
.149

Commonly used Black Powder Grain Mesh Sizes
GRADE
FA
2FA
3FA
4FA
5FA
6FA
7FA
Meal D
Fine Meal
X-Fine Meal
Cannon Grade
1FG
2FG
3FG
4FG
5FG

MESH RANGE
3-5
4 - 12
10 - 16
12 - 20
20 - 50
30 - 50
40 - 100
+ 50
+ 100
+140
4-12
12-20
16-30
20-50
40-100
+100

Kraft paper strip dimensions for pasting canister shells, using 70 lb kraft paper.
Shell Size
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"

No. of turns
3
4
5
6
8

Length of Strips
1 - 24" strip
2 - 24" strips
3 - 24" strips
4 - 24" strips
4 - 48" strips

Amount of paste wraps for single break canister shells.
Shell Size
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"

No. Turns
3 turns
4 turns
5 turns
6 turns
8 turns

Paper Weight
30-40 lb.
50-70 lb.
60-70 lb.
60-70 lb.
70 lb.

Length of Sheet
1 - 24" sheet
2 - 24" sheets
3 - 24" sheets
4 - 24" sheets
4 - 48" sheets

Shell Size (in.D.1/2" 1/2" or larger Cut Tailed Stars 1/4" . Shell Size 3" 4" 5" 6" 8" Cut Color Stars 1/4" or smaller 1/4" .1/2" 1/2" .3/8" 3/8" .55" 11/16" 11/16" 11/16" 11/16" Length 2" 3" 3" 3" 4" Powder Charge 1" to 1-1/4" 1-3/8" 1-3/8" to 1-1/2" 1-1/2" 1-3/4" .5 4 5 6 6. 5/16" 5/16" 5/16" 5/16" 5/16" to to to to 3/8" 3/8" 3/8" 3/8" O.) 3 3.) 3" 4" 5" 6" 8" 10" 12" Delay Time (sec. Shell Size 3" 3" 4" 4" 5" 5" 6" 6" 8" Description color or salute color and inserts color or salute color and inserts color or salute color and inserts color or salute color and inserts color Weight of 2FA lift 1 oz 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 oz 2 oz 2-1/2 oz 3 to 3-1/2 oz 4 to 5 oz 4 to 5 oz 4-1/2 to 6 oz 8 .5/8" 1/2" .1/2" 3/8" . . Shell 3" single 4" single 5" single 6" single 8" single break break break break break I.5/8" or 3/4" 5/8" or larger Time fuse delays needed for various size shells.3/8" 3/8" .Canulle diameters for shells.5 7 The amount of black powder lift needed for single break shells.12 oz Spollette dimensions and powder charges for shells.D. Shell Size 3" 4" 5" 6" 8" Canulle Diameter 3/4" to 1" 1" to 1-1/4" 1-1/2" to 1-3/4" 1-3/4" to 2" 2-1/4" to 3" Cut star sizes for shells.

1870 0.730 4.0232 MICRONS 6730 4760 4000 3360 2830 2380 2000 1680 1410 1190 1000 841 707 595 MILLIMETERS 6. weight. in grams.360 2.1320 0. from Bleser (Round Stars and Shells page 62) and Best of AFN II (page 140).S. Shell type (cylinder or round). Below is a chart with some common 2Fg lift powder loads.410 1.1570 0.841 0.Spiking patterns for various sized shells. size (diameter). Shell Size 2" 13" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8.0394 0. MESH 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 INCHES 0.1110 0.0555 0.000 1.0280 0.595 .0787 0.000 3. powder quality.190 1.380 2. shell clearance.707 0.0469 0.680 1.0661 0.2650 0. However a good place to start testing is usually about 1 ounce of black powder per pound of shell or 1/10th the shell weight. powder grain.830 2. length (if canister). Shell Size 3" 4" 5" 6" 8" Verticals/Strands 12 / 2 16 / 2 24 / 2 32 / 2 48 / 2 or 48 / 3 Material 8-ply cotton 8 or 10-ply cotton 8 or 10-ply cotton 8 or 10-ply cotton 8 or 10-ply cotton Lift Powder Approximations Many variables will affect the amount of lift charge used for a shell.0331 0.760 4.5" 10" 12" 24" Bleser 8 17 25 45 80 - Best of AFN II 36-45 75-85 110-130 170-190 240-280 450-500 4100-4850 Mesh to micron conversion chart U.0937 0.000 0. etc.

020 0. 640 ft. 280 ft. 12 in. DISPLAY SITE RADIUS 140 ft.0059 0. Shell (in) 3 4 5 6 8 10 Size (mm) 76 102 127 152 203 254 Burst (ft) 400 500 600 700 900 1050 Height (m) 120 150 180 210 270 320 .0138 0. >12 in.0083 0. 6 in. 420 ft.0004 0.0070 0.044 0. 490 ft.35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100 120 140 170 200 230 270 325 400 625 1250 2500 0. 8 in.177 0.0015 0. 10 in. 5 in.125 0.074 0. 3 in. 4 in.0017 0.0117 0. 840 ft.0197 0. 7 in.210 0. AHJ approval Minimum mortar tube lengths for shells.400 0. 700 ft.250 0.0041 0.0024 0.354 0.010 0.063 0.) Single Break Double Break Up to 4-Break 3 15 18 21 4 20 23 27 5 24 28 32 6 28 32 37 8 34 40 46 10 40 46 54 12 46 52 62 Shell Burst Heights.0049 0.053 0.297 0.088 0. 210 ft.0098 0.0035 0. Mortar ID (in.0165 0.500 0.0021 0.0002 500 400 354 297 250 210 177 149 125 105 88 74 63 53 44 37 20 10 5 0.005 Minimum fireworks display site radius for outdoor displays LARGEST SHELL SIZE < 3 in.105 0.0008 0.149 0.037 0. 350 ft.0029 0.

often large crystals Precipitated from polysulfide.5% pure Crude sulfur 200 . Slightly Soluble Slightly Soluble Very Soluble %Cu 100.78 39.18 62.51 57. up to 45% CaSO4 Naturally occurring elemental form .58 20.300 mesh Colloidal or agricultural sulfur Sulfur purified by distillation (actually sublimation) Native sulfur from superheated water injection Flowers of sulfur treated with carbon disulfide Precipitated from polysulfide solutions. Available copper expressed as molecular percentage is also included.8% pure Ground sulfur with low acid.8% pure.88 59.12 305 1150 350 Copper Compound Solubility Chart Partial list of solubility of the most commonly used copper salts.47 25.07 64.81 Sulfur Names and Descriptions Names and descriptions of types of sulfur. Salt Copper Metal Copper Oxide Copper Oxychloride Copper Carbonate Copper Acetoarsenite Copper(I) Chloride Copper(II) Fluoride Copper(II) Benzoate Dihydrate Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate Solubility Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Very Slightly Sol. ash and moisture content Frasch sulfur with lumps and fines Crude sulfur that solidified on a moving belt Refined sulfur at least 99.00 79. cast or in lumps Powdered and treated for easy water dispersion . Name Amorphous Sulfur Bright Sulfur Brimstone Broken Rock Sulfur Colloidal Sulfur Crude Sulfur Dark Sulfur Dusting Sulfur Elemental Sulfur Flour Sulfur Flowable Sulfur Flowers of Sulfur Frasch Sulfur Insoluble Sulfur Lac Sulfur Native Sulfur Precipitated Sulfur Prilled Sulfur Recovered Sulfur Refined Sulfur Rubbermaker’s Sulfur Run-of-Mine Sulfur Slated Sulfur Virgin Rock and Roll Sulfur Wetable Sulfur Characteristic Rapidly cooled sulfur not soluble in CS2 Crude sulfur without discoloring impurities Crude sulfur Refined sulfur mixture of lumps and dust Sulfur that has been chemically precipitated in water Bright or dark sulfur. washed with HCl Crude sulfur in small round pellets Elemental sulfur from any combined sources Distilled sulfur more than 99. free of Se. Te and As Crude sulfur with hydrocarbon contamination Crude or refined powdered sulfur Native sulfur at least 99.

black Barium nitrate Potassium Perchlorate Parlon Red Gum Magnalium (50/50 -200 mesh) Dextrin Charcoal Airfloat Wood Meal.Veline Fireworks Stars Color System Colored star formulas that match well in firework shells. Red Potassium Dichromate Red 15 Orange 15 Green Blue Super Prime 15 55 15 9 55 15 9 24 30 15 5 6 6 +4 +4 15 55 15 9 55 11 6 5 +4 +4 4 20 6 5 5 . -70 mesh Iron Oxide. Strontium Carbonate Calcium Carbonate Barium Carbonate Copper oxide.