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INTERNACIONALNI UNIVERZITE TRAVNIK

EKOLOŠKI FAKULTET

ELIZABETH I: THE GOLD AGE
RELIGIOUS RITES IN PEOPLE ’S DAILY LIVES
FOOTBALL VIOLENCE – HOW TO DEAL WITH IT
MODERN ART VERSUS CLASSICAL ART
-Seminarski rad.

Kandidat: Mahir Skopljak

Mentor: Prof. Aida Terzić

Broj indexa:T-08/14-I
Travnik,novembar,2015

SADRŽAJ

1. ELIZABETH I: THE GOLD AGE…….………………………………………3
2. RELIGIOUS RITES IN PEOPLE ’S DAILY LIVES…………………………7
3. RELIGIOUS RITES IN PEOPLE ’S DAILY LIVES…………………………12
3.1 Hooligans…………………………………………………………………………………….13
3.2 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………13

4. MODERN ART VERSUS CLASSICAL ART………………………………16

when Elizabeth was two-years-old. but Mary died childless in 1558. she lived at her stepmother's home with her new husband. it is thought Katherine found Elizabeth kissing him.1. she was sent to Woodstock and placed under house arrest for a year. courtly behaviour and extravagant dress. At the time of her birth she was heir to the throne. her mother was executed. Thomas Seymour. After a few months in the Tower. However. Elizabeth's religious compromise laid many fears to rest and de-fused a potential powder keg. Although no one really knows what happened. However. . Elizabeth's sister Mary came to the throne. A year later.referred to as the Elizabethan era or the Golden Age of Elizabeth was one of the more constructive periods in English history: literature bloomed through the works of Spenser. Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh were instrumental in expanding English influence in the New World. It was only when Mary I thought she was pregnant that Elizabeth was allowed to return to her Hatfield residence. was born. Mary's marriage to Philip II of Spain made it seem possible that an heir would be born. a male heir. On King Edward's death of consumption in 1553. and Elizabeth was briefly confined to the Tower of London for suspected treason and collaboration with the rebel Thomas Wyatt. Edward. and fashion and education came to the fore because of Elizabeth's penchant for knowledge. Elizabeth I was crowned Queen of England on 15 January 1559. Elizabeth's 45-year reign . she left her home following an incident with Seymour. Marlowe and Shakespeare. After Henry's death. She only returned to her father's court when he married his sixth and final wife Katherine Parr. ELIZABETH I: THE GOLD AGE Elizabeth was the only surviving child of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.

Elizabeth never married and became known as the 'Virgin Queen'. rather than "Supreme Head". The Act of Supremacy 1559 was also passed. including her 'great love' Robert Dudley. notably Sir Francis Drake. Mary Stuart allowed herself to become implicated in yet another treason plot by Catholic sympathisers. the Spanish Armada of 1588 was defeated and scattered. Her cousin. something his predecessor had been reluctant to do. She relied primarily on Sir William Cecil for advice on the matter. This made it impossible for Elizabeth to continue her policy of religious toleration. This was the excuse that Philip II of Spain needed to make a determined invasion attempt. When Mary was driven out of Scotland. This is despite having many suitors throughout her reign. Amy died in . Communion with the Catholic Church had been reinstated under Mary I. she was received by Elizabeth but seen as a threat and so kept under lock and key at Fotheringhay. requiring public officials to take an oath acknowledging the Sovereign's control over the Church or face severe punishment. Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth in February 1570. to which she gave assent shortly after ascending the throne. The Act of Uniformity 1559. They never married as Robert was already married to Amy Robsart when Elizabeth became queen. but was ended by Elizabeth as she assumed the title of "Supreme Governor of the Church of England".One of the most important concerns during Elizabeth's early reign was religion. was a Catholic but remained the most likely candidate to succeed her. The pair were childhood friends and he soon became her favourite at court. Mary (Queen of Scots). and Elizabeth had her executed in 1587. required the use of the Protestant Book of Common Prayer in church services. Thanks to Elizabeth's naval leaders.

but he died before negotiations were finalised.mysterious circumstances . She kept his last letter to her for the rest of her life. Despite this. and is buried at Westminster Abbey.co. Several foreign princes and dukes vied for the hand of Elizabeth. Her death ended the Tudor dynasty. http://www.uk/biographies/queen-elizabeth-i Unknown words: . Duke of Alencon of France. The man who came closest to marrying the queen was Francis.found at the bottom of the stairs . who successfully used their suits for developing a friendly relationship without accepting their hand.a few years later and the scandal meant the pair could never wed.history. Elizabeth died on 24 March 1603. Robert remained the queen's favourite until his death in 1588.

I can say it is my morning ritual to get a cup of coffee soon after waking up. RELIGIOUS RITES IN PEOPLE ’S DAILY LIVES A ritual is anything we do repeatedly or do in a particular manner. after an afternoon of watching TV football. I can say that it has become a family ritual to eat our holiday meals at about 4 in the afternoon.- Throne – tron Consumption – potrošnja Rebel – pobunjenik Keg – burence Treason – izdaja Plot – zemljište Attempt – pokušaj Defeat – poraz Scatter – raspršiti Suitors – prosci Circumstance – okolnost Negotiation – pregovaranje Bury – pokopati Succeed – uspjeti Policy – politika Assume – pretpostavljiti Ascending – ulazni Rely – osloniti Penchat – sklonost 2. I sorely miss it if I don't do it every morning. .

It can say. consists of many public rituals. become less popular. for example. "I believe in your love for me. "I place my trust in your life-giving love for me.A religious ritual has these same elements. Are there any religious or symbolic images in my home? A crucifix. but adds the powerful dimension of symbol and meaning. and engage our imaginations. The place in which I live. it could make a wonderful gift to myself or my spouse. in a way that brought more devotion back into our experience of public worship. Adding Ritual is a recognition that we are body-spirits and that "being spiritual" is not simply a matter of having spiritual minds. Ritual can play a very important part in our growing ability to find intimacy with God in our everyday lives. "the world"). that had served to fill the void over the years." If I don't have a cross or crucifix. many of the popular devotions. This is too often an unexplored means. "Lord. It uses gestures. One way to restore some religious sense and feel to our lives is to add some ritual.on the wall in my bedroom. the religious experience we have is not only deeper. a baptismal candle. Too often the only religious ritual left in our daily lives is going to church on Sunday. More and more we are realizing that we have lost something in the process. on the wall where we eat supper . It says.can say. and a variety of means to involve our senses. it becomes an integrated part of our lives. When we use our bodies in some ritual act. After the reform of the Liturgy." Just looking at it . Putting a cross or crucifix in a home puts a powerful source of faith and focal connection point in the place where I live. as a . Our lives seem more "secular" (from the Latin." Or. our emotions and our faith. This involves sacred times and spaces and objects. movement. a family bible. a cross. Liturgy. I want to place this sign of your love in my home. saeculum. however small. a gift I received for my wedding or anniversary? These kinds of images and religious symbols can become anchor points in my consciousness.

There are many others where some image or symbol or piece of art takes on very special meaning because of its connection with a religious experience. that I would begin to use again and again whenever I eat.even if it is something as simple as the time it takes to take my clothes off. but because eating is something we do every day.in a prominent place in my home can become a sacred reminder of who I am for my children." Perhaps. too with how I go to bed.perhaps at the edge of the bed. hope and love. Experiment with what a difference it can make to pause for a few brief moments each morning ." . So. when each of our children were baptized. for even a few moments. at the same time. or the few moments I pause to sit on the edge of the bed . Consciously marking the beginning of each and every day. and letting them be open to religious meaning. for example. We may be used to saying "Grace" (from the Latin. Meal Times." or "Calm me. Lord. "Keep this flame burning brightly. goes a long way to helping me be a contemplative in the midst of my busy life. Find something I do every evening . eating can be a wonderful time to consciously choose to be contemplative. "Give me faith. and give me your peace. Taking advantage of "times" in my day that are natural rituals." or "As you feed me.I can pause to give thanks. "thanks") before eating. "Let's let this cross be a daily symbol of our desire to keep Jesus at the center of our relationship. Try adding some personal words." Placing that candle . may I feed others today. putting on a pair of slippers or a robe or drying off after a shower. with a 20-30 second recollection of who I am and placing my day in God's hands will transform how I experience my life.gift to a spouse. gratia. Ritual Times. Sometimes we eat badly or on the run. We all eat." or "My life is in your hands. Try pausing at the beginning of each meal and giving thanks for this food and the nourishment from God it represents. it can say.perhaps one for each child . These are only a few examples. we were given a candle with the words.

sometimes even unconsciously. It is particularly wonderful because it can take only a few seconds." I might simply trace a small gentle cross on their forehead. or trace that cross. palms up. We are accustomed to touching our children or loved ones with gestures of love. Each of us will find creative ways to add rituals to our everyday lives that can allow us to be contemplatives in action. "say" all that needs saying. We can all find the rituals that are already in our lives and transform them. Of course. to open them to our faith and let them become expressions of intimacy with God. We can use our bodies to express what we want to express. Imagine what it introduces into our relationships if that touch became a "blessing" as well. http://onlineministries. We communicate with our bodies. In that brief moment. Then any time I touch their face.Using my body. For example. without words.html . even a bit. but just don't know what to say. "Peace. that special moment can be repeated again and again and keep deepening that gesture of surrender and trust. I may have a few moments to turn to God in pray." or "God bless you. "May God protect you and keep us together in God's love.creighton." or simple. in silence. If I'm doing it for the first time.edu/CollaborativeMinistry/1-usingritual. I can pause and open my hands. dear. expressing something different from their words. We all know how important "body language" is. We've all had the experience of "reading" the body language of others. I could place my hand on a child or loved ones face and pause and say the words. this simple gesture can become a profoundly prayerful ritual between us.

Unknown words: - Sorely – ljuto Unexplored – neistražen Devotion – odanost Crucifix – križ sa razapetim Isusem Prominent – istaknuti Contemplative – kontemplativan. mislilački Midst – usred Nourishment – hrana Gesture – gest Surrender – predaja Profoundly – duboko .

Sometimes that match is the most important one. Boys and young men. . but to see their team win. their allegiance to a football team is the main factor binding hooligans together. FOOTBALL VIOLENCE – HOW TO DEAL WITH IT Hooliganism already existed in the last century. However that may be. collectively engage in fights. demolitions and provocations. In addition. who only differ from them in their being composed of fans of another football team. Their main targets are other groups.3. they create the highly praised "atmosphere" inside stadia. Other reports indicate that the hooligans consider themselves to be the true fans: they support the team for better and for worse. hooligans have their own match with rival fans. Modern hooliganism exists since the sixties in several countries. Football matches are used as an opportunity. Their main interest does not seem so much to see brilliant football. aged between 15 and 25. In commentaries following incidents it is commonly stated that these "fans" do not deserve to be called supporters of their team.

particularly in connection to authority figure relationships (conflict with teachers etc. in general. The rivalry between fan-groups and their confrontations seem in many ways comparable with those between youth gangs. The result of the match is not important for the amount of violence that occurs after the finish of the match. there is from the multitude of data on this subject only one solid conclusion: there is no systematic relationship between vandalism and social background. Before the matches it appears that supporters are more motivated to avoid being arrested (so as not to miss the match).g.1 Hooligans Despite efforts to find a relationship between the hooligan and his social background. Outside the stadia the frequency of violence is. Undoubtedly young men with a greater inclination to violence are attracted to the possibilities offered by being part of a "side" and . Hooligans often resemble other young men who have problems at school and in the family situation. Specific soccer factors. greater after the match than before it. In addition. plus the aggressive defence of culturally defined areas. group solidarity and loyalty. well known in e. on occasion events of this type may lead to violent altercations on the terraces. Hooliganism or comparable behaviour is also not restricted to a certain city. or country. It appears on the contrary that hooligans descend from all imaginable environments and are not pre-eminently unemployed and such-like. Tribal fighting is another parallel. 3. The ability to fight.) while social control for the greater part is absent. There is only a weak correlation between specific factors relating to football matches and hooliganism. In general. but the event on the playing field that most influences hooliganism is the scoring of a goal point. such as contested referee decisions or violence altercations between players. the USA. Of course. This appears to have little connection to the build up of frustrations over the course of the match. Fighting at football is largely about young males testing out their own reputations for manliness against those of other similarly motivated young men. present day hooliganism does not appear to be caused by events on the playing field. are all elements of a satisfying masculine identity. co-ordinated action on the part of the fans before the match requires more organisation and mutual agreement.The behaviour of the hooligans seems to be aimed at gaining prestige. region.

com/hooliganism. Partly as a result of safety measures taken in the past. . Soccer club likes when it leads and when it loses. . . repressive measures will have to be complemented by a social-preventive approach.html .where possible. clubs/ stewards and fan coaches.attending a risk match. To avoid excesses in hooliganism in future. From what we know. These observations appear to be in agreement with the customary image of a relatively small 'hard-core' group surrounded by a much greater group of "hangers on". .active involvement of clubs and national and international football authorities.investing in information about fans and hooligans. Hard core initiators may serve as initiators and organisers. The behaviour of people in football crowds seems to be influenced by the same factors that influence the "normal" everyday behaviour of humans. several elements are critical to avoid excesses in hooliganism: . Each time only a comparatively small section of the risk group was guilty of violent behaviour. the manifestations of hooliganism have changed.sound (international) co-operation and co-ordination.homestead.communicating with fans/ hooligans by police. not just focusing on incidents and short-term measures. .2 Conclusion Football hooliganism is detrimental to the sport. excluding hooligans from attending matches (and influencing other fans). 3. However.an integrated approach with binding arrangements for all parties involved. . http://policestudies. but there is no formal organisation with "leaders".a long-term commitment. the behaviour of the surrounding group is very important: their passive or active support and absence of any form of condemnation made the start and/or escalation of violence easier.

Unknown words: - Composed – sastavljen Targets – ciljevi Deserve – zaslužiti Praise – pohvala Stadia – tpopografska letvica Allegiance – vjernost Aimed – cilj Defence – odbrana Manliness – muškost Altercations – svađa Tarrace – terasa Field – polje Multitude – mnoštvo Backround – pozadina Customary – uobičajen Crowd – gužva Behavior – ponašanje Detrimental – štetan Approach – pristup Involvement – uključenost Excluding – izuzimajući .

every line. The art was humanistic in that humanity was its primary subject . The world had not seen anything like "David" since ancient Greece. every angle has purpose and meaning and relates to every other curve line or angle in a highly ordered manner. based on the sublime aesthetics that the sculptures themselves are based on as communicated through the status themselves. Universal concepts ruled the arts during greek antiquity and the Rennaisance. The french academic method of study was popular and students learned by copying drawings of greek casts and by drawing and painting the casts themselves. .) Every curve. murals and frescos. but not all of them of course) they had a profound effect on his work .just look at "David". Neoclassicism was basically started by the Frenhman David in the 1800's. MODERN ART VERSUS CLASSICAL ART Classical art is based on the sculptures of greek antiquity. proportion. Many of the figures on the ceiling of the sistine chapel were also "quoted" from greek statues.look at the art and you see mostly people celebrated and studied by paintings and sculpture. Why was greek sculpture so important? It has no equal in its use of geometry.4. This was their preparation for drawing from life. or perhaps. I happen to attend an atelier based on this method of instruction. When these sculptures were unearthed in Florence around the time of Michelangelo (many of them. balance and symmetry. (The same goes for the architecture. but he was a controversial artist and there was plenty to talk about besides him.

and other Modernists. and it doesn't have much interest in the incredible accomplishments that centuries of study have given to the world of painting and sculpture. This is especially true of the Abstract Expressionists. Malevich writes about works of art needing to be living' beings. including Pollock and Rothko. Greenberg's highly-influential Avant-Garde and Kitsch is extremely political. etc. with their own unique identity as living things--in the same way that a person or a bird is a living thing. they abandoned realism. I have to take issue with the above. This is a mystical view. When their 'social realist' paintings in the 20s and 30s did not help inspire a global political/economic revolution. Modern art often thinks of humanity in a more negative light and often denigrates it. that there is a huge political thread running through Modernism. Keep in mind. Many people can’t believe that inspiration and individuality is important above and beyond the skill needed to communicate that individuality. and it doesn't have much interest in the incredible accomplishments that centuries of study have given to the world of painting and sculpture. . Greenberg. 'original' forms of art could be vital. valid.The Classical believes in order and believes that humankind can and should be celebrated. in fact. It often does not believe in universals. It often does not believe in universals. and 'alive'. but that's only one of my many problems with Modernism. Modern art often thinks of humanity in a more negative light and often denigrates it. they sought a 'pure' art untainted by the vagaries and the often irrational complexities of subject matter. he refers to such art as 'dead'. they were interested only in universals. Kandinsky. If you read Malevich. feeling that it had failed. He believed that art which 'merely copied' forms which already exist in nature was not 'alive'. Modern art holds inspiration above skill as well. too. Many Modern artists (in both Europe and the US) began as realists of the 'Ash Can' school. Kandinsky and Malevich felt that only new. Greenberg believes that 'true' art cannot survive unless global socialism (of the Marxist variety) is implemented.

Unknown words: - Ceiling – plafon Sistine – siktinska Chapel – kapela Curve – kriva Manner – način Plenty – mnogo Besides – pored Denigrates – ocrnjuje Accomplishment – dostignuće Issue – problem Sought – traži Untainted – neokaljan Vagaries – hirovi Merely . The classical artist develops incredible skill over decades of learning.Modern art holds inspiration above skill as well.samo . and exhibits a more subtle and sophisticated originality as they show us bits of what it means to be human.