You are on page 1of 46

1 Appendix-C: Fundamentals of Radio

Network Planning

1

Contents
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
2
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
4
5
6
7

Mobile Radio Network Planning Tasks
Collection of Basic Planning Data
Terrain Data Acquisition
Coarse Coverage Prediction
Network Configuration
Site Selection
Field Measurements
Tool Tuning
Network Design
Data Base Engineering
Performance Evaluation and Optimization
Repetition
Radio Wave Propagation
Path Loss
Shadowing - Long Term Fading
Multi Path Propagation - Short Term Fading
Maximum Path Loss and Link Budget
Cellular Networks and Frequency Allocation
Traffic Models
Exercises
Solutions

Objectives of Radio Network Planning
To provide service
to many subscribers

with high service quality

Capacity for a traffic model Quality of service

at low costs
Efficiency

service types

low blocking

low number of BS sites

call rate

low wait time

high frequency re-use

mobility

high speech quality

low call drop rate

Boundary conditions
Physics:

frequency spectrum, radio propagation  coverage & frequency
planning

System:

receiver characteristics, transmit power

algorithms and parameter setting

channel configuration
cell design & network structure
link quality improvement

focal point of this course !

Fig. 1

As shown in the figure below, the main topic of this course is adjustment of system
parameters for the Siemens Base Station System (SBS) as part of the radio network
planning process.
Before going into the details of the system features and control parameters, this
introduction chapter summarizes some basics on radio network planning:
In the first and second section of this chapter the steps within the radio network
planning process are explained. In sections 3 - 5 simple models concerning radio
propagation, frequency re-use and teletraffic are presented.
As each model they are only an approximation of reality. Nevertheless

they reflect the main physical effects,

they help to understand the meaning of parameters and the way of working the
algorithms,

they allow to estimate parameter values.

1 Mobile Radio Network Planning Tasks .

The network elements defined up to this moment have been found on a more or less theoretical basis. These parameters have to comply with the existing cell structure and the needs to handle the traffic load expected in each cell. The first step is to get knowledge about the customers/operators objectives and resources (basic planning data). to be carried out in typical and in complex areas must give detailed informations about the radio characteristics of the planning region. including the recommendable geographical positions of the base stations equipment(coarse coverage prediction). . The final network design has to care for both sufficient coverage and proper radio frequency assignment in respecting the traffic load and the interference requirements. Now it has to be checked if the envisaged radio site locations may really be kept. In this network the base transceiver station equipment (BTSE) is the direct interface to the subscriber. it is necessary to observe a certain sequence of tasks. e. This site selection should also take into account particular properties of the area. To respond to all these subjects. Furthermore the performance requirements to a radio network cover a wide field of applications which depend on the operators potentialities and goals. Inside a tolerable search area the optimum site meeting all these issues has to be selected. must clarify all problems concerning the infrastructure and technical as well as financial issues of the BTSE implementation.g. fixed site positions and an area-adapted tool being available. Field measurements. it is possible to start the detailed radio planning. This digital map permits to make more accurate predictions about the radio signal propagation as compared to the first rough estimation. A site survey campaign in accordance with the customer. Now. The last planning step is the generation of a set of control parameters. It has to make radio communication channels available to the users and to care for a satisfactory signal quality within a certain area around the base station. big obstacles which are not recognizable in the digital maps. The measurement results will then help to align the radio prediction tool for the actual type of land usage (tool tuning). and to create a more realistic cell structure.The mobile radio network is the connecting element between the mobile telephone users and the fixed network. Planning a mobile radio network is a complex task. because radio propagation along the earth surface is submitted to many influences due to the local environment. This area may be split into different sectors (cells) which belong to one BTSE. who is responsible for the site acquisition. necessary to maintain a communication while a subscriber is moving around. On this basis it is possible to estimate the size of the project and to establish a coarse nominal cell plan. Then it is necessary to install a digital terrain data base into a planning tool which contains topo-graphical and morphological information about the planning region.

The individual planning steps are considered more closely in the following sections. This type is called a noise limited cell. their properties may be determined a) by the maximum radio range of the involved transceiver stations and mobile terminals. it is typical for rural regions. b) or it may be determined by the limited traffic capacity of a cell in the case of high subscriber concentration. Two fundamental cell types are possible. To make realistic signal level predictions. which gives knowledge about the number of radio stations. forests. A coarse network structure complying with these requirements can be created on this basis. The signal level encountered by a subscriber in the street is influenced by absorbing. This leads to the implementation of small cells. mainly in urban areas where interference will become the major problem. the propagation models implemented in the prediction tool must be fed with the relevant terrain data. the range is limited by the available transmit power and the noise figure of the receivers. called a nominal cell plan. Thus allowing to assess the monetary volume of the project. The radio signal propagation is highly affected by the existing terrain properties like hills. their required technical equipment and their approximate geographical positions. screening. reflecting and diffracting effects of the surrounding objects and along the radio path. Therefore the real mapping data must be taken into account by the planning tool. Collection of Basic Planning Data The requirements of the network operator concerning traffic load and service area extension are basic data for the design of a mobile network . the performance must be checked by the network operator by evaluation of statistical data collected in the operation and maintenance center. towns etc. Situations of congestion or frequent call rejections may be treated by modification of the pertinent control parameters and lead to an optimized network. . Terrain Data Acquisition Mobile communication occurs in a natural environment.After commissioning of the network. The result of this first planning step is a rough estimate of the network structure.

which have been preselected to fit for special terrain types. urban. suburban. Yet. residential) or forest. The prediction accuracy is directly related to the size of area elements (resolution) and to the reliability of these information (obsolescence of maps!) Coarse Coverage Prediction On the basis of the digital terrain data base and by using standard propagation models. The screening by hills which may affect the coverage of a service area must be made evident by consideration of the terrain profile (height contour lines). These measurements will be used to upgrade the propagation models. water etc.A very important factor for correct modeling is the morphographic classification of an area :  building heights and density of built up areas (metropolitan. it is possible to make field strength predictions without having a very detailed knowledge of the particular local conditions. . coverage predictions of rather good quality may be attained. parks. industrial. open areas. By variation and modification of the site positions and antenna orientations. The particular local characteristics must be introduced later by comprehensive survey measurements. village. the definitive site locations are subject to a later scheduled site selection process in accordance and by cooperation with the customer. The procurement of digital maps with these informations may be rather expensive.

Increasing interference problems arising with higher site density may be overcome by downtilting of directional antennas initially mounted for maximum signal range. But it is still based on assumptions. In the initial phase a relatively low number of users has to be carried. the “coarse planning“ results will help to better assess the special details brought in by the real situation. The planner should anticipate the future subscriber repartitions and concentrations from the beginning. Increasing subscriber numbers (synonymous with increasing interference tendency!) should be responded by completion of the existing TRX-equipment and by addition of new sites. The actual impact of the natural environment must be considered in the following steps. in creating cell structures capable to respond to future needs. A multiple phase implementation plan has to govern the network configuration concepts. . In designing the radio network one has to keep in mind the requirements emerging from an increasing subscriber number. On the other hand complete coverage of the service area has to be provided from the beginning. The result might already be a well functioning network.Network Configuration The results of the “coarse prediction“ steps will allow to define the radio network configuration and the layout of individual base stations. as now the radio cell areas will be smaller. Existing sites of the first implementation phase must be useable in later phases. This means reconfiguration of the existing cell patterns and frequency reassignment. Nevertheless. A first frequency allocation plan may also be derived from these predictions.

Even climatic conditions may influence the signal level. The characteristics of built up zones and vegetation areas with respect to radio propagation differ in a wide range if we regard different countries. called site survey. . reflectors) have also to be regarded. This means that radio field measurements shall be done with these stations as transmitters. All site candidates within a tolerable search area around the theoretical site positions must be checked. The best fitting site should be selected. The resulting measurements will be used for the alignment of radio propagation models. Special measurements must be carried out in very complex topographical regions where standardized propagation models will fail. The environment of the survey sites should be typical for a considerable number of other radio sites. must now be verified in a joint campaign. The most important topic is the possibility to install the antennas in a suitable height above the roofs or above ground. between the customer and the radio network planner. Evaluation of these measurements will result in models that can be applied in comparable areas as well. This check includes the availability of electric power and of data transmission lines.Site Selection The site positions found in the coarse planning process on a theoretical basis. The resulting models are valid exclusively for this measurement zone. The survey measurements have to be carried out in typical areas. Knowledge about this specific behavior must be acquired by measurements. Environmental influences (screening obstacles. Another important task of this campaign is to declare a certain number of the radio sites be suitable to serve as „survey sites“. Field Measurements Digital terrain data bases (DTDB) as derived from topographical maps or satellite pictures do not contain all details and particularities of the existing environment. Keeping maps on this quality level would be very expensive. Especially in fast developing urban areas maps cannot keep pace with reality and thus reflect an obsolete status.

The new specific model may also be applied in other base stations located in similar environment. The reliability of the created models increases with the number of measurement runs that can be exploited. The detailed network design has to care for  a suitable signal level throughout the planning area  sufficient traffic capacity according to the operators requirements  assignment of the pertinent number of RF-carriers to all cells sufficient decoupling of frequency reuse cells to respect the interference requirements for co-channels and adjacent channels. . As the signal level is subject to statistical variations which cannot be predicted. the rms-error will never be zero.e. attention has to be paid to an optimized handover scenario in heavy traffic zones. to keep the mean error and rmserror as low as possible. Moreover.Tool Tuning The measurement results have to be compared with the predictions of proven standard models. The capacity of digital data links connecting the radio stations to the fixed network elements may now be defined. i. The detailed planning process commits the final structure of the radio network and the configuration of the base stations. Network Design The area-specific models are the basis for the final planning steps. The standard parameters will be slightly modified to achieve minimum discrepancies with the measurements.

called location areas. These checks comprise the evaluation of statistical data collected in the “operations and maintenance center“ (OMC) as well as measurements by means of test mobile stations to explore e. Another goal of these checks is to investigate the real traffic load and its distribution. Important control informations for each radio cell are :  cell identification within the network  control carrier frequency  potential neighbor cells  minimum received signal level  maximum transmit power of a mobile  power reduction factor to perform power control  power margin for handover to neighbor cells Performance Evaluation and Optimization Regular performance checks must be carried out after commissioning of the network. Careful evaluation of the measurement data will help to optimize the network performance by modification of the system parameters. As the number of subscribers will normally increase in course of time. handover events under realistic conditions. necessary to support this task. unwanted handover may lead to traffic congestions in certain cells.Data Base Engineering A cellular network is a living system with moving subscribers. called control channels which are assigned to one of the RF-carriers of each radio cell. The service must be maintained while mobiles change radio cells and superior organization units.g. Detection of multipath propagation problems caused by big reflecting objects is also subject to measurements. have to be administered and supervised in central data bases. as subscriber behavior in a living system will not necessarily reflect the original assumptions of the operator. This signaling communication occurs on predefined time slots. assumed hot traffic spots may have been changed or shifted after a couple of years. . There is a permanent signaling information exchange between mobiles. or may drain off traffic from other cells. supervision and control of these parameters should become a permanent maintenance procedure. base stations and control centers. All control parameters.

Repetition .

Mobile Radio Network Planning Tasks  Collection of basic planning data  Terrain data acquisition  Coarse coverage prediction  Network configuration  Site selection and field measurements  Tool tuning  Network design  Data base engineering  Performance evaluation and optimization Collection of basic planning data  Customer must define basic network performance goals:  Size of service area and area types  Traffic load and distribution  Mobile classes and service quality  Future development (forecast)  Available RF .bandwidth  The resulting nominal cell plan is a first planning approach  to determine the required number of radio stations  to figure out the approximate equipment configuration  to get an idea of the financial volume of the project .

Terrain data acquisition Topographical and morphographical properties of the planning region must be compiled in a digital data base for further processing. Contents of the digital terrain data base DTDB:  Height profile (topography)  Land coverage and usage (morphography) Possible sources :  Scanning of topographic maps  Processed satellite pictures or air pictures Coarse coverage prediction A coarse coverage prediction based on the nominal cell plan and on the digital terrain data base:  using standard propagation models  using standard antenna types Results :  Geographical distribution of the radio signal level  Coarse cell structure  Nominal position of the radio sites and antenna orientation  Search areas for final site positions  Knowledge about the attainable degree of signal quality .

Network configuration Internal configuration of individual radio station:  Equipment to be installed Configuration of the radio network (network structure):  Number of base station controllers BSC  Number of location areas  Definition of data lines between the network elements Site selection and field measurements  Selection of definitive radio site locations  Radio measurements in typical areas  Radio measurements in complex topographical regions Tool tuning  Radio measurements are exploited to adapt standard propagation models to specific environmental conditions  Resulting models may be applied in similar environment  or are restricted to the special measurement area .

Network design The final radio planning is performed by means of the area . i.: cell identity location area color code  Cell .adapted models Planning goals:  Sufficient signal level throughout the planning region  Sufficient traffic capacity according to subscriber distribution  Assignment of radio carriers to all cells  Low interference level for co-channels and adjacent channels  Definition of neighbor cells Data base engineering Control and maintenance of the radio network requires parameters for  Identification of serving cell and neighbor cells .allocated control.and traffic carriers  Maximum transmit power level  Minimum receive signal level  Power margin for handover to each neighbor cell Performance evaluation and optimization  By analyzing statistical data from maintenance center  Measurements performed by a test mobile station roaming about the operating radio network .e.

.

Radio Wave Propagation .

There are three main components of radio propagation which are discussed in the next section:  mean path loss (loss due to the distance between MS-BS). Hata model The Hata model describes the mean propagation effects for large cells and distances d > 1 Km.55 log Hb .9 . Examples are: 1.13. B: propagation index or loss per decade.4 + 20 log f [MHz] + 20 log d [km] or more important propagation in real environment .  multi path propagation  short term (Raleigh) fading. Free space loss: L0 = 32.16 log f .the famous Hata model: 2. The propagation coefficients A and B depend upon:  the transmit frequency.  the MS and BS antenna heights. A: unit loss at 1 km.  the topography and morphology of the propagation area.a(Hm) B = 44.82 log Hb .  shadowing (long term fading).55 + 26. Path Loss Standard path loss models are of the form: Lm[dB]= A + B log d [km] where Lm is the mean propagation path loss between the base station (BS) and the mobile station (MS) at a distance d. For urban environment one has: A = 69.6.

5 m Example: Hm = 1..1000 -Mhz BS antenna height: Hb [m] 30.8 f=900 Mhz Path Loss for LargeCells ..200 m MS antenna height: Hm [m] a(Hm) = 0 for Hm = 1.3 B = 33..5 m 220 210 Path Loss [dB] 200 190 Suburban 180 Urban 170 Urban Indoor 160 150 140 130 Rural (quasi open) 120 Rural (open) 110 100 90 1 10 Cell radius [km] Fig.Frequency: f [Mhz] 150. 2 100 .5 m Hb = 50 m  A = 123.Hata Model (GSM 900)  BS height 50 m  MS height 1..

g. Shadowing .g.g.caused by obstacles near the MS (e. the building structure within the cell. Usually this variation of level . a high building near the MS.Long Term Fading In larger cells where the BS antenna is installed above the roof top level.e. S>0: strong shadowing by e. i. but the unit loss is reduced by a certain amount. Models of this type are adequate for estimating the received level for large cells.For other environments (suburban. The free space loss and the Hata model are illustrated in the figure above. the more important are the details of e. S has a Gaussian distribution (see figure below) with mean value 0 and a standard deviation s which typically lies in the range s = 4. buildings or trees) .is described by the statistical model. However for a real network planning. The smaller the cells. the total path loss L tot is given by the mean „distance“ path loss plus a random shadowing Ltot [dB] = Lm + S S<0: free line of sight.10 dB. . rural-quasi-open) the path loss per decade remains the same.. refinements of the model and adaptations of parameters to morphological and topographical data and to measurement values are necessary (refer to section 1).. details of the environment near the MS are responsible for a variation of the received level around the mean level calculated by the models discussed above.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Gaussian distribution of shadowing S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 0. . .1 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Shadowing S/s [dB] Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

i.5 cm for DCS1800.10 x/10) . Multi Path Propagation . The statistics of the Raleigh fading is described in the following way: Consider the received level due the path loss and long term fading which is called local mean: LLOC[dBm].exp ( . The length scale for variation (e. An example for the variation of the received level due to short term fading is shown in the figure below. one can calculate the probability that the received level L (affected by Raleigh fading) is x dB below the local mean level Lloc: Prob (L .The length scale for variation of the long term fading is in the range 5 .g. The received local mean power is then given by Ploc[mW] = 10LlOC/10 Using this formula the probability density function for the received power P is given by: f(P) = 1/Ploc* exp(-P/Ploc) which means that the probability function for the signal amplitude P = A2 is given by a Raleigh distribution. A comparison with the length scale for shadowing explains the names for these fading types.. i. 100 m. the typical size of shadowing obstacles..e.Short Term Fading The superposition of several reflected waves arriving at the receiver on different paths and therefore with different amplitudes and phases causes peaks (constructive superposition) and deep fading dips (destructive superposition) of the received level. about 15 cm for GSM900 or 7.Lloc< x dB) = 1 . peak to peak) is given by the half of the transmission wave length. Using these formulas and some mathematics.e.

6 ms  distance between MS positions at subsequent bursts D = 6. the received level affected by Raleigh fading in general differs for different transmission frequencies.0 % Prob = 9. This spread is called delay spread T: Coherence Bandwidth and Delay Spread Bcoh  1 2T i. The coherence bandwidth depends upon the spread of arrival times of the different multi path components of the received signal. 1 µs for urban area (corresponding to path length between difference of 30 . The higher the frequency difference the lower is the correlation for the receive signal for the different frequencies.. 300 m). The delay spread depends upon the propagation environment.5 % Prob = 63. the higher the delay spread the lower is the coherence bandwidth.. distance between bursts = TDMA frame length T = 4.0 % Changing the transmission frequency and therefore the wave length.5 % Prob = 22..5 % Prob = 1..1 .Example: x = 3 dB x = 0 dB x = -3 dB x = -6 dB x = -10 dB x = -20 dB Prob = 86. changes the position of Raleigh peaks and dips. This means that at a given position.  0.0 % Prob = 39. The coherence bandwidth B coh is defined as the frequency difference at which this correlation has decreased to 0. measures should be provided to combat Raleigh fading: Means to combat Raleigh fading:  Averaging of Raleigh fading over speech frames (interleaving of 8 bursts) Frequency Hopping spacing between frequencies in hopping sequence >> coherence bandwidth Motion (speed v) Example: v=50 km/h. Typical values are:  10 µs for hilly terrain (corresponding to path length between difference of 3 km).e.5.4 cm  distance for 8 bursts_ 8 * D  50 cm > 3 * wavelength  Combining of signals received at positions of mutually uncorrelated fading Antenna Diversity spacing between RX antennas >> half wavelength . Keeping in mind that a Raleigh fading dip of more than 10 dB occurs with a probability of 10 %.

.

Fig. 4 .

Short Term Fading Fig. 5 .

4 dB The ratio x:1 denotes the number of carriers which are combined. upon the difference between the maximum output power level EIRP (emitted isotropic radiation power) at the transmitter antenna and the required input power level (RIPL) at the receiver antenna.Combiner Loss . Using these antennas for reception.two antennas per cell are needed.using Duplexers .Downlink Cable Loss + Antenna Gain Power Amplifier Output: 25 Watt = 44 dBm (GSM900) (higher power amplifier output power in further BTS versions) Combiner Loss Combiner Type 1:1 2:1 4:1 Duplexer 2.9 dB Hybrid Combiner 2. a two branch (maximum ratio) antenna diversity combining can be realized. Output BTS: EIRPBTS = Power Amplifier Output . whereas when using Hybrid Combiners and applying Antenna Diversity two receive plus one transmit antenna is needed.7 dB 5. Downlink Antenna Cable Loss: 3 dB (example) Antenna Gain (example): 16 dB (typical value for 600 half power beam width antenna) . In the case of duplexers the signals are fed to 2 antennas (on air combining) which are used for transmission as well as for reception. i.Maximum Path Loss and Link Budget The maximum radius of a cell depends on the maximum possible path loss between transmitter and receiver. In the case of hybrid combiners the signals are fed to 1 transmitter antenna.e.7 dB 2.0 dB 5.2 dB 8. This means that .

05) Max.104 dBm The receiver sensitivity level is defined in GSM Rec. a mobile speed of 3 km/h and frequency hopping applied the antenna diversity gain is about 4 dB.Antenna Diversity Gain + Uplink Cable Loss . Output Power (GSM900) Max. Antenna Gain (example): 16 dB (typical value for 600 half power beam width antenna) .05 for scenarios where short term Raleigh fading is (at least) partly averaged either by motion or by frequency hopping. The EIRP depends upon the power class of the MS specified in GSM Rec 05. The receiver sensitivity level has been measured to be better than required by GSM Rec. It should be noted that this preamplifier cannot be used together with on air combining (Duplexers). For a typical urban environment. the velocity of the mobile and on whether frequency hopping is applied or not.Output MS: For the MS there is no need combining different carriers.8 Watt = 29 dBm Input BTS: The required input power level RIPL at the BTS antenna is given by RIPLBTS = Receiver Sensitivity Level . 05. Output Power (DCS1800) 1 -- 1 Watt = 30 dBm 2 8 Watt = 39 dBm 0.05. Antenna Diversity Gain: 4 dB (for a typical scenario). The gain which can be achieved by antenna diversity strongly depends upon the propagation environment. 05.25W = 24 dBm 3 5 Watt = 37 dBm 4 Watt = 36 dBm 4 2 Watt = 33 dBm 5 0. Uplink Cable Loss 3 dB without tower mounted preamplifier RXAMOD 0 dB with tower mounted preamplifier RXAMOD The (uplink) cable loss from the antenna to the receiver input can be compensated using a tower mounted amplifier called RXAMOD.05: Power Class (GSM 05. and the cable loss and antenna gain reduce to zero.Antenna Gain Receiver Sensitivity Level < .

3 dB . This is done using the O&M parameter BS_TXPWR_RED: .3 + 33. there is a symmetric link budget for uplink and downlink. Cable losses can be neglected.15 km Example 2: Designing a radio cell for mainly MS of Power Class 4 (instead of power class 3).S75% = 154 dB Path loss model (Hata): Lm [dB] = 123.  Requirement: Area Coverage Probability: 90 % Coverage Probability at Cell Border: 75 %  Standard Deviation of Shadowing: s= 6 dB  75 % value of Shadowing: S75%= 4 dB  allowed loss L . the following values for link budget are obtained: Lu[dB] = 154 dB Ld [dB] = 156 dB To obtain a symmetric link budget.3)/33.05:  104 dBm for class 2 and 3 (GSM900).7 log d [km]  Cell Radius: dmax =10 (154-123.7 = 8.Input MS: For the MS there is neither antenna gain nor antenna diversity gain.RIPLMS uplink Lu[dB] = EIRPMS . the power amplifier output power of the BTS has to be reduced by 2 dB.e.S75% = 154 dB  Lm = L . Therefore the required input power level at the MS antenna is given by the MS receiver limit sensitivity as specified by GSM 05.104 dBm .RIPLBTS Example: Duplexers 2:1:  no RXAMOD.4 dB) = 158 dB  Ld[dB] = 44 dBm .16 dBi + 3 dB .  102 dBm for class 4 and 5 (GSM900). uplink cable loss = 3 dB MS of Power Class 3:  EIRPMS= 37 dBm Antenna Diversity Gain: 4 dB  Lu[dB] = 37 dBm .  100 dBm for class 1 and 2 (DCS1800) Maximum allowed path loss (Link Budget) downlink Ld[dB] = EIRPBTS .(.(.104 dBm) = 158 dB  i.3 dB + 16 dBi .

.. This is the reason behind the following parameters: Specification Name DB Name/ Object Range Meaning MS_TXPWR_MA X MSTXPMAX / BTS-B 2.15 GSM 0.6 * 2dB Reduction of BTS power amplifier output Reducing the BTS output power has the advantage that less downlink interference is caused by this cell. RACH) in the serving cell: GSM: 0 = 43 dBm. 15 = 0 dBm MS_TXPWR_MA MSTXPMAXCH / X_CCH BTS-C Another effect illustrated by this example is the following: Since there is a balanced link budget Lu[dB] = Ld[dB].. 15 = 0 dBm PCS: 0 = 30 dBm. their maximum transmit power has to be limited for a link budget balance. there is difference between the mean downlink and uplink received level RXLEV of about 2 dB: RXLEV_DL .RXLEV_UL  2 dB.. 1..15 DCS * 2 dB Maximum TXPWR a MS is allowed to use on a dedicated channel (TCH or SDCCH) in the serving cell GSM: 2 = 39 dBm. .Object DB Name Range Meaning TRX PWRRED 0..31 * 2 dB Maximum TXPWR a MS is allowed to use on the uplink common control channel (Random Access Channel. 15 = 0 dBm 30 = 33 dBm.g. 15 = 13 dBm DCS: 0 = 30 dBm.19 = 5 dBm DCS: 0 = 30 dBm.. 31 = 32 dBm 0. but a difference of the receiver sensitivity level for the MS and BTS of 2 dB.. the handover algorithm have to be set 2 dB higher for the downlink than for the uplink. . If there are also some mobiles of Power Class 2 and 3 within the cell designed for mobiles of Power Class 4. The consequence is that level threshold for e.

Cellular Networks and Frequency Allocation .

One important characteristic of cellular networks is the re-use of frequencies in different cells. However. By re-using frequencies. . a high capacity can be achieved. the re-use distance has to be high enough. so that the interference caused by subscribers using the same frequency (or an adjacent frequency) in another cell is sufficiently low.

MS Interferer Carrier Re-us e Ditance D Cell Radius R Fig. 6 Co-channel Re-us e Cells .

10 log NI > CIRmin + LTFM (x%) By introducing the long term fading margin LTFM (x%) for a required coverage probability of x%.10 log NI = B log D/R .. + INI)  C / (NI * I1) NI: number of interferes or in dB C/Itot [dB] = C[dB] . taking the situation of the example above and a path loss model L = A + B log d. .To guarantee an appropriate speech quality.05). the following relations between Cluster Size. Defining the cluster size K as group of cells in which each frequency is used exactly once.. one has C/Itot[Watt] = C / (I1 + .Itot[dB]  B log D . the carrier-to-interference-power-ratio CIR has to exceed a certain threshold CIRmin which is 9 dB for the GSM System (GSM Rec. the effect of shadowing is taken into account. For homogeneous hexagonal networks frequencies can be allocated to cells in a symmetric way.B log R . Cell Radius and Re-use Distance are obtained. 05.

19. . 3.. 9. 2.Frequency Re-use and Cluster Size m D D R n r Fig.. 1.. 7. m = 0. 3. . 4.5 x Re-use Distance  D = R x 3 x (n 2 m 2 nm) 3xR D = 3xK R Cluster Size: Group of cells in which each frequency is used exactly once K = (n 2 + m 2 + nm) n. .. K = 1. 16. 7 Outer Cell Radius  R Inner Cell Radius  r = 0. 12.

Inserting the formula for the cluster size into the formula for the minimum CIR one obtains: 0.. The objective is to achieve a high mean value of frequencies per cell <N cell>. For a given cluster size K and total number of frequencies N tot. the capacity of a cell can be increased by reducing the cluster size. A reduction of cluster size can be achieved by  reducing the number of interferes  Sectorisation. Examples for sectored network structure are shown in the figures below. The capacity of the radio network depends upon the available number N of radio channels per area F (e.5 * B log 3 K > CIRmin + LTFM (x%) + 10 log NI which gives a lower bound for the cluster size which can be used. F = 1 km2). the number of frequencies per cell Ncell is given by: Ncell = Ntot/K i. Obviously a real network does not have such a regular hexagonal structure and frequency allocation is performed by planning tools using complex algorithms for optimizing the CIR in each cell. The ratio <K> = Ntot/Ncell can viewed as the mean cluster size in such an inhomogeneous environment..g. Discontinued Transmission. N N N N 1 1  Ncell x BTS  CPF x tot x  CPF x tot x F F K F / NBTS K CA NBTS: number of BTS CA: cell area CPF: channel per frequencies . Methods for interference reduction are discussed in chapter 6.  reducing the interference from co-channel cells  Power Control. .e.

Cluster 7 7 6 7 6 2 1 5 2 1 5 3 4 7 6 Fig.Omnicells . 8 Example for homogeneous frequency allocation 3 4 7 6 2 1 5 7 6 2 1 5 3 4 2 1 5 3 4 7 6 3 4 7 6 2 1 5 2 1 5 3 4 3 4 .

Cluster 3 x 3 2a 2a 1a 1c 2c 1a 1c 3a 1b 2a 2c 3c 3c 1c 2c 3c Fig.3-Sector Cloverleaf . 9 Example for homogeneous frequency allocation 1a 2b 1c 3b 1c 3b 2c 2a 3c 2b 3a 3c 3b 2b 3a 1b 2c 1b 2a 3b 1a 2b 3c 3a 1b 3c 3a 1b 2b 3a 1b 2c 2a 3b 2c 2a 3b 1c 1a 1c 1a 2b 3a 1b 1a 2b 3b .

Traffic Models .

as their mobility. separately for mobile originating calls (MOC) and mobile terminating calls (MTC). the mean call rate or call duration. the mean call cell rate (or busy hour call attempt BHCA). These traffic model information is always a mixture between field observations in similar networks and arbitrary assumptions. Communications: The number of subscriber in a cell. . Traffic data are variable in time. for calculating the required total number of channels within a cell and how to split them between traffic and control channels.A traffic model reflects the behavior of the subscribers. therefore statistical characterization is used. For example the handover and location update rates depend on this velocity. It is needed e. Furthermore. the traffic per subscriber has to be considered. The goal of planning is to manage traffic even in busy hour.g. one needs information the mean call duration. In mobile networks we have to evaluate two main factors:  user mobility  communications User mobility: The user moves with a velocity v.

5 % duration of TCH occupation in this case 0s no answer from a mobile subscriber 13.8 % duration of TCH occupation in the engaged case 3s no answer from a person called by MOC 14. ..0 % mean time for ringing (MTC) 5s mean call duration (MOC/MTC) 115 s mean TCH occupation call attempt 83 s TCH load per subscriber 0.5% means TCH occupation fir this case 30 s successful MTC 54.1 percentage of MOC 58 % percentage of ‘engaged’ in the case of an MOC 19.An example for a traffic model is given in the table below: number of call attempts (MOC+MTC) per subscriber per hour 1.4 % mean TCH occupation for this case 30 s percentage of successful MOC 65.2 resulting SDDCCH load per subscriber (no TCH queuing applied) 0. .025 Erl time for MOC/MTC setup signaling on SDCCH (authentications..) 3s time for a location update 5s number of location update per subscriber per hour 2.004 Erl Standard traffic model for GSM The formula for calculating the load on the respective dedicated channel are given on the next page.8 % mean time for ringing (MOC) 15 s percentage of MTC 42 % no paging response 32.

Load on Dedicated Channels SDCCH load [Erl]: SUBSCR * ((MTC_PR_ph + MOC_ph) * T_SETUP + LU_ph * T_LU+ IMSI_ph * T_IMSI + SMS_ph * T_SMS) TCH load [Erl]: SUBSCR * (MTC_PR_ph + MOC_ph) * T_CALL SUBSCR: number of subscribers within the cell MTC_PR_ph: mobile terminating calls per subscriber per hour with paging response MOC_ph: mobile terminating calls per subscriber per hour LU_ph: location updates per subscriber per hour IMSI_ph: IMSI attach/detach per subscriber per hour SMS_ph short message service per hour T_SETUP: mean time [sec] for call setup signaling on SDCCH T_LU: mean time [sec] for location update signaling T_IMSI: mean time [sec] for IMSI attach/detach signaling on SDCCH T_SMS: mean time [sec] for short message service T_Call: mean TCH occupation time per call For the values of the traffic model above one has TCH load per subscriber: SDCCH load per subscriber: 25 mErl 4 mErl .

89 43.78 4.24 64.75 5.67 93.28 0.17 93.89 83.79 50.44 53.22 45.64 63.54 51.22 25.58 57.15 92.67 72.30 35.84 87.87 84.37 36.27 63.93 80.55 40.35 65.21 22.11 57.91 77.46 5.98 41.64 32.26 85.90 82.67 65.04 46.60 41.29 16.29 16.88 6.54 33.06 42.89 15.06 1.18 83.80 39.14 60.78 16.88 72.88 2.06 58.44 11.77 26.99 20.80 18.03 19.49 20.15 69.80 25.57 52.08 7.62 61.02 70.16 5.13 18.01 75.37 6.27 17.53 47.19 22.49 68.57 55.77 24.57 56.06 88.13 16.80 74.47 32.24 19.47 1.66 32.14 69.69 67.64 19.03 0.48 19.61 60.06 40.88 9.71 68.62 71.54 46.22 7.63 50.34 21.04 74.94 21.51 64.22 21.76 49.53 2.39 20.75 27.13 3.58 18.71 28.01 86.19 17.31 15.38 0.29 67.00 14.99 24.55 53.17 38.39 14.02 57.11 37.22 62.95 71.58 70.74 4.32 35.86 76.82 75.14 7.82 89.03 12.31 44.84 9.79 45.16 83.50 3.37 80.39 13.96 17.99 .65 62.22 22.87 1.11 8.10 71.29 62.08 89.88 6.78 27.24 47.85 86.90 1.36 87.51 26.98 56.06 81.43 34.75 74.96 58.53 46.11 82.41 88.22 36.01 29.31 64.05 0.72 69.91 25.44 67.21 84.94 79.54 41.23 27.37 10.65 10.59 58.25 16.97 77.18 67.96 79.00 37.86 52.53 48.22 2.74 47.06 73.84 26.68 75.52 90.77 72.86 48.43 79.42 38.99 76.67 49.54 3.90 0.56 39.65 64.22 65.02 75.41 33.52 52.54 12.87 23.93 81.31 21.25 36.53 6.84 76.14 23.97 8.46 89.10 90.68 17.86 85.32 15.37 12.35 14.87 78.78 46.94 54.53 44.01 80.69 Erlang B formula n 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 p=1% p=3% p=5% p=7% 38.14 5.30 4.24 82.61 9.10 59.39 58.69 8.45 39.96 78.65 14.42 57.43 12.33 7.53 69.66 31.54 50.32 61.95 8.27 55.53 31.41 43.15 0.n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 p=1% p=3% p=5% p=7% 0.26 30.54 43.83 9689 97.62 45.75 71.62 33.18 61.47 40.27 63.58 36.03 57.21 23.58 63.73 94.48 11.75 2.93 0.51 11.35 35.28 31.59 30.12 70.25 3.23 12.57 38.62 76.64 25.51 54.11 39.29 32.20 37.81 75.45 56.63 62.19 94.72 1.74 70.34 60.95 82.54 10.89 79.60 59.97 83.61 34.50 42.54 42.70 29.79 73.65 46.91 80.61 7.08 0.72 48.86 77.33 34.91 23.48 55.72 28.40 66.49 78.01 0.37 59.36 66.25 18.70 48.23 20.50 3.95 47.65 29.60 51.36 1.36 34.20 66.68 66.83 88.80 9.24 13.31 86.73 61.81 45.06 23.11 14.12 84.57 91.88 59.16 68.56 43.22 26.24 28.22 68.40 37.84 13.43 65.26 1.54 53.91 2.78 7.65 10.08 70.54 5.56 54.13 29.57 37.02 40.46 13.83 24.50 41.90 22.04 87.89 30.35 54.69 50.22 95.05 22.90 53.53 42.59 44.25 28.56 77.99 85.12 91.55 52.72 73.63 11.13 46.38 27.85 44.08 72.70 40.83 51.46 0.47 15.00 5.91 81.25 29.99 4.62 92.94 98.77 31.31 81.80 60.68 30.35 8.21 24.19 56.08 19.80 90.96 3.31 33.77 74.81 73.60 35.60 51.53 0.77 49.78 95.