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Sanskrit Text
rajas tamas ca manoso dvau ca dosäv udährtau / darêanasparéanapraênaih
parlksetätha1 rogìnam //
1 B ; parîkseta ca K.
Passion and delusion (are) taught (to be) the two mental disorders. By
inspection, palpation, and interrogation (the physician) shall examine a patient ;
Tibetan Version
*dod-chags gti((l))-mug kyan yid-kyi /
nes-pa gnis-su bstan-pa yin /
(45b 1) nad-pa blta dan reg-pa dan / dri-ba1-yis ni yons-su brtag 2 //
1KP; dris-pa CD. 2 CD; rtag KP.
Passion and delusion are taught to be the two mental disorders . ..
The sentence starting with nad-pa in 21c and reaching up to *thob-pa yin in 22
b, though reproducing the original word for word, differs sharply from it in
structure, and besides is obviously corrupt. As it stands in the block-prints, the
Tibetan can only be rendered—
“with regard to a patient, there are: examination by inspection, palpation, and
interrogation, portent of the cause of disease, symptom, reaction, (and) course”
which does not make any sense. One should rather expect it to read —64 First

“with regard to a patient, there is an examination by inspection, palpation, and
interrogation ; with regard to a disease, there are cause, portent, symptom,
reaction, (and) course”
with pâda 22 a changed into ?md ni gzi-ma dan-poi thsul. But this is still
somewhat unsatisfactory. Perhaps one should also change (b)rtag into rtog and
translate as follows —
“a patient is examined by inspection, palpation, and interrogation; a disease is
(diagnosed by) cause, portent, symptom, reaction, (and) course” with the
predicate left in its mid-sentence position and taken up at the end by an
auxiliary (see Introd. § 27), which would come closest to the basic text.
The variant dris-pa found in CD is merely a substitute spelling of dri-ba.
The particle atha, replaced by ca in K, has been omitted in Tibetan ; it seems to
be expletive anyhow.
11. 22
Sanskrit Text
rogam nidänaprägrüpalaksanopasayäptibhih / bhümidehaprabhedeiia désuni
ähur Um dvidhä //
a disease (he shall diagnose) by cause, portent, symptom, reaction (to certain
articles of food or medicine), and course. On account of the distinction between
land and body, (scholars) say the (meaning of) region (is) twofold here, (namely
tract of land and part of body).
Tibetan Version
nad-kyi gzi-yi dan[[7]]-poi thsul /
[2] mthsan-nid ner1 bsten *thob-pa yin / sa daii lus-kyi bye-brag-gis /
* di-la y id-sa rnam-ghis bêad //
1 CDP; Tie-bar N.
. . . On account of the distinction between land and body, the (meaning of)
region is said to be twrofold, (namely tract of land and part of body).
ner has been resolved by N into ne-bar, which does not agree with the metre.
desa “region” has been translated by yul-sa, a tautological compound properly
meaning “place & region.”
ähuh “(scholars) say” has been shifted to the end of the sentence and rendered
by the impersonal bsad “are said” as a matter of course.
iha ‘‘here” refers to the science of medicine; it has been put right after °prahhedena.
IL 23
Sanskrit Text
jängalam vätabhüyistham anüpam1 tu kaphólbanam / sädhäranam samamalam
tridhä bhüdeéam ädiset //
1 B; änüpam K.First Chapter 65

Jungle (is) full of wind, swamp (is) rich in phlegm, (and) ordinary land (is)
possessed of balanced humours: (thus) one may define a tract of land as
Tibetan Version
((45b 1)) skaml-sa phal-cher rimi bskyed2-cin / rlan-can bad-kan *phel-ba yin /
(2) [[8]] cha-mnam nes-pa mnam-paste / sa-yi phyogs ni [3] gsum-du bsad //
1 CDP; shams N. 2 ÎSFP; shyed CD.
Jungle chiefly produces wind, swamp increases phlegm, (and) ordinary land is
indifferent to the humours : (thus) a tract of land is said to be three(fold).
The first half of the sentence has been paraphrased rather than metaphrased.
But if the meaning has been grasped correctly remains doubtful. From the
explanation given by the commentators it would seem that the terms jängala,
anüpa, and sädhäraiia stand metonymically for the plants, birds, human beings,
wild animals etc. indigenous to these regions
(jätausadhikhagapurusamrgädayah Arunadatta & Candranandana).
shams-sa in N is obviously a miswriting.
bskyed is, strictly speaking, the perfect of skyed-pa “to produce.” In NP,
however, it is used also for the present (as often elsewhere). CD have shyed in
virtually all the cases.
mala serves here, according to the scholiasts, as a substitute for dosa; hence its
translation by nes-pa.
tridhä “threefold” has been interchanged with bhüdeéa and reproduced simply
by gsum “three” (see v. 20). So we should perhaps understand the final clause
as follows: “(thus) the tracts of land are said to be three (in number).”
IL 24
Sanskrit Text
ksanädir vyädhyavasthä ca Jcälo bhesajayogakrt / sodhanam éamanam ceti
samäsäd ausadham dvidhä //
Moment etc. and state of disease (make up) the right time determining the
(suitableness of the) administration of a remedy. Purgative and sedative: thus, in
short, a medicine (is) twofold.
Tibetan Version skad-cig-la sogs nad-kyi shahs / dus-su sman ni sbyor-bar byed j
mdor-na sman ni mam-gnis-te / sbyan-ba dan ni ((2)) zi-bao 11
Moment etc. (and) state of disease let (the physician) administer a remedy at
the right time. A medicine, in short, is twofold : purgative and sedative.
5 Vogel, Vagbhata