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GLAND/ORGAN

PITUITARY
ANTERIOR LOBE
(adenophysis)

HORMONE(S)
SECRETED/
RELEASED
Adrenocorticotropic
hormone- stimulated
by CRH from
hypothalamus

HYPERSECRETION

Stimulates adrenal cortex to
produce cortisol,
corticosteroids, and
androgens; can stimulate
melanocytes
Controls bone and tissue
growth and regulates
metabolism (influences
secretion of insulin-like
growth factor I from liver)

HYPOSECRETION

Pituitary ACTH hypersecretion or
(Cushing Disease)
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Gigantism (preadult)- abnormall
tall (~ 8ft)
Acromegaly (mature adult)


dwarfism (pre-adult)
adults with growth hormone
deficiency feel tired to a level
that impairs their wellbeing

Regulates thyroid hormone
(via secretion of thyroxine
[T4] and triiodothyronine
[T3])


Hyperthyroidism
Grave’s disease


Hypothyroidism
Myxedema- Physical and
mental sluggishness (not
retardation), puffines of face,
fatigue, poor muscle tone,
low body temperature,
obesity, dry skin

Follicle-stimulating
hormone (FSH)—
stimulated by GnRH

Stimulates growth and
secretion of eggs in ovaries
(female) and sperm in testes
(male)


Understimulation of adrenal
cortex hormones
Kallmann syndrome


Luteinizing hormone
(in females)

Helps control ovulation and
menstruation; important in
sustaining pregnancy


Causes infertility and miscarriage
Multiple births (for women)

Isolated FSH deficiency
bPartial follicle stimulating
hormone deficiency in men can
cause delayed puberty and
limited sperm production
(oligozoospermia), but fathering
a child may still be possible.
lack of sexual development and
sterility
Hypogonadism

Growth Hormone
(GH or hGH),
somatotropic
hormone stimulated by GRH,
GHRH from
hypothalamus
Thyroid-stimulating
hormone (TSH)stimulated by TRH
from hypothalamus

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ACTIONS


Adrenocorticotropic
hormone deficiency (ACTH
deficiency)
Cushing's syndrome

lactogenic lobe hormone (PRL) (adenohypophysis) stimulated by PRH from hypothalamus LH (in males) Interstitial cellstimulating hormone (ICSH)(males) Lipotropin Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) Oxtocin Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone – ADH) Middle lobe 2|Page Melanocytestimulating hormone (MSH) . promotes water reabsorption in kidney tubules. influences sexual gratification Stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone.prevent the milk ejection reflex and breastfeeding Depression Hypernatremia Polyuria   Hyponatremia Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone(SIADH)  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: causes chronic pain and lethargy Albinism: Hypopigmentation and lack of melanin       Darkening of skin Causes skin pigmentation (dark blotches) . influences uterus Increases skin and hair pigmentation HYPERSECRETION HYPOSECRETION   Prolactinoma Hypoestrogenism with anovulatory infertility   Hypoprolactinemia Puerperal alactogenesis   Premature menopause (female) Testicular failure (male)   Pasqualini syndrome Hypoganidism   Benign prostatic hyperplasia Hyponatremia  For nursing mothers. and melanin production Causes uterine contractions. contractions of cervix and vagina. production of steroids. stimulates milk production Raises blood pressure (some vasoconstriction).stimulated by CRH from hypothalamus ACTIONS Stimulates mammary glands to produce milk (after pregnancy). influences orgasm. stimulates secretion of male hormones (androgens) Influences breakdown of lipids (fats).HORMONE(S) GLAND/ORGAN SECRETED/ RELEASED Pituitary Anterior Prolactin.

thick/dry skin. and mental sluggishness Goiter: enlarged thyroid due to buildup of TSH High calcium levels No effect that may cause physiological damage   Hyperthyroidism Grave’s Disease: high metabolism. abnormal reflexes. rapid heartbeat. promotes calcium deposits in bone. sweating. activates vitamin D     HYPOSECRETION Hypothyroidism: low metabolism. chills. and phosphorus into blood. kidney stones . magnesium. edema.GLAND/ORGAN Thyroid HORMONE(S) SECRETED/ RELEASED Thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine – T$) Triiodothyronine (T3) ACTIONS Regulates body metabolism (requires iodine) and growth and development. weight loss. assists in reabsorption of magnesium Promotes formation of calcitriol and assists in release of calcium. convulsions. affects sensitivity to catecholamines HYPERSECRETION   Calcitonin (CT – thyrocalcitonin) Parathyroid 3|Page Parathormone/ Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Stimulates calcium to leave plasma and allows it to enter bones Speeds calcium absorption from blood. nervousness. deformed fragile bones. can eventually lead to paralysis and death    Excessive bone degradation would cause high blood Ca+ levels Hyperparathyroidism: depression of nervous system. exophthalmos (bulging eyes)  Excessive bone deposition of Ca+ would cause decreased blood Ca+ level Can be a marker for a rare thyroid cancer. regulates phosphorus balance. stimulates bone to release calcium into blood. puffy eyes. thereby promoting bone formation. affects protein synthesis. lethargy. muscle twitches. weakness in skeletal muscles. Hypocalcimea: low blood Ca+ Hypoparathyroidism. inhibits osteocalsts. constipation.loss of sensation.

increase bone mass and strength) Produce female sex characteristics   Addison’s disease Hypotension. weight loss. complete exhaustion Primary Aldosteronism: fatigue. muscle atrophy and breast growth (in male)   Low libido. nervousness. nervousness. sweating. loss of appetite. dehydration. muscle weakness. behavior Serve as neurotransmitters  Exacerbated anxiety. mood. accelerated secretion of K Cushing’s syndrome Lack of sex drive and irregular periods for women . hyperglycemia. headaches Hypertension and edema due to Na+ and water retention. insomnia  Impaired mental performance. dizziness upon standing. hypoglycemia    Addison’s Disease: dizziness. tension. lethargy High potassium levels. agitation. mood changes and the darkening of regions of skin    Androgenital Syndrome (masculinization in women). menopause Infertility. ”blunted effect”. numbness. low sodium levels    Addison’s disease Fatigue. fatigue. hirsutism Precocious puberty. Osteoporosis Increases heart rate and blood pressure Regulate pain. amino acid. water-retension. high feeling of pleasure. and fat synthesis in metabolism Decrease inflammatory responses and promote immunosuppression Produce male sex characteristics (anabolic steroids—develop muscle mass and strength. high energy and libido. fatigue    Cushing’s Syndrome Hypertension. Attention deficits-ADHD.GLAND/ORGAN Adrenals (Suprarenals) Adrenal medulla Adrenal cortex HORMONE(S) SECRETED/ RELEASED Catecholamines Epinephrine (adrenaline) Norepinephrine Corticosteroids/ corticoids Mineralocorticoids (mainly aldosterone) Glucocorticoids (mostly cortisol) Male sex hormones Androgens (males)— including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone Female sex hormones (estrogens)—very small amount Dopamine Enkephalins 4|Page ACTIONS HYPERSECRETION HYPOSECRETION Adaptation to stress “fight or flight” response Suppresses the immune system and nonemergency functions Increase blood volume reabsorption of Na and secretion of K Regulates electrolyte levels in extracellular fluid Influence glucose. depression.

hirsutism. and mood changes Nausea and vomiting Risk of bone loss which can cause osteoporosis       Lack of female secondary sex characteristics "Hot flashes". functions.GLAND/ORGAN Gonads Testes (male) HORMONE(S) SECRETED/ RELEASED Testosterone ACTIONS HYPERSECRETION Develops male sex characteristics (also influenced by androgens)  Thymus Thymosin (thymic hormone) Stimulates production of T cells for cellular immunity  Pineal body Melatonin (an antioxidant)  Ovaries (female)from ovarian follicle of corpus luteum Estrogen and progestins (progesterone is the primary progestin) Regulates sleep-wake cycles. headaches. suppress lactation. promotes healing. allow sperm penetration. insomnia Some may experience acne. Addison’s disease  Excessive sleepiness. muscle hypertrophy. may play a role in influencing reproductive processes Regulate female sex characteristics. vaginal dryness. regulates levels of certain minerals. amenorrhea. assists thyroid function. anti-inflammatory) Reduces gall bladder activity. promotes nerve functioning. maintain pregnancy (inhibit premature onset of labor. nervousness  Lack of sexual development. depressed mood. fluid retention. sleep disorders. it can cause feminization (breast development) Premature sexual development (female) Infertility  Failure of immune system. changes in skin. prevents endometrial cancer in women Progesterone 5|Page       HYPOSECRETION Precocious puberty. depression. missed periods (in women) Elevated metabolic rate. decreased reproductive behavior. virilism. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) It males. mood and overall sense of wellness Infertility Osteoporosis Lesser alkalinity of the uterus Lesser or no chance of becoming pregnant (sterility) . inhibit immune response toward embryo. anxiety sensation. menstruation. Lowered resistance to infections and/or stress Jet-lagged feeling. libido changes.

increases liver function. When the glucose is high enough. As with insulin.   Helps regulate glucose balance. Enables cells to use glucose.       . assists in fluid and electrolyte balance Inhibits FSH production  Precocious puberty   Infertility Menopause   Risk of certain bone-related conditions Speeds glycogenolysis. and fat metabolism. This causes dehydration. stimulates breakdown of fats and proteins Regulator of carbohydrate. suppresses exocrine secretions of pancreas   In a pregnant woman. facilitates synthesis of triglycerides. a tumor in pancreas that produce too much insulin. Hypoglycemia  High glucose levels in blood. Cells cannot take in glucose for energy so they take energy from other sources like fats thus making the body tired. protein.) Heart disease. some glucose may spill in urine that causes a person to urinate more frequently. 6|Page ACTIONS HYPERSECRETION HYPOSECRETION Prevents apoptosis (destruction) of germ cells. sends satiety signals to brain  Risk for developing diabetes increases. an increased chance the baby may have Down syndrome diabetes mellitus venous thrombosis  Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Diabetes (if the patient underwent an operation to cure insulinoma. lowers blood sugar. promotes blood coagulation. raises blood sugar. Glucagon can also be produced too much without amylin. lack of Amylin may lead to high levels of glucose in blood.GLAND/ORGAN Ovaries (female)from ovarian follicle of corpus luteum HORMONE(S) SECRETED/ RELEASED Estradiol Inhibin Pancreas Alpha cells (islets) Glucagon Beta cells (islets) Insulin Amylin .

lowers rate of gastric emptying. decreases physical activity. it can cause a person to eat less and can result to inadequate nutrients. Can also lead to too much secretion of growth hormones. extreme hunger and learning difficulties Obesity Increased food intake which can result to too much nutrients. Obesity Characterized by too much appetite Prader-Willi syndrome. Because it stimulates appetite. Too little can cause too much of Somatostatin and Pancreatic enzymes that can lead to too much nutrients like glucose. proteins and carbohydrates which can lead to deficiency of nutrients. . HYPOSECRETION     Too little can let too much insulin be produced that causes hypoglycemia.a genetic disease in which patients have severe obesity. Lack of nutrients. an intense fear of gaining weight Ulcer and Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Characterized by too much gastric acid.   Decreased appetite. Anorexia nervosa . Too much of PP may inhibit too much pancreatic digestive enzymes. Increased food intake  Affects an individual’s ability to digest and absorb nutrients. which break down fats.GLAND/ORGAN Delta cells (islets) F cells (islets – “PP cells”) HORMONE(S) SECRETED/ RELEASED Somatostatin Pancreatic polypeptide ACTIONS HYPERSECRETION Inhibits release of insulin and glucagon. decreases secretion of bicarbonate   Extreme reduction in the production of many endocrine hormones.   Lack of nutrients. reduces smooth muscle contractions and intestinal blood flow Inhibits secretion of somatostatin and pancreatic digestive enzymes    Stomach and Small Gastrin and Intestine Histamine Stimulates secretion of gastric acid   Ghrelin Stimulates appetite. stimulates secretion of GH    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) 7|Page Increases food intake. An example is the suppression of insulin that can cause diabetes.complex eating disorder involving refusal to maintain a healthy body weight.

pancreas. reduces rate of gastric emptying. its overproduction may also result in the formation of gallstones. the hormone gastrin.  Too little somatostatin can cause too much of a hormone it inhibits like. which can lead to too much gastric acid and eventually develop into ulcer.HORMONE(S) GLAND/ORGAN SECRETED/ RELEASED Stomach and Small Secretin and Intestine pancreozymin Somatostatin Histamine Endothelin ACTIONS Enhance effects of cholecystokin (CCK).  With the function of stimulating gastric acid secretion. Too much endothelin can cause high blood pressure (hypertension) and heart diseases. HYPERSECRETION    Nausea Vomiting Fevers and constipation  Autism  As somatostatin inhibits many functions of the gastrointestinal tract. stimulate pancreas to release pancreatic juice. stop production of gastric juice. Stimulate secretion of bicarbonate from liver. and other substances. cholecystokinin (CCK). too much histamine can cause an individual ulcer.  Low levels of Histamine can give low amount of gastric acid that can affect one’s digestion. reduces smooth muscle contractions and intestinal blood flow Stimulates gastric acid secretion and influences smooth muscle contractions in stomach respectively. and duodenum (Brunner’s glands) Suppresses release of gastrin. secretin.  8|Page HYPOSECRETION . intolerance to fat in the diet and diarrhea.

Thrombocytopenia Case where there is lower than normal number of platelets in the blood Lack of thrombopoietin potentiation of platelet collagen activation in the first trimester is associated with preeclampsia . This can cause excessive clotting or sometimes bleeding. release of bile from gall bladder. -too much CCK induces drug tolerance to morphine and heroin  Hyperinsulinemia. or hyperinsulinaemia is a condition in which there are excess levels of insulin circulating in the blood relative to the level of glucose. suppresses hunger HYPERSECRETION   Ilium and colon Human incretin hormone (glucagon-like peptide-I) Influences secretion of insulin by pancreas    Striated Muscle Thrombopoietin Stimulates megakaryocytes to produce platelets     9|Page HYPOSECRETION Excess cholecystokinin has been observed to cause severe hypersensitive reactions including laryngeal edema in the patient with chemical sensitivity. Haematological disease Due to a failure to regulate the production of platelets (platelet count greater than 600 x 109/L)         CCK deficiency has been described as part of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (rare disease in endocrine organ) lack of CCK causes nausea and anxiety Diabetes mellitus (DM) results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin. Hyperglycemia An excess in glucose in the bloodstream due to less amount of insulin. Thrombocytosis Presence of high platelet counts in the blood.GLAND/ORGAN Duodenum HORMONE(S) SECRETED/ RELEASED Cholecystokinin (CCK ) ACTIONS Stimulates release of digestive enzymes from pancreas. Hypoglycemia A condition characterized by abnormally low blood glucose due to high insulin levels.

GLAND/ORGAN Adipose Tissue (fat) HORMONE(S) SECRETED/ RELEASED Leptin ACTIONS Decreases appetite. influences balance of sodium and fats in blood Influences lowering of blood pressure Stimulates platelet production Regulates cell growth and development. is a risk factor for breast cancer. Excess in leptin could potentially increase the frequency or severity of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients Central nervous system disorders such as:  Brain Tumors  Hydrocephalus  Head Trauma Congestive heart failure (CHF) Elevated cardiac filling pressure Increases chances of having CHF Overproduction of platelets which may lead to some diseases Associated with acute coronary syndromes Stimulates production of somatostatin from the hypothalamus Gigantism/Acromegaly (Children/Adults) Dizziness Muscle and joint pain Causes viscosity and thickness of the blood HYPOSECRETION   Absence of leptin in the body or leptin resistance can lead to uncontrolled feeding and weight gain. a disorder in which leptin levels are high. affects blood pressure Fatigue headaches   . increases metabolism HYPERSECRETION   Atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP). eptin deficiency may also cause a delay in puberty and poor function of the immune system    Heart failure Atrial infarction Hyponatremia      May affect hematopoiesis Affects platelet production Dwarfism Thrombocytopenia Low platelet count  Lack of red blood cells. atrialnatriuretic factor (ANf) Brain-natriuretic peptide (BNP) Heart Thrombopoietin Insulin-like growth factor (somatomedin) Angiotensin and angiotensinogen Liver Renin Erythropoietin (EPO) Calcitriol Thrombopoietin Kidney 10 | P a g e  Reduces blood pressure by decreasing vascular resistance and fluid volume. influence release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex Activates renin-angiotensin system by stimulating production of angiotensin I and angiotensinogen           Obesity. also has insulin-like effects Vasoconstriction.

Stimulates production of erythrocytes (red blood cells [RBCs]) Increases calcium and phosphate absorption. Guanco Veronica Villaraza Koreen Corpuz Geri Tutanes Aquino Reina Christine Flores Maria Nikka Joy Hernandez Celin Audrey Nunez Ria Xaris Templonuevo Samantha Bettina Villanueva Monica Gamolo Chloe Jeen Co Ferdinand Miguel Labatiao Miguel Carlos Fiel 11 | P a g e . inhibits release of parathyroid hormone (PTH) Stimulates platelet production by the megakaryocytes SUBMITTED BY: GROUP C Shannen Felipe Jay Martin L.