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LECTURE 4

ISOMETRIC VIEWS.
& PROJECTIONS

Engr. Ali Raza Khalid
Civil Engineering drawing

• Isometric projection is a method for visually representing threedimensional objects in two dimensions in technical and engineering drawings.ISOMETRIC PROJECTION • “Iso” means equal and “metric projection” means a projection to a reduced measure. It is an axonometric projection in which the three coordinate axes appear equally foreshortened and the angles between any two of them are 120 degrees. Civil Engineering drawing 2 .

PROJECTIONS Civil Engineering drawing 3 .

ORTHROGRAPHIC PROJECTION ORTHROGRAPHIC PROJECION looking through the plane (Plane between observer and object) ORTHROGRAPHIC PROJECION looking Directly at object (object between observer and plane) Civil Engineering drawing 4 .

OBLIQUE PROJECTION OBLIQUE PROJECION looking through the plane (Plane between observer and object) OBLIQUE PROJECION looking Directly at object (object between observer and plane) Civil Engineering drawing 5 .

PERSPESTIVE PROJECTION PERSPESTIVE PROJECION looking through the plane (Plane between observer and object) PERSPESTIVE PROJECION looking Directly at objective (object between observer and plane) Civil Engineering drawing 6 .

VIEWS Civil Engineering drawing 7 .

two or three vanishing points (VP). Parallel lines appear to converge and meet at what is referred to as the vanishing point. Civil Engineering drawing 8 . Perspective: Used more with freehand sketching. You can have one.Isometric: Receding lines drawn at 30º and are usually kept at true measured lengths.

Oblique: Front face sketched as a true shape. one vertical. Sometimes called 'cabinet' projection Civil Engineering drawing 9 . Starts with two axes. The third axis is usually drawn at 45º and lengths are reduced by 50% of true lengths. one horizontal.

PROJECTION PLANES Civil Engineering drawing 10 .

ANGLE PROJECTION Four Quadrants Civil Engineering drawing 11 .

projections created with the object placed in the third quadrant are said to be in Third Angle projection.ANGLE PROJECTION Projections created with the object placed in the first quadrant are said to be in First Angle projection. 3rd Angle Projection 1st Angle Projection Civil Engineering drawing 12 . and likewise.

ANGLE PROJECTION Civil Engineering drawing 13 .

Civil Engineering drawing 14 . The system used must be clearly indicated on every drawing. using the appropriate symbol. First and Third angle. are approved internationally and have equal status.ANGLE PROJECTION Both systems of projection.

ANGLE PROJECTION The component: Your drawing will. for this example consist of four views: – – – – • Front F • Left L • Right R • Plan (Top) Civil Engineering drawing 15 .

FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION Civil Engineering drawing 16 .

THE END !! ANY QUESTIONS ?? Engr. Ali Raza Khalid Civil Engineering drawing .