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PowerFactory Applications for Power System Analysis

Abstract—PSASP is a widely used power system analysis program in China, and it provides various
measured models and corresponding parameters of synchronous generator’s control system.
DIGSILENT Power Factory is a popular power system analysis software package around the world. In
this paper, some commonly used models in PSASP are established in DIGSILENT Power Factory. The
contrast effect is implemented by conducting small perturbation and large disturbance in a two-area
four-machine system at last. Index Terms—DIgSILENT power factory, PSASP, automatic voltage
regulator (AVR), power system stabilizer (PSS), speed governor (GOV)
The demand on modeling requirements for power system components has become more onerous
due to the increasing complexity of power system networks Power system components such as the
governor, turbine and generator need to be represented by a detailed model. Classical
representations of a hydraulic system, which assume an ideal lossless turbine, are limited to small
perturbations around an initial operating point. They depict the actual characteristics at only very
low frequencies. For large signal stability studies, the classical model does not capture the dynamic
behavior accurately and leads to erroneous responses. Moreover, conventional governor tuning is
performed based on the classical model, hence the optimal and stable governor settings obtained by
the classical model differ substantially from the settings obtained from comprehensive models. It is
thus vital to represent the hydraulic model in detail in order to determine the practical dynamic
responses as accurately as possible for a wide variety of system studies. Fig.1 shows the schematic
diagram of hydro power plant.
2.3.1. Frequency Control In any power system, the total power demand varies continuously
throughout the day in a foreseeable manner depending on historical statistical data and also
regarding factors such as weather conditions, social factors, etc. In order to better understand the
overall control philosophy, it is useful to explain the structure of AGC system which maintains the
long term frequency control in large interconnected power systems. The large, slow changes in
demand are met centrally by deciding at predefined intervals which generating units will be
operating, shut down or in an intermediate hot reserve state. This process of unit commitment may
be conducted once per day to give the daily operating schedule, while at shorter intervals, typically
every 30 min, economic dispatch determines the actual power output required from each of the
committed generators. Smaller, but faster, load changes are dealt with by AGC so as to: (i) maintain
frequency at the scheduled value (frequency control) (ii) maintain the net power interchanges with
neighbouring control areas at their scheduled values (tie-line control) (iii) maintain power allocation
among the units in accordance with area dispatching needs (energy market, security or emergency)
In some systems the role of AGC may be restricted to one or two of the above objectives. For
example, tie-line power control is only used where a number of separate power systems are
interconnected and operate under mutually beneficial contractual agreements [1].

III. SYSTEM WIDE EFFECT OF HPPS ON FREQUENCY STABILITY It is well known that the governor
settings that result in a fast response usually cause frequency instability under system-islanding
conditions [3]. Usually fast settings for HPPs have no negative effect on system frequency in large
systems like UCTE where HPP contribution to generation is 5%. However, it is described in the
following subsections that as the contribution of HPPs with fast settings is increased, the frequency
oscillation damping reduces. In order to observe the effect of HPPs on the Turkish system frequency,
major HPPs are modeled individually. They have PID controllers with differentiator gain is set to zero

forming a PI controller. Common frequency approach and perfect coherency approximation is utilized. The rest of Turkish network is modeled by assigning a single controller model for each plant type. except Birecik HPP which is modeled as stated above. . Thermal Power Plant (TPP) and Natural Gas Combined Cycle Power Plants (NGCCPP) controllers are represented by models that resemble the characteristics of the plant type.