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Sanskrit Text
grahesv armgutyesv ekadosamärgo navah sulchah / éastràdisàdhanaft krcchrah
samkare ca tato gadah //
(and) the planets favourable—, (originating in the affection) of a single humour
and path, (and having developed but) recently, is) easy to cure; (a disease)
remediable (only) by scalpel etc. and, (as follows) from the (aforegoing
definition, one dependent) upon a mixture (of affected humours is) difficult to
cure ;
Tibetan Version
gza1 ni rjes-su2 mthun-pa-la [
nes-pa lam gcig gsar gso sia j
nadz ni mthson sogs*-kyis gdab^-cin j
gso((6))-ba dka-zin de[[6J]-las *dre$6 //
1 KP; bza CD. 2 CDP ; rjesu N. 3 CD ; gnad NP.
4 NP; mthsan stsogs CD. 5 NP; btab CD. 6 CD;9das NP.
(and) the planets favourable—, (originating in the affection of) a single humour
(and) path, (and having developed but) recent(ly), is easy to cure ; (even) a
disease (that is) remediable (only) by scalpel etc., difficult in its treatment, and,
(as follows) from the (aforegoing definition), miscellaneous (as to the affected
The term graha (~ gza) was used by the Indians, just as the corresponding
ytXdvrjç by the Greeks, not only for the planets proper (Mercury, Venus, Mars,
Jupiter, and Saturn), but also for the sun and moon. It denotes, in other words,
all celestial bodies seeming to have a motion of their own among the fixed stars;
the sun answers this description in so far as it moves between the tropics of
Cancer and Capricorn and travels through the zodiac from, west to east.
Occasionally, the ascending and descending nodes of the moon (i.e. the two
intersecting points of the lunar orbit and ecliptic passed as the moon goes north
and south respectively) were reckoned among the planets as well, whence graha
and gza may symbolize the number “nine.”—Instead of gza CD read bza, which
is unauthenticated in this meaning.
The adverbial rjes-su has been shortened to rjesu in N; cf. Introd. p. 23 n. 6.First

The term mârga lain) alludes to the three courses a disease may take in
attacking the body : the stages of the outer path being roughly extremities,
elements, and skin; those of the inner path, stomach and bowels; and those of
the middle path, vitals and joints. Cf. I 12.44 sqq.
The pâdas Sled and 32ab have been grossly misrepresented by the Tibetans in
that the clean-cut distinction between difficultly curable and incurable but
mitigable diseases has been abandoned in favour of a word-for-word translation
following the original in arrangement rather than construction. On this
phenomenon see ïntrod. § 27.
As concerns the numerous variants, gnad (for nad “disease”) and mthsan (for
vntheon “scalpel”) are unattested secondary spellings, while btab “remedied”
(for gdab “going to be remedied, remediable”) ’and das “passed away, fatal [ ?]”
(for *dres “mixed, miscellaneous”) appear to be malcorreetions made by a later
IL 32
Sanskrit Text
sesatväd äyuso yäpyah pathjäbhyäsää viparyaye / anupakrama eva syäi sthito
9tyantaviparyaye //
because of a rest of life (that may still be left, a disease may well be) mitigable
through a wholesome regimen (even if it is) in the opposite state (of curability) ;
it may be (rated) incurable only if it is in the very opposite state :
Tibetan Version thse-yi lhag-ma lus phyir [17a 1] 9thso / go-bzlog-pa-la1 (7)
goms phan-nid / bcos-pai thabs med-nid-du sgyur / éin-tu pJiyîn-ci-log-par gnas
1 CD; las NR
(can be) cured, because there may (still) be left a rest of life; otherwise, a
regimen (may be) wholesome ; if (a disease) becomes incurable, it is in the very
opposite state (of curability) :
The noun phrase sesatväd äyusah “because of a rest of life” has been turned
into a subordinate clause : thse-yi lhag-ma lus phyir “because there may be left
a rest of life.” äyus “life” might well be taken to mean “vital energy” in this
context, were it not for the Sanskrit gloss jïvita and the Tibetan equivalent thse,
both of which preclude any such interpretation.
Instead of go-bzlog-pa-la NP read go-bzlog-pa-las; the Tibetan ablative is quite
unusual, however, in reproducing the Sanskrit locative, whose function is
normally assumed by the dative of sphere.
In the second half of the stanza, the construction has again been sacrificed to
the word-order, but this time by a less drastic measure—the interchange of
protasis and apodosis.
anupakrama has been metaphrased by bcos-pai thabs med “being without a
means of curing,”First Chapter 73

Sanskrit Text
autsukyamohäratikrd drstaristo ’ ksanäsa?iah j
tyajed ärtam bhisagbhüpair dvistam tesarti dvisam dvi§am //
causing desire (for the sense-objects), mental alienation, and discontent,
showing the symptoms of death, (and) impairing the sense-organs. One shall
avoid a patient hated by physicians and kings, hostile to these, hostile (to
Tibetan Version
*dod dan rmons dan khro-bar byed /
’chi-ltas snan-zin [[7]] dban-po nams / sman-pa rgryaZ-po[2]((7))-?a sdan dan /
de dan mi mdza dan-ba dan //
it makes (a patient) desirous (of the sense-objects), mentally alienated, and
discontent, the symptoms of death show up, and the sense-organs are impaired.
(A patient who is) hostile to physicians (and) kings, unpopular with them, hostile
(to himself),
The compound autsukyamohäratikrt “causing desire, mental alienation, and
discontent’5 has been transformed into a short sentence of its own, in which the
original objects appear as predicate nouns: *dod dan rmons dan khro-bar byed
“it makes desirous, mentally alienated, and discontent.” Practically the same
wordgrouping occurs in the salutatory stanza, where it must be understood in a
different way, though.
As autsukyamohäratikrt, so have drstarista “showing the symptoms of death”
and aksanäsana “impairing the sense-organs” been rendered independent, with
intransitive verbs taking the place of the former transitives: *chi-ltas snan-zin
dban-po nams “the symptoms of death show up and the sense-organs are
The predicate tyajet “one shall avoid” has been transferred to the end of the
sentence in 34d and reproduced by span (a secondary form of spon), which is a
brachylogy for span-bar bya “shall be avoided.” The following aria “patient” has
been disregarded.
The attributes bhisagbhüpair dvistam “hated by physicians and kings” and
tesdm dvi§am “hostile to these” have been inverted: sman-pa rgyal-po-la sdan
dan de dan mi mdza “hostile to physicians (and) kings and unpopular with
them.” This was evidently done with a view to sidestepping the collocation
dvisam dvisam, the second member of which is paraphrased by the scholiasts as
dvisam ätmanah “hostile to himself.”
Sanskrit Text
h mopakaranam vyagram avidheyam gatäyusam / candam sokäturam bhïrum
krtaghnam vaidyamäninam If
destitute of the (bare) necessaries, busy, disobedient, finished with life, frantic,
harassed with grief, timid, unmindful of past services, (and) regarding himself as
a physician.74 First Chapter

Tibetan Version yo-byad mi9 by or brel-ba dan /
(46a 1) nan-du mi btub thse zad dan j gtum-zin ?nya~nan-la mnan 5jigs1 / by
as-pa mi bzo2 sman brnas spari3 //
1 CD; ’jig KP. 2 NP; gzo CD. 3 XF; spans CD.
lacking the (bare) necessaries, busy, disobedient, finished with life, frantic,
harassed with grief, timid, not remembering past services, (and)
despising medicines, shall be avoided.
hinopaharmm “destitute of necessaries” has been rendered by yo-byad mi 9 by
or “not having at hand, lacking, necessaries.”
avidheya “disobedient” has been paraphrased by nan-du mi btub, which literally
means “unable to obey.”
For 9 jigs “timid” NP offer the unattested spelling 9jig.
krtaghm “destructive, unmindful, of past services” has been translated by byaspa mi bzo “not remembering past services.” For bzo CD have substituted the
commoner gzo; cf. Mvy. 2357, where both spellings occur side by side.
vaidyamânin may be interpreted to signify either “regarding oneself as a
physician” or “despising a physician.” The commentators, following Pan. Ill 2.82,
understand it in the sense of someone “who, though no physician, regards
himelf as a physician (and) prepares medicines at his own discretion” (avaidyo
9pi yo midyam wätmänam manyate svamateThaimvsadham baroli)1. The
Tibetans, however, have sman brnas instead, which can only be turned
“despising medicines,” unless sman is considered a brachylogy for sman-pa
On span tyajet) see previous stanza. The perfect spans given in CD makes no
sense here; it is probably a malcorrection.
1 Thus Candranandana and Indu, the latter omitting only the particles iva and
eva; Arunadatta’s naivausadham is obviously corrupt and must be restored to
II. 35
Sanskrit Text
tantrasyâsya parant câto vahsyate 3dhyäyasamgrahah /
äyusbämadinartvihärogänutpädanadraväh j/
Hereafter will be given a summary of the chapters of this book. [1] The wish for
long life, [2—3] the conduct during day and seasons, [4] the non-production of
diseases, [5] the fluids,
Tibetan Version
[[8]] de-nas gzan yan rgyud1 *di-yi /
leu bsdus-pa bsad [3] bya-ste /
thse rin nin re ((46 a 1)) dus spy od dan /
nad med bya dan btun-ba (2) dan //
1 CD; rgyu NP.First Chapter 75

Hereafter will be given a summary of the chapters of this book. [1] The long life,
[2—3] the conduct during every day (and) the seasons, [4] the deliverance from
diseases, [5] the drinks,
The ensuing list of contents, which is on the whole self-explanatory, has not
been commented upon. In cases of doubt, reference may be made to the
chapter heads synoptic&lly presented in Tibetan and Sanskrit by Cobxueb,
REFEO iiip. 609 sqq. For convenience* sake, the chapter numbers have been
given in square brackets.
II. 36
Sanskrit Text
annajnänänTwsamraksämäträdmvyarasaärayäh /
dosädijnänatadbhedataccikitsädvynpakramäh //
[6] the knowledge of food, [7 — 8] the protection and quantity of food,
[9] the medicinal substances, [10] the properties of the flavours, [11] the
knowledge of the humours etc., [ 12] their classification, [13] their therapy,
[14] the twofold treatment,
Tibetan Version
zas ées by a dan zas bsdam1 dan / zas thsod sman dan ro-la gnas / nad ées
[[17al]] bya dan de2 dbye-ba / de gso-ba dan gso thabs gnis //
1 CD ; edam NP. 2 NP ; dei CD.
[6] what ought to be known about food, [7] the neutralization of (poisonous)
food, [8] the quantity of food, [9] the medicines, [10] the properties of the
flavours, [11] what ought to be known about the humours, [12] their
classification, [13] their therapy, [14] the two ways of treatment,
II. 37
Sanskrit Text
suddhyädisnehanasvedarekästhäpananävanam /
dhümagandüsadrksekatrptiyantrakaêastrakam //
[15] the purgatives etc. (in toto)9 [16] the lubricants, [17] the diaphoretics, [18]
the cathartics, [19] the enemas, [20] the sternutatories, [21] the inhalants, [22]
the gargles, [23—24] the douching and satiating of the eyes, [25] the blunt
instruments, [26] the sharp instruments,
Tibetan Version
sbyan sogs1 snum-chos [4] khrus btan2 bya / sman-dud khar((2))-dor mig bkru
dan / gso dan dbyun-thabs zug-rnu (3) mthson //
1 NP; stsogs CD* 2 NP; brta CD.76 First Chapter

[15] the purgatives etc. (in toto), [16] the lubricants, [17—20] what ought to be
administered for purging, [21] the inhalants, [22] the gargles, [23—24] the
douching and satiating of the eyes, [25] the blunt instruments, [26] the sharp
II. 38
Sanskrit Text
éirâvidkih1 ëalyavidhih éastraksârâgnikarmalcâh2 / sTitrastMnwn ime 'dhyäyäs
trimêat säriram ucyate //
1 B; $irä° K. 2 B; °lcarmahaw K.
[27] the method of bloodletting, [28] the method of (extracting) thorns, (and)
[29—30] the treatment with scalpel, caustic, and moxa: these thirty chapters
(make) the rules section. (Next) is given the somatology (section) :
Tibetan Version
gtar dpyad [[2]] zug-rnu dbyun^bai dpyad / mthson dan thal-sman me-btsa2
la# / mdo-gnas leu sum-cu ni /
*di y in* lus-kyi brjod bya[5]-ste //
1 BNP; ’byufi C. 2 NP; Usai CD. 3 CD; yi NR
[27] the method of bloodletting, [28] the method of extracting thorns, (and) [29
—30] the treatment with scalpel, caustic, (and) moxa: these are the thirty
chapters of the rules section. (Next) will be given the somatology (section) :
11. 39
Sanskrit Text
garbhämkräntitadvyäpadangamarmavibhägikam / vikrtir dütajam sastham
nidänam särvarogikam //
what pertains to [1] the descent of the embryo (into the womb), [2] its
miscarriage, and [3—4] the distribution of limbs and vitals, [5] the alterations,
(and) sixth what relates to the messenger. (One chapter each on) the aetiology
of [1] all diseases,
Tibetan Version mnal-du9 jug dan de-yi nad1 / yan-lag gnad-kyi bye((3))-brag
dan /
[[3]] mam *gyur baii-chen-las byun drug /
(4) nad kun *byun-hai nad-gzi dan //
1 NP ; dei nad dan CD.First Chapter 77

[1] the entrance (of the embryo) into the womb, [2] its diseases, [3—4] the
distribution of limbs (and) vitals, [5] the alterations, (and) [6] what relates to the
courier (make) six (chapters). (One chapter each on) the aetiology of [1] what
relates to all diseases, and (that of)
II. 40
Sanskrit Text
jvaräsrJcsväsayaksmädimadâdyaréotisâririâm j müträghätapramehäriäm
vidradhyädyudarasya ca //
of cases of [2] fever, [3] hemorrhage, [4] dyspnea, [5] consumption etc., [6]
alcoholism etc., [7] hemorrhoids, and [8] diarrhea, of [9] ischuria,
[10] diabetes, [11] abscesses etc., and [12] abdominal swellings,
Tibetan Version
rims Ichrag dbugs mi-bde gcon sogs1 /
chan dan gzah-brum thsad-pai nad /
[6] chu- gags gcin ni shi-ba dan / khoh-bras [[4]] dmu-rdzih-dag dah ni 11
1 NP; stsogs CD.
[2] fever, [3] hemorrhage, [4] dyspnea, [5] consumption etc., [6] alcoholism, [7]
hemorrhoids, [8] diarrheal diseases, [9] ischuria, [10] diabetes,
[11] abscesses, [12] abdominal swellings,