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# DJJ3053

ENGINEERING MECHANICS
CHAPTER 4 :
STRUCTURES
Luqman Nul Hakim Bin Juwara
Jabatan Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
Politeknik Muadzam Shah
luqman@pms.edu.my

Structures
This topic introduces the concept to analyze truss structures by using methods of joints
and methods of sections.
Learning Outcomes (LO)
Upon completion of this topic, students should be able to :
4.1 Explain plane trusses
4.1.1 Define a truss
4.1.2 Explain plane trusses
4.2 Analyze force in trusses by using related method
4.2.1 Analyze a truss by using the method of joints
4.2.2 Analyze the force in the members of a truss by using method of
sections

Structures
Consist of three categories of Engineering Structures.
1. TRUSSES Framework composed of members

## joined at their ends to form a rigid structures.

2. FRAMES Stationary and can support external

## loads, which contain at least one multi-force member.

3. MACHINES Structures containing moving parts

## designed to transmit and modify forces.

Trusses
TRUSS Framework composed of members
joined at their ends to form a rigid structures.
PLANE TRUSS Member of truss lie in same plane.
- A planar truss lies in a single plane. In
plane truss, both the truss structure and
the applied loads lie in the same plane. The
analysis of forces will be in 2 dimension.

Trusses

## June 2015 Session : 2(a)

Describe a plane truss. (3 marks)

Simple Trusses
3 bars joined with pins at end

Bar

Pin

Non-Rigid
Rigid Bars
Bars

## form a triangular truss.

Rigid Bars (non-collapsible).
Non-Rigid Bars can be made
rigid.
SIMPLE TRUSS Attaching 2
or more members &
connecting these members by
expanding the basic triangular
truss will form a larger truss

## Assumption For Design

1. All loadings are applied at the joints.
2. Weight can be included.
3. The members are joined together by smooth pins

(bolting or welding).
4. Two force members equilibrium only in two forces
either TENSION or COMPRESSION.
5. Two force are applied at the end; they are equal,
opposite and collinear for equilibrium.

## Method to determine the correct

SENSE of an unknown member force
SENSE unknown member force can be assumed.
POSITIVE indicates the sense is correct.
NEGATIVE indicates the sense is reversed.
Always assume the unknown member force acting on the
joint FBD as tension (pull) on the pin.
POSITIVE in Tension (T)
NEGATIVE in Compression (C)

## Two Methods To Analyze Force In Simple Truss

Method of JOINTS
Satisfying the conditions of equilibrium for the forces acting

## on the connecting pin of each joint.

Each joint is subjected to a force system that is coplanar and
concurrent.
Only 2 independent equilibrium equations are solved, Fx = 0
and Fy = 0.
Simple Beam
Truss

Example 1
Determine the force in each member of the truss shown
and indicate whether the members are in tension or
compression.

Ans:

FBA 500 N (T)
FCA 500 N (T)

C y 500 N
Ax 500 N (T)
Ay 500 N (T)

Solution:
Joint B :

## +ve Fx = 0; 500 N + FBC sin 45o = 0

FBC = -707 N = 707 N (C)
+ve Fy = 0; -FBC cos 45o FBA = 0
-(-707 N) cos 45o = FBA
FBA = 500 N (T)

Solution:
Joint C :

## +ve Fx = 0; -FCA + 707 N cos 45o = 0

FCA = 500 N (T)
+ve Fy = 0; -707 sin 45o + Cy = 0
Cy = 500 N

Solution:
Joint A :

+ve Fx = 0; 500 N Ax = 0
Ax = 500 N (T)

+ve Fy = 0; 500 N Ay = 0
Ay = 500 N (T)

Example 2
The truss used to support a balcony, is subjected to the
loading shown. Approximate each joint as a pin and
determine the force in each member. State whether the
members are in tension or compression. Set Set P1 = 800
N and P2 = 0 N.
Ans:
FAD 1131.4 N (C)
FAB 800 N (T)
FBD 0
FBC 800 N (T)
FDC 1131.4 N (T)
FDE 1600 N (C)

Example 3
Determine the force in each member of the truss and state
if the members are in tension (T) or compression (C).
Set P1 = 500 N and P2 = 100 N.

Ans:
FBA 285.71 N (T)
FBC 383.86 N (T)
FCA 271 N (C)
C y 271.43 N

Example 4
Determine the force in each member of the truss shown.
Indicate whether the members are in tension or
compression.
Ans:

C x 600 N (C)
Ay 600 N (C)
C y 200 N (C)
FAB 750 N (C)
FAD 450 N (T)
Ay 500 N (T)
FDB 250 N (T)
FDC 200 N (C)
FCB 600 N (C)
C y 200 N (C)

Solution:
Support Reaction :

+ve Fx = 0; 600N Cx = 0

+ve

Cx = 600 N (C)

Ay = 600 N (C)

Solution:
Joint A :

## +ve Fy = 0; 600N + ()FAB = 0 FAB = -750 N

FAB = 750 N (C)
+ve Fx = 0; FAD + ()FAB = 0

FAB

4
3

FAD
Ay = 600N

Solution:
Joint D :

## +ve Fx = 0; -450N ()FDB + 600N = 0

FDB = 250 N (T)
+ve Fy = 0; ()FDB + FDC = 0

FDB
5

FDC

FAD = 450N

600 N

FDC = -200 N
FDC = 200 N (C)

Solution:
Joint C :

FCB = -600 N
FCB = 600 N (C)

Cy = 200N
FC
B

Cx = 600N
FDC =
200N

Solution:

## June 2015 Session : 2(c)

Figure below shows a truss is subjected to a horizontal force of
500N.
i. Calculate the force in each member of the truss. (16 marks)
ii. Identify whether the members are in tension or
compression form. (4 marks)
Ans:

C x 500 N
Ay 250 N
C y 250 N
FAD 353.553 N (C)
FAB 250 N (T)
FBC 250 N (T)
FBD 0 N
FCD 353.553 N (T)

## Two Methods To Analyze Force In Simple Truss

Method of SECTIONS
A truss is divided into two parts by taking an imaginary cut
through the truss.
2. Decide how you need to cut the truss:
a. Where you need to determine forces
b. Where the total number of unknown does not exceed
than 3.
3. Decide which side of the cut truss will be easier to work with
(minimize the number of force you have to find).
4. If required, determine the necessary support reactions by drawing
the FBD of the entire truss.
1.

Example 5
Determine the force in members GE, GC & BC of the
truss shown. Indicate whether the members are in tension
or compression.

Ans:
FBC 800 N (T)
FGE 800 N (C)
FGC 500 N (T)

Solution:

+ve Fx = 0; 400N Ax = 0
+ve

Ax = 400 N

## MA = 0; 1200N (8m) + 400N (3m) - Dy (12m) = 0

Dy = 900 N
+ve Fy = 0; Ay 1200N + 900= 0
Ay = 300 N

Solution:

FBC = 800 N (T)

## +ve Mc = 0; 300N (8m) - FGE (3m) = 0

+ve Fy = 0; 300N - (3/5)FGC = 0

## FGE = 800 N (C)

FGC = 500 N (T)

Example 6
Determine the force in members BC, CG & GF of the
Warren truss shown. Indicate whether the members are in
tension or compression.

Ans:
FGF 8.08 kN (T)
FBC 7.70 kN (C)
FCG 0.770 kN (C)

Example 7
Determine the force in members CD, CF & FG of the
Warren truss shown. Indicate whether the members are in
tension or compression.

Ans:
FFG 8.08 kN (T)
FCD 8.47 kN (C)
FCF 0.770 kN (T)

Example 8
Determine the force in members BC, HC & HG of the
bridge truss and indicate whether the members are in
tension or compression.

Ans:
FHG 29.0 kN (C)
FBC 20.5 kN (T)
FHC 12.0 kN (T)

Example 9
Determine the force in members CD, CF & GF of the
bridge truss and indicate whether the members are in
tension or compression.

Ans:
FGF 29.0 kN (C)
FCD 23.5 kN (T)
FCF 7.78 kN (T)

Thank You
For Listening
QUESTION
&
ANSWER SESSION