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ENGINEERING MECHANICS

CHAPTER 4 :

STRUCTURES

Luqman Nul Hakim Bin Juwara

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Mekanikal

Politeknik Muadzam Shah

luqman@pms.edu.my

Structures

This topic introduces the concept to analyze truss structures by using methods of joints

and methods of sections.

Learning Outcomes (LO)

Upon completion of this topic, students should be able to :

4.1 Explain plane trusses

4.1.1 Define a truss

4.1.2 Explain plane trusses

4.2 Analyze force in trusses by using related method

4.2.1 Analyze a truss by using the method of joints

4.2.2 Analyze the force in the members of a truss by using method of

sections

Structures

Consist of three categories of Engineering Structures.

1. TRUSSES Framework composed of members

2. FRAMES Stationary and can support external

3. MACHINES Structures containing moving parts

Trusses

TRUSS Framework composed of members

joined at their ends to form a rigid structures.

PLANE TRUSS Member of truss lie in same plane.

- A planar truss lies in a single plane. In

plane truss, both the truss structure and

the applied loads lie in the same plane. The

analysis of forces will be in 2 dimension.

Trusses

Describe a plane truss. (3 marks)

Simple Trusses

3 bars joined with pins at end

Bar

Pin

Non-Rigid

Rigid Bars

Bars

Rigid Bars (non-collapsible).

Non-Rigid Bars can be made

rigid.

SIMPLE TRUSS Attaching 2

or more members &

connecting these members by

expanding the basic triangular

truss will form a larger truss

1. All loadings are applied at the joints.

2. Weight can be included.

3. The members are joined together by smooth pins

(bolting or welding).

4. Two force members equilibrium only in two forces

either TENSION or COMPRESSION.

5. Two force are applied at the end; they are equal,

opposite and collinear for equilibrium.

SENSE of an unknown member force

SENSE unknown member force can be assumed.

POSITIVE indicates the sense is correct.

NEGATIVE indicates the sense is reversed.

Always assume the unknown member force acting on the

joint FBD as tension (pull) on the pin.

POSITIVE in Tension (T)

NEGATIVE in Compression (C)

Method of JOINTS

Satisfying the conditions of equilibrium for the forces acting

Each joint is subjected to a force system that is coplanar and

concurrent.

Only 2 independent equilibrium equations are solved, Fx = 0

and Fy = 0.

Simple Beam

Truss

Example 1

Determine the force in each member of the truss shown

and indicate whether the members are in tension or

compression.

Ans:

FBA 500 N (T)

FCA 500 N (T)

C y 500 N

Ax 500 N (T)

Ay 500 N (T)

Solution:

Joint B :

FBC = -707 N = 707 N (C)

+ve Fy = 0; -FBC cos 45o FBA = 0

-(-707 N) cos 45o = FBA

FBA = 500 N (T)

Solution:

Joint C :

FCA = 500 N (T)

+ve Fy = 0; -707 sin 45o + Cy = 0

Cy = 500 N

Solution:

Joint A :

+ve Fx = 0; 500 N Ax = 0

Ax = 500 N (T)

+ve Fy = 0; 500 N Ay = 0

Ay = 500 N (T)

Example 2

The truss used to support a balcony, is subjected to the

loading shown. Approximate each joint as a pin and

determine the force in each member. State whether the

members are in tension or compression. Set Set P1 = 800

N and P2 = 0 N.

Ans:

FAD 1131.4 N (C)

FAB 800 N (T)

FBD 0

FBC 800 N (T)

FDC 1131.4 N (T)

FDE 1600 N (C)

Example 3

Determine the force in each member of the truss and state

if the members are in tension (T) or compression (C).

Set P1 = 500 N and P2 = 100 N.

Ans:

FBA 285.71 N (T)

FBC 383.86 N (T)

FCA 271 N (C)

C y 271.43 N

Example 4

Determine the force in each member of the truss shown.

Indicate whether the members are in tension or

compression.

Ans:

C x 600 N (C)

Ay 600 N (C)

C y 200 N (C)

FAB 750 N (C)

FAD 450 N (T)

Ay 500 N (T)

FDB 250 N (T)

FDC 200 N (C)

FCB 600 N (C)

C y 200 N (C)

Solution:

Support Reaction :

+ve Fx = 0; 600N Cx = 0

+ve

Cx = 600 N (C)

Ay = 600 N (C)

Solution:

Joint A :

FAB = 750 N (C)

+ve Fx = 0; FAD + ()FAB = 0

FAB

4

3

FAD

Ay = 600N

Solution:

Joint D :

FDB = 250 N (T)

+ve Fy = 0; ()FDB + FDC = 0

FDB

5

FDC

FAD = 450N

600 N

FDC = -200 N

FDC = 200 N (C)

Solution:

Joint C :

FCB = -600 N

FCB = 600 N (C)

Cy = 200N

FC

B

Cx = 600N

FDC =

200N

Solution:

Figure below shows a truss is subjected to a horizontal force of

500N.

i. Calculate the force in each member of the truss. (16 marks)

ii. Identify whether the members are in tension or

compression form. (4 marks)

Ans:

C x 500 N

Ay 250 N

C y 250 N

FAD 353.553 N (C)

FAB 250 N (T)

FBC 250 N (T)

FBD 0 N

FCD 353.553 N (T)

Method of SECTIONS

A truss is divided into two parts by taking an imaginary cut

through the truss.

2. Decide how you need to cut the truss:

a. Where you need to determine forces

b. Where the total number of unknown does not exceed

than 3.

3. Decide which side of the cut truss will be easier to work with

(minimize the number of force you have to find).

4. If required, determine the necessary support reactions by drawing

the FBD of the entire truss.

1.

Example 5

Determine the force in members GE, GC & BC of the

truss shown. Indicate whether the members are in tension

or compression.

Ans:

FBC 800 N (T)

FGE 800 N (C)

FGC 500 N (T)

Solution:

+ve Fx = 0; 400N Ax = 0

+ve

Ax = 400 N

Dy = 900 N

+ve Fy = 0; Ay 1200N + 900= 0

Ay = 300 N

Solution:

FBC = 800 N (T)

+ve Fy = 0; 300N - (3/5)FGC = 0

FGC = 500 N (T)

Example 6

Determine the force in members BC, CG & GF of the

Warren truss shown. Indicate whether the members are in

tension or compression.

Ans:

FGF 8.08 kN (T)

FBC 7.70 kN (C)

FCG 0.770 kN (C)

Example 7

Determine the force in members CD, CF & FG of the

Warren truss shown. Indicate whether the members are in

tension or compression.

Ans:

FFG 8.08 kN (T)

FCD 8.47 kN (C)

FCF 0.770 kN (T)

Example 8

Determine the force in members BC, HC & HG of the

bridge truss and indicate whether the members are in

tension or compression.

Ans:

FHG 29.0 kN (C)

FBC 20.5 kN (T)

FHC 12.0 kN (T)

Example 9

Determine the force in members CD, CF & GF of the

bridge truss and indicate whether the members are in

tension or compression.

Ans:

FGF 29.0 kN (C)

FCD 23.5 kN (T)

FCF 7.78 kN (T)

Thank You

For Listening

QUESTION

&

ANSWER SESSION

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