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Leaving behind the competition

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PHASE I

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PHASE II

PHASE III

Cycle of Learning

PHASE IV

LONG TIME FRAME

2010

2013

2016
CAPAIAN BERBASIS
KRITERIA-KRITERIA

CAPAIAN BERBASIS
KRITERIA-KRITERIA

CAPAIAN BERBASIS
KRITERIA-KRITERIA

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STRATEGI BERLANDASKAN KONDISI INTERNAL & EKSTERNAL

2020

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Comprehensive strategic management model


External
Audit

Vision
&
Mission

Long-Term
Objectives

Internal
Audit

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Generate,
Evaluate,
Select
Strategies

Implement
Strategies:
Mgmt Issues

Implement
Strategies:

Measure &
Evaluate
Performance

Strategy
Creating Uncontested Market Space

The case of

MENGAPA MEMPELAJARI STRATEGI:


Strategi berkaitan dengan keputusan besar yang dihadapi
organisasi, berkaitan dengan perilaku yang konsisten, dan
seharusnya mampu menciptakan keunggulan kompetitif
Strategi sangat penting untuk menentukan kesuksesan
organisasi, sehingga mempelajari strategi menjadi amat
bermanfaat dan menjanjikan
Meningkatkan kemampuan organisasi dalam mencegah
masalah
Berbagai alternatif yang terbaik dapat disusun
Dilibatkannya karyawan dalam formulasi strategi pada
akhirnya dapat meningkatkan motivasi mereka
Penolakan atas perubahan dapat dikurangi
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DINAMIKA DUNIA
Terjadinya pergeseran kekuatan ekonomi
global. US, Eropa menuju Asia
Globalisasi investasi mendorong tumbuh
dan menyebarnya perusahaan
transnasional (TNC)
Demographic gap
Munculnya middle class society

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AirAsia: Reconstructing the airline industry


looking across boundaries
Flights as an alternative to road, rail and sea transport.

Industry

Similar convenience, accessibility, and cost.


Faster and safer than road, rail & sea transport.
Chose to be a no frills low cost carrier instead of competing with

Strategic
Group

full service carriers.


Make purchases and payments convenient and accessible to end
buyer.

Buyer
Group

Going for first time travelers and non-customers.

Scope of product
or service
offering

Cut off all unnecessary frills but offer complimentary services like

Functional-emotional
appeal

Reach end-buyer directly.

insurance, hotel rooms booking, travels and tours.

Regard air travel itself as the emotional appeal but cut off all the

frills to focus on the main function of air travel.


There is a global trend of deregulation for the airline industry and it

Time

is coming to Asia. Open skies in 2009.


Internet usage has become widespread

The Four Actions Framework for AirAsia

Loyalty programs

Tickets

Free meals

Accessibility
Convenience
Brand awareness
Brand Image
Frequencies
Routes/Network

Assigned seats

A New
Value
Curve

Price

Turn around time

Amenities

Operating costs

Online purchase
Online check in
Franchise
Self check in
Complementary services

A Malaysian Success Story

Most profitable
Most Cost Competitive

High Growth
Widest network

Accolades in 2007
All round excellence

Business
People
Governance

Costs

Branding

IDENTIFICATION
OF HOT SPOTS

Tipping Point Leadership


How AirAsia overcame key organizational hurdles

Focus on the extremes:


Cognitive
Barrier

Site the office at the terminal.


Everyone in the office use the same entrance to promote group identity.
Casual dress to reduce power distance.
Even the CEO experience the various roles.

Motivation

Performance is closely monitored, analysed and published. The standard of


financial reporting is well above industry standard.
Having the lowest unit ASK costs is celebrated.

Limited
resources

Invested in a comprehensive website as low cost distribution channel.


Invested heavily in brand building by sponsoring Manchester United.
Cut out all frills.

Politics

Recruited the ex-CEO of Rynair as a director.


Met the Prime Minister to lobby for a license.
Used media and publicity astutely in tussles with MAS.

Tipping Point Leadership


How schools can overcome key organizational hurdles

Focus on the extremes:


Cognitive
Barrier

360 degree leadership

Motivation
ARRAS & CELEBRATIONS

Limited
resources

Smart Partnership PTA, School Board,


Alumni. Community

Politics

Concept of Parading the School - media

Build Execution into Strategy


Fair Process at AirAsia

Fernandes created an open culture,


no hierarchy, a family environment.
Midnight briefings conducted to
involve as many as possible.
People are encouraged to chip in to
help out.
Open office with no
compartmentalization.

Expectation
Clarity

Anything is possible is their


motto.
Fernandes provided leadership by
example.

Engagement

Explanation

Promoted internal branding.


Staff must understand the
companys direction before
they can explain to others.
Respect for each other.

Results of fair process


Intellectual,
Emotional
Recognition

Trust
&
Commitment

Voluntary
Cooperation

Secondly, what got us here is an open culture, no hierarchy; a family


environment. We can't ever change that. As soon as we change that, we lose our
focus. We put everyone together. I even go down to the fact that we go through
one door; we have marketing people, finance people, engineers, cabin crew, pilots
-- all in one office. It means effective communication. You open the door -- you see
our planes. If people need help, we all go out there to carry bags. My secretary will
go out and help clean the planes if we are running into a delay.

Tony Fernandes

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APA ITU MANAJEMEN STRATEGI?

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MANAJEMEN STRATEGI

Manajemen stratejik terdiri dari analisis, keputusan, dan


aksi yang diambil organisasi untuk menciptakan dan
mempertahankan keunggulan kompetitif

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MANAGING STRATEGY
Strategic management as the set of decisions and
actions that result in the formulation and
implementation of plans designed to achieve a
companys objectives. (Pearce and Robinson ,1991)
It is an ongoing iterative process
Wider than initial business planning sets long-term
objectives and sets the business on a particular path
In todays uncertain environment must be open to
revision and change
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Strategic Management

Art & science of formulating,


implementing, and evaluating, crossfunctional decisions that enable an
organization to achieve its objectives.

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Strategic Management
Defined:
Set of managerial decisions and
actions that determines the longrun performance of a firm.

Atribut Kunci

Mengarahkan organisasi dalam mencapai tujuan dan


sasarannya
Melibatkan semua stakeholders dalam pengambilan
keputusan
Membutuhkan penggabungan perspektif jangka pendek
dan jangka panjang

Menyadari trade-off antara efisiensi dan efektivitas


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Basic Model of
Strategic Management
Four Basic Elements

Comprehensive strategic management model


External
Audit

Vision
&
Mission

Long-Term
Objectives

Internal
Audit

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Generate,
Evaluate,
Select
Strategies

Implement
Strategies:
Mgmt Issues

Implement
Strategies:

Measure &
Evaluate
Performance

Strategic Planning Model


ABCDE
Where we are

Assessment

Where we want to be

Baseline

Components

How we will do it

Down to Specifics

How are we doing

Evaluate

Environmental Scan

Situation Past,
Present and Future

Mission & Vision

Performance
Measurement

Performance
Management

Background
Information

Significant Issues

Values / Guiding
Principles

Targets / Standards of
Performance

Review Progress
Balanced Scorecard

Situational Analysis

Align / Fit with


Capabilities

Major Goals

Initiatives and
Projects

Take Corrective
Actions

SWOT Strengths,
Weaknesses,
Opportunities,
Threats

Gaps

Specific Objectives

Action Plans

Feedback upstream
revise plans

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Adaptive Model of Strategic


Management Process
Scan External
Environment
National,
Global
Evaluate
Current Mission,
Goals,
Strategies
Scan Internal
Environment Core
Competence,
Synergy, Value
Creation

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Identify Strategic
Factors
Opportunities,
Threats

SWOT

Define new
Mission
Goals, Grand
Strategy

Identify Strategic
Factors
Strengths,
Weaknesses

Formulate
Strategy
Corporate,
Business,
Functional

Implement
Strategy via
Changes in:
Leadership
culture,
Structure, HR,
Information &
control
systems

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The Organization Environment


Demographic
Company

Economic

Cultural
Publics

Suppliers

Organi
Competitors

Customers

Natural

Political
Intermediaries

Technological
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The Microenvironment
Company
Publics

Forces Affecting a
Companys Ability to
Serve
Customers

Competitors

Intermediaries

Customers
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Suppliers

The Macroenvironment
Demographic
Cultural

Forces that Shape


Opportunities
and Pose Threats
to a Org.

Political

Natural
Technological

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Economic

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Vision & Mission


External Opportunities & Threats
Internal Strengths & Weaknesses

Long-Term Objectives
Alternative Strategies
Strategy Selection

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Hierarchy of Strategy
Corporate Strategy

Business
(Division Level)
Strategy
Functional
Strategy

VISSION & MISSION

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Comprehensive strategic management model


External
Audit

Vision
&
Mission

Long-Term
Objectives

Internal
Audit

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Generate,
Evaluate,
Select
Strategies

Implement
Strategies:
Mgmt Issues

Implement
Strategies:

Measure &
Evaluate
Performance

Adaptive Model of Strategic


Management Process
Scan External
Environment
National,
Global
Evaluate
Current Mission,
Goals,
Strategies
Scan Internal
Environment Core
Competence,
Synergy, Value
Creation

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Identify Strategic
Factors
Opportunities,
Threats

SWOT

Define new
Mission
Goals, Grand
Strategy

Identify Strategic
Factors
Strengths,
Weaknesses

Formulate
Strategy
Corporate,
Business,
Functional

Implement
Strategy via
Changes in:
Leadership
culture,
Structure, HR,
Information &
control
systems

A business is not defined by its


name, statutes, or articles of
incorporation. Its defined by the
business mission. Only a clear
definition of mission and purpose
of the organization makes people
clear and realistic business
objectives (Peter Drucker)
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A Corporate vision can focus,


direct, motivate, unify and even
excite a business into superior
performance. The job of a
strategist is to identify and project
a clear vision(John Keane)
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A Strategist job is to see the


company not as is itbut as it can
bocome( John W. Teets)

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DEFINING BUSINESS
WHO

WHAT
HOW = DISTINCTIVE COMPETENCIES

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HOW

We can perhaps best understand

By focusing on a business when it is first started.


In the beginning , a new business is simply a
collection of ideas. Starting a new business rest
on set of beliefs that the new organization can
offer some product or service, to some
customer, in some geographic area, using some
type of technology, at a profit price.
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Vision
What do we want to become?

Agreement on the basic vision for which the


firm strives to achieve in the long run is
critically important to the firms success.
Examples of vision statements:
The Vision of Pepsi To become the leading producer and marketer of
food and beverage products in the world

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Vision
How the organization wants to be perceived in the
future what success looks like
An expression of the desired end state
Challenges everyone to reach for something
significant inspires a compelling future
Provides a long-term focus for the entire
organization
Vision Statement is the statement of purpose or it can be also
define as the long term road towards the future.

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Mission Statements
What is our business?
Reveal what an organization wants to be and
whom it wants to serve
Essential for effectively establishing objectives
and formulating strategies

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MISSION = DEFINING BUSINESS


What business are we in?
What business will we be in?
What business should we be in?

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Defining the Organizations Business,


Mission
Business Definition (Who are we?)
scope of the organizations operations
customers served, needs satisfied,
means/technology used
Business Mission (What do we do?)
the organizations purpose
customers, products/services, markets,
philosophy, technology

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Customers

Products
Services

Markets

Technology
Employees

Mission
Elements
Survival
Growth
Profit

Public
Image
Self-Concept

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Philosophy

The essential components of a mission


statement

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.

Components and Questions That a Mission Statement Should Answer


Customers: Who are the firms customers?
Products or services: What are the firms major products?
Markets: Geographically, where does the firm compete?
Technology: Is the firm technologically current?
Concern for survival, growth, and profitability: Is the firm committed to growth
and financial soundness?
Philosophy: What are the basic beliefs, values, aspirations, and ethical priorities
of the firm?
Self-concept: What is the firms distinctive competence or major competitive
advantage?
Concern for public image: Is the firm responsive to social, community, and
environmental concerns?
Concern for employees: Are employees a valuable asset of the firm?

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Nestle Vision Statement


Nestl Nordens aim is to meet the various needs of the consumer every day
by marketing and selling food of a consistently high quality.
The confidence that consumers have in our brands is a result of our
companys many years of knowledge in marketing, research and
development, as well as continuity consumers relate to this and feel they
can trust our products.
High quality and collaboration
Our objectives are to deliver the very best quality in everything we do, from
primary produce, choice of suppliers and transport, to recipes and packaging
materials. Our operations and collaboration in the Nordic countries gives us
greater opportunities to be efficient and strategic and to function well as an
organisation, both when it comes to the distribution chain and to
concentrating on joint product launches and campaigns.

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PepsiCo Mission
PepsiCos mission is to increase the value of our
shareholders investment. We do this through sales
growth, cost controls, and wise investment
resources. We believe our commercial success
depends upon offering quality and value to our
consumers and customers; providing products that
are safe, economically efficient and environmentally
sound; and providing a fair return to our investors
while adhering to the highest standards of integrity.

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Proctor & Gamble (P&G) Vision Statement


To provide branded products and services of superior quality and value
that improve the lives of the worlds consumers
Apple Vision Statement
Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience
to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the
world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings.
FedEx Vision Statement
At FedEX the vision statement is Leading the way
BMW (Bremen Motoren Werken) Vision Statement
To become most successful premium manufacturer in the car industry.
Nokia Vision Statement
Connecting people and Very Human Technology

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THE HONDA COMPANY MISSION


STATEMENT IS...
"MAINTAINING A GLOBAL VIEWPOINT,
WE ARE DEDICATED TO SUPPLYING
PRODUCTS OF THE HIGHEST QUALITY,
YET AT A REASONABLE PRICE FOR
WORLDWIDE CUSTOMER
SATISFACTION."
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Vision/Mission Statements
Statements that explain who we are
Type of organization
Products/services
Needs we fill

Statements that explain our direction, our purpose,


our reason for being
What difference do we make?

Statements that explain what makes us unique


Values
People
Combination of products and services

Business Vision Statement


A statement that clearly defines the firms
reason for being in business
Should significantly stretch the resources and
capabilities of the farm
Should inspire people in the organization to
achieve things they never thought possible
Should unite people in the organization toward
the pursuit of one common goal

Business Vision Statement


A guiding philosophy
Consistent with organizational value
Influenced by the strengths and weaknesses
of the business

Components of a Vision Statement


Core ideology
Core Values - timeless guiding principles
Core Purpose - reason for being

Recognition of service to stakeholders


Owners/creditors
Employees
Customers

Mission Statements
The mission statement of an organization is
normally short, to the point, and contains the
following elements:
Provides a concise statement of why the
organization exists, and what it is to achieve;
States the purpose and identity of the organization;
Defines the institution's values and philosophy; and
Describes how the organization will serve those
affected by its work.

Examples of Vision Statements


Ben & Jerrys
Product: To make, distribute, and sell the finest quality all
natural ice cream and related products in a wide variety of
innovative flavors made from Vermont dairy products.
Economic: To operate the Company on a sound financial basis
of profitable growth, increasing value for our shareholders
and creating career opportunities and financial rewards for
our employees.
Social: To operate the Company in a way that actively
recognizes the central role that business plays in the
structure of society by initiating innovative ways to improve
the quality of life of a broad community: local, national, and
international.

PepsiCo Mission
PepsiCos mission is to increase the value of our
shareholders investment. We do this through sales
growth, cost controls, and wise investment
resources. We believe our commercial success
depends upon offering quality and value to our
consumers and customers; providing products that
are safe, economically efficient and environmentally
sound; and providing a fair return to our investors
while adhering to the highest standards of integrity.

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Example
mission is to make, distribute and sell the finest
quality all-natural ice cream and related products in a
wide variety of innovative flavors made from
Vermont dairy products. To operate the Company on
a sound financial basis of profitable growth,
increasing value for our shareholders, and creating
career opportunities and financial rewards for our
employees. To operate the Company in a way that
actively recognizes the central role that business
plays in the structure of society by initiating
innovative ways to improve the quality of life of a
broad communitylocal, national and international.

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Objectives
Relevant - directly supports the goal
Compels the organization into action
Specific enough so we can quantify and measure the
results
Simple and easy to understand
Realistic and attainable
Conveys responsibility and ownership
Acceptable to those who must execute
May need several objectives to meet a goal
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MISSION AND OBJECTIVES


Therefore an essential element is setting
companys mission and objectives
Mission:

Essential purpose of the organisation


Why its in existence
Nature of the business(es) it is in
Customers it seeks to serve and satisfy

Desired results linked to particular time-scales


Size or type of organisation
Nature and variety of the areas of interest
Levels of success

Objectives/goals:

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Developing Goals
Cascade from the top of the Strategic Plan
Mission, Vision, Guiding Principles.
Look at your strategic analysis SWOT,
Environmental Scan, Past Performance, Gaps . .
Limit to a critical few such as five to eight goals.
Should drive higher levels of performance and
close a critical performance gap.

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Goals
Describes a future end-state desired outcome
that is supportive of the mission and vision.
Shapes the way ahead in actionable terms.
Best applied where there are clear choices about
the future.
Puts strategic focus into the organization specific
ownership of the goal should be assigned to
someone within the organization.
May not work well where things are changing fast
goals tend to be long-term for environments that
have limited choices about the future.
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Examples of Goals
We will partner with other businesses, industry leaders, and government agencies in
order to better meet the needs of stakeholders across the entire value stream.

Manage our resources with fiscal responsibility and efficiency through a single
comprehensive process that is aligned to our strategic plan.

Improve the quality and accuracy of service support information provided to our
internal customers.

Maintain and enhance the physical conditions of our public facilities.


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Examples of Objectives
Develop a customer intelligence database system to capture and analyze patterns in
purchasing behavior across our product line.

Centralize the procurement process for improvements in enterprise-wide purchasing power.

Monitor and address employee morale issues through an annual employee satisfaction
survey across all business functions.

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LONG TERM OBJECTIVES


PROFITABILITY
PRODUCTIVITY
COMPETITIVE POSITION
EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT
EMPLOYEE RALATION
PUBLIC RESPONSIBILITY

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COMMON ERFORMANCE CRITERIA


Utilization of resources

Precent Capacity utilization


Fixed Asset as % of sales

Contribution to Owners

Earning Per share


Price Earning Ratio

Contributon to customers

Price Relative to competitor


Product Quality
Customer Staisfaction
Customer Retention
Customer Loyalty
Customer life time value

Contribution to Emloyee

Wage Rate, benefit


Personal deveelopment, promotion
Emloyment stability, truover

Contribution to Society

Rp. Contribution to community intstitution


Growth in employement

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COMMON ERFORMANCE CRITERIA


Growth

Rp. Sales
Unit Sales
Percet change in sales

Competitive Strength

Market Share
Brand Awareness
Brand Preference

Innovativeness

Rp Sales from new product


% of sales from product market entries
intriduce within past five years
% Cost saving from new process

Profitability

Rp profit
Profit as % of sales
Contrbution margin
ROI (Return on Investment)
RONA (returnt on Net Asset)
ROE (Reutrn on Equity)

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QUALITIES OF
LONG TERM OBJECTIVES

S pesific
Measurable
A chievable
R ationaly
T
timely
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Acceptable
Flexible Objective
Measurable
Motivating
Suitable
Understandable
Achievable

Examples Good and Bad


Mission Statements
NASA
To Explore the Universe
and Search for Life
and to Inspire the
Next Generation of
Explorers

Does a good job of expressing the core


values of the organization. Also conveys
unique qualities about the organization.

Walt Disney
To Make People Happy

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Too vague and and unclear. Need more


descriptive information about what makes
the organization special.

Assessment Model:
SWOT
Internal Assessment: Organizational assets,
resources, people, culture, systems,
partnerships, suppliers, . . .

External Assessment: Marketplace,


competitors, social trends, technology,
regulatory environment, economic cycles .

SWOT

Good Points
Easy to Understand
Apply at any
organizational level
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SWOT

Possible Pitfalls
Needs to be Analytical
and Specific
Be honest about your
weaknesses

Strengths
Strengths Those things that you do well, the
high value or performance points
Strengths can be tangible: Loyal customers,
efficient distribution channels, very high quality
products, excellent financial condition
Strengths can be intangible: Good leadership,
strategic insights, customer intelligence, solid
reputation, high skilled workforce
Often considered Core Competencies Best
leverage points for growth without draining your
resources
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Weaknesses
Weaknesses Those things that prevent you from
doing what you really need to do
Since weaknesses are internal, they are within
your control
Weaknesses include: Bad leadership, unskilled
workforce, insufficient resources, poor product
quality, slow distribution and delivery channels,
outdated technologies, lack of planning, . . .

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Opportunities
Opportunities Potential areas for growth and
higher performance
External in nature marketplace, unhappy
customers with competitors, better economic
conditions, more open trading policies, . .
Internal opportunities should be classified as
Strengths
Timing may be important for capitalizing on
opportunities

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Threats
Threats Challenges confronting the organization,
external in nature
Threats can take a wide range bad press
coverage, shifts in consumer behavior, substitute
products, new regulations, . . .
The more accurate you are in identifying threats,
the better position you are for dealing with the
sudden of change

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Five Forces Affecting Industry Competition


Internet reduces
barriers to entry

Potential New
Entrants

Internet blurs differences among


competitors in an industry

Threat of Substitute
Products
Internet expands market size, but
creates new substitution threats

Internet tends to increase the


bargaining power of suppliers

Bargaining
Power of
Buyers

Rivalry
among
Competitors

Internet shifts greater power


to end consumers

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

Source: Based on Michael E. Porter, Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors (New York: Free Press, 1980).
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5
Lingkungan Internal:
Sumber Daya, Kapabilitas dan Kompetensi Inti
(The Internal Environment: Resources, Capabilities, and
Core Competencies)

Tujuan Pembelajaran
Menjelaskan, mempelajari dan memahami
lingkungan internalnya.
Mendefinisikan nilai (value) dan mendiskusikan
betapa pentingnya nilai tersebut bagi organisasi.
Mendiskripsikan perbedaan antara sumberdaya
tangible dan intangible.
Mendefinisikan kapabilitas dan mendiskusikan
bagaimana hal tersebut dikembangan.
Mendiskripsikan empat kriteria yang digunakan untuk
menentukan sumberdaya dan kapabilitas yang
merupakan core competencies.
Menjelaskan bagaimana analisis rantai nilai (Value
Chain Anaysis) digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi dan
mengevaluasi sumberdaya dan kapabiltas.
Mendefinisikan dan mendiskusikan outsourcing
beserta alasan-alasan mengapa hal tersebut
digunakan.
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Analisis Lingkungan Eksternal &


Internal
Mempelajari Lingkungan Eksternal
Perusahaan Mengidentifikasi
What they might choose to do

Peluang & Ancaman

Mempelajari Lingkungan Internal


Perusahaan Menentukan
What they can do

Sumerdaya Yg Unik, Kapabilitas,


Kompetensi, Keunggulan
Kompetitif berkelanjutan
(sustainable competitive advantage)

Hal 103
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Keunggulan Kompetitif
Kompetensi inti

Daya Saing

Berkelanjutan

Kompetitor
Menduplikasi
Meniru

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Substitusi

Usang Krn Lingkungan

Return di atas
Rata-rata

Analisis Lingkungan Internal Yang


Efektif
Analisis Lingkungan Internal

Eksperiman & Pembeajaran

Global Mind set

Pemanfaatan Sumberdaya
& Kapabilitas
Yang Heterogen
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What they can do

Komponen Analisis Internal

Keputusan Manajerial

Uncertainty
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Intraorganizational Conflicts

Complexity

Sumberdaya, Kapabilitas dan Kompetensi Inti

Kapasitas perusahaan
memberdayakan Sumber
Daya untuk mencapai
tujuan.
Memerlukan
keterpaduan antara
Aset tangible dan
intangible
Berbasis pada
pengembangan,
pertukaran informasi dan
pengetahuan SDM
perusahaan

Aset Perusahaan orang dan nilai merek


Input Produksi
Peralatan Modal
Skill karyawan
Nama Merek (Brand names)
SD Finansial
Kemampuan Manajer

Aktifitas khusus
perusahaan yang
berbeda dengan pesaing
Aktifitas yg perusahaan
dpt memberikan nilai
tambah unik bagi
produknya

2/23/2016

Sumberdaya
Sumber Kapabilitas Perusahaan
Luas cakupannya
Fenomena Individual, sosial dan
organisational

Sumberdaya Tangible dan Intangible


Sumber Daya Finansial

Kapasitas Meminjam Milik Perusahaan


Kemampuan Perusahaan Menggerakan

Dana

Internal
Organizational

Struktur perusahaan

Fisik

Kecanggihan dan lokasi pabrik dan


peralatanya
Akses kepada Bahan Baku

Technologi

Teknologi yang dipatentkan,


trade-marks, copyrights.

SDM

Sumber Daya Inovasi

Ideas
Scientific capabilities
Capacity to innovate

Reputasi

Reputation with customers


Brand name
Perceptions of product quality,
durability, and reliability
Reputation with suppliers
For efficient, effective, supportive dll

Knowledge
Trust
Managerial capabilities
Organizational routines

2/23/2016
SOURCES:
Adapted from J. B. Barney, 1991, Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage, Journal of Management, 17: 101; R. M. Grant, 1991, Contemporary
Strategy Analysis, Cambridge, U.K.: Blackwell Business, 100102.

Kompetensi Inti
Keungulan Bersaing
Berkelanjutan

Nonsubstituable

Costly to imitate

Rare

Valuable
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Aktifitas yang sangat


baik dan berbeda
dibandingkan dengan
para pesaing
Aktfitas yang mampu
menghasilkan nilai yang
(UNIQUE VALUE) unik
dalam jangka waktu
tertentu

Analisis Rantai Nilai


Memahami bagian mana dari operasi perusahaan yang
dapat menciptakan nilai bagi pelangan

Memahami Biaya (Cost)


Identifikasi mana yang bisa digunakan untuk memilih
business-level strategy
Bagaimana produk berpindah dari bahan mentah sampai
kepada kastemer

2/23/2016

Menciptakan Nilai (Value) Bagi Pelanggan


Karakteristik
performan produk

Sumber daya &


Kapabilitas

Value
Atribut yang kastemer
bersedia membayar

Infrastruktur Perusahaan

SDM
Pengembangan Tehnologi
Pembelian
Pelayanan

Marketing dan Sales

Logistik Keluar

Operation

Logistik Kedalam

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What is balanced scorecard?


(Kaplan and Norton, 1996): an instrument that translates a
business organization's mission and strategy into a
comprehensive set of performance measures that can be
used for strategic measurement and management.
What makes a balance scorecard
special?
1.it is top down reflection of the
companys mission and strategy
2. It is forward looking
3. It integrates external and
internal measures
4. It helps to focus
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Key External Forces & the


Organization

Key
External
Forces

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Competitors
Suppliers
Distributors
Creditors
Customers
Employees
Communities
Managers
Stockholders
Labor Unions
Special Interest Groups
Products
Services

Opportunities
&
Threats

Four Perspectives
It allows managers to look at business from four different
perspectives and it provides answer to four basic question:
How do we look to
shareholders?
Financial Perspective
Goals

Measures

How do customers see


us?

What must we excel at?

Customer Perspective

Internal Perspective

Goals

Goals

Measures
Can we continue to improve
and create value?

Innovation and learning


perspective
Goals
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Measures

Measures

BSCs four perspectives


Customer Perspective: How a company is performing from its
customer perspective has become a priority for top management.
Time
Quality
Performance and service
Cost

Internal Business Perspective: Excellent customer


performance derives from process, decisions, and actions
occurring throughout an organization. Managers need to
focus on those critical internal operations that enable
them to satisfy customer needs.
Breakeven time to measure the effectiveness of the
product development cycle
Customer order process
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BSCs four perspectives


Innovation and learning perspective: Intense global
competition requires that companies make continual
improvement to their existing products and processes
and have the ability to introduce entirely new
products with expanding capabilities.
Percentage of sale from new products
Financial perspective: Indicates whether the
companys strategy, implementation, and execution
are contributing to bottom-line improvement. Typical
financial goals have to do with profitability, growth,
and shareholder value.
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Step Implementation

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Evaluation Framework

I. Review Underlying Bases

Differences?

Yes

NO
II. Measure Performance
Differences?

NO
Continue present course
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Yes

III.
Take
Corrective
Actions