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Antennas 116

Antenna Synthesis
Given a radiation pattern, find the required current
distribution to realize it.

Synthesis Principles
For a line source, the pattern is

Define normalized pattern as

where
Let

is normalized to give the normalized pattern.

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We have

This is Fourier Transform. The inverse gives

Usually, the
derived from the inverse Fourier
Transform of a given
is infinite in extent. To
approximate, truncate the current as follows
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Example 8-1
Given
The current is
The generated pattern is

Woodward-Lawson Sampling Method


Let

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where

Then

where
Note that
Provide better match than Fourier transform.

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Linear Array Shaped Beam Synthesis Methods


Fourier Series Method
Expand

in interval

by Fourier series

Then

Compare to a equal space linear array with current


amplitude and spacing

We can make
to approximate the pattern.

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Woodward-Lawson Sampling Method


The synthesized array factor is the superposition of
array factors from uniform amplitude, linear phase
arrays:

where

Comparison

Ripple R:

in main beam.

Transition width T:
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Dolph-Chebyshev Linear Array Method


Chebyshev Polynomials

which is a polynomial of
A few examples,

with order n.

Properties:
1.
2.
3.

Number of extreme values in


122

: n1.

Antennas 123

4.
5.

Number of roots: n. Roots are all in


.
All curves pass through (1,1), and (-1, 1) for even
order, (-1,-1) for odd order.

Suppose a linear array with spacing , total number of


element . Then, array factor is
where
If the current distribution is symmetric, that is,
or rewrite it this way using the mid-point as the phase
reference,
for
for
Rewrite it again,

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In both cases,

is a polynomial of

with order

.
Let
then

Beam maximum occurs at


maximum

, or

. Then the

Visible regions:

, or
.

Maximum side lode level:


To compute
or

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, or

Antennas 125

For narrowest mainbeam width for a given side lobe


level,

where

Half-power beamwidth:

where

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or

Directivity:

Example 8-5
Five-element, broadside, -20 dB side-lobe, halfwavelength spaced Dolph-Chebyshev Array (P=5, N=2)

where
From 8-48
then

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Example 8-6
Optimum 10-element, -30 dB SLL, Dolph-Chebyshev
endfire array

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The Taylor Line Source Method


Let
where

is a constant and

At the pattern maximum,


which is the main beam-to-side lobe ratio.
In side lobe region,
The zeros of this function are

In the main beam region,

The maximum occurs at

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As

This is the ideal Taylor line source where


Zeros are at
Taylor line source:

where
The pattern becomes

where the zeros are

The required current distribution


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The half power beam width

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