sDomain Circuit Analysis
Operate directly in the sdomain with capacitors,
inductors and resistors
Key feature linearity is preserved
Ccts described by ODEs and their ICs
Order equals number of C plus number of L
Elementbyelement and source transformation
Nodal or mesh analysis for sdomain cct variables
Solution via Inverse Laplace Transform
Why?
Easier than ODEs
Easier to perform engineering design
Frequency response ideas  filtering
MAE140 Linear Circuits
132
Element Transformations
Voltage source
Time domain
v(t) =vS(t)
i(t) = depends on cct
i(t)
vS +
_
Transform domain
V(s) =VS(s)=L(vS(t))
I(s) = L(i(t)) depends on cct
Current source
I(s) =L(iS(t))
V(s) = L(v(t)) depends on cct
MAE140 Linear Circuits
iS
v(t)
133
Element Transformations contd
Controlled sources
v1(t ) = v2 (t ) ! V1( s ) = V2 ( s )
i1(t ) = "i2 (t ) !
I1( s ) = "I 2 ( s )
v1(t ) = ri2 (t ) ! V1( s ) = rI 2 ( s )
i1(t ) = gv2 (t ) !
I1( s ) = gV2 ( s )
Short cct, open cct, OpAmp relations
vSC (t ) = 0
! VSC ( s ) = 0
iOC (t ) = 0
I OC ( s ) = 0
v N (t ) = vP (t ) ! VN ( s ) = VP ( s )
Sources and active devices behave identically
Constraints expressed between transformed variables
This all hinges on uniqueness of Laplace Transforms and
linearity
MAE140 Linear Circuits
134
Element Transformations contd
iR
+
vR
Resistors
vR (t ) = RiR (t )
iR (t ) = GvR (t )
VR ( s ) = RI R ( s )
I R ( s ) = GVR ( s )
Capacitors
Z R ( s) = R
iC
YR ( s ) =
diL (t )
vL (t ) = L
dt
v ( 0)
1
IC (s) + C
sC
s
1
Z C (s) =
sC
1t
iL (t ) = " vL (# )d# + iL (0)
L0
VL ( s ) = sLI L ( s ) ! LiL (0)
I L (s) =
I C ( s ) = sCVC ( s ) ! CvC (0!)
Inductors
MAE140 Linear Circuits
+
vL
+
vC
1t
vC (t ) = " iC (# )d# + vC (0)
C0
dv (t )
iC (t ) = C C
dt
iL
1
R
VC ( s ) =
1
i ( 0)
VL ( s ) + L
sL
s
Z L ( s ) = sL
YC ( s ) = sC
YL ( s ) =
1
sL
135
Element Transformations contd
Resistor
IR(s)
iR(t)
vR(t)
VR(s)
Capacitor
+
IC(s)
IC(s)
iC(t)
vC(t)
+
C
VR ( s ) = RI R ( s )
VC(s)

1
sC
CvC (0)
1
sC
VC(s)
+
_
I C ( s ) = sCVC ( s ) CvC (0)
1
v (0)
VC ( s ) =
IC (s) + C
sC
s
vC (0)
s
Note the source transformation rules apply!
MAE140 Linear Circuits
136
Element Transformations contd
Inductors
VL ( s ) = sLI L ( s ) LiL (0)
IL(s)
iL(t)
sL
VL(s)
+
VL(s)
sL
i L ( 0)
s
+
_
vL(t)
1
i (0)
VL ( s ) + L
sL
s
IL(s)
+
+
I L (s) =
LiL(0)
MAE140 Linear Circuits
137
Example 101 T&R p 456
RC cct behavior
Switch in place since t=, closed at t=0. Solve for vC(t).
t=0
VA
R I1(s)
I2(s)
+
vC

1
sC
CvC (0)
vC (0) = V A
Initial conditions
sdomain solution using nodal analysis
V (s)
V (s)
I1( s ) = C
I 2 (s) = C
= sCVC ( s )
1
R
sC
tdomain solution via inverse Laplace transform
VA
VC ( s ) =
1
s+
RC
MAE140 Linear Circuits
vc (t ) = V Ae
!t
RC u (t )
138
Example 102 T&R p 457
R
Solve for i(t)
VA
s
i(t)
Invert
!
L + iL (0) =
s s+ RL s+ RL
LiL(0)

#
&
%iL (0) " V A (
R'
R +$
s
s+ RL
VA
#V A V A " Rt
" Rt L &
L
i(t) = %
"
e
+ iL (0)e
(u(t) Amps
R
R
$
'
MAE140 Linear Circuits
VL (s )
VA
! ( R + sL) I ( s ) + LiL (0) = 0
s
VA
I(s) =
sL
I(s)
KVL around loop
Solve
+
_
+
_
VAu(t) +
_
139
Impedance and Admittance
Impedance is the sdomain proportionality factor
relating the transform of the voltage across a twoterminal element to the transform of the current
through the element with all initial conditions zero
Admittance is the sdomain proportionality factor
relating the transform of the current through a
twoterminal element to the transform of the
voltage across the element with initial conditions
zero
Impedance is like resistance
Admittance is like conductance
MAE140 Linear Circuits
140
Circuit Analysis in sDomain
Basic rules
The equivalent impedance Zeq(s) of two impedances Z1(s)
and Z2(s) in series is Z eq ( s ) = Z1( s ) + Z 2 ( s )
Same current flows
V ( s ) = Z1( s ) I (s )+ Z 2 ( s ) I ( s ) = Z eq ( s ) I (s )
I(s)
+
Z1
V(s)
Z2
The equivalent admittance Yeq(s) of two admittances Y1(s)
and Y2(s) in parallel is Yeq ( s ) = Y1( s ) + Y2 ( s )
Same voltage
I ( s ) = Y1( s )V ( s ) + Y2 ( s )V ( s ) = Yeq ( s )V ( s )
I(s)
+
V(s)
Y1
Y2
MAE140 Linear Circuits
141
Example 103 T&R p 461
Find ZAB(s) and then find V2(s) by voltage division
A
L
+
v1(t) +
_
v2(t)
A
V1(s) +
_
sL
1
sC
+
R
V2(s)

2+
+R
1
1
RLCs
Ls
= sL +
=
Z eq ( s ) = sL + R
+
1+
sC
RCs 1
sC
R
& Z1( s ) #
&
#
R
V2 ( s ) = $
V
(
s
)
=
V1( s )
! 1
$
!
2
% RLCs + sL + R "
$% Z eq ( s ) !"
MAE140 Linear Circuits
142
Superposition in sdomain ccts
The sdomain response of a cct can be found as the
sum of two responses
1. The zeroinput response caused by initial condition
sources with all external inputs turned off
2. The zerostate response caused by the external sources
with initial condition sources set to zero
Linearity and superposition
Another subdivision of responses
1. Natural response the general solution
Response representing the natural modes (poles) of the
cct
2. Forced response the particular solution
Response containing modes due to the input
MAE140 Linear Circuits
143
Example 106 T&R p 466
t=0
The switch has been open for a long time and is closed
at t=0.
Find the zerostate and zeroinput components of V2(s)
Find v(t) for IA=1mA, L=2H, R=1.5K, C=1/6 F
IA
v(t)
V(s)
C

IA
s
sL
1
sC
RCIA

IA
IA
C
V
(
s
)
=
Z
(
s
)
=
1
RLs
zs
eq
=
Z eq ( s) =
s s2 + 1 s + 1
2
1 +1+
sC RLCs + Ls + R
RC
LC
sL R
RI A s
Vzi ( s ) = Z eq ( s ) RCI A =
1
1
s2 +
s+
RC
LC144
MAE140 Linear Circuits
Example 106 contd
IA
I
C
Vzs ( s ) = Z eq ( s ) A =
s s2 + 1 s + 1
IA
RC
LC
s
RI A s
Vzi ( s ) = Z eq ( s ) RCI A =
1
1
s2 +
s+
RC
LC
Substitute values
sL
1
sC
V(s)
RCIA

6000
3
"3
=
+
(s + 1000)(s + 3000) s + 1000 s + 3000
v zs (t) = 3e"1000t " 3e"3000t u(t)
Vzs (s) =
1.5s
"0.75
2.25
=
+
(s + 1000)(s + 3000) s + 1000 s + 3000
v zi (t) = "0.75e"1000t + 2.25e"3000t u(t)
Vzi (s) =
!
MAE140 Linear Circuits
145
Example 1011 T&R (not in 4th ed)
Formulate node voltage equations in sdomain
v1(t) +
_
A
V1(s) +
_
R2
C2
R1
C1
R1
R3
R2
1
sC1
C1vC1(0)
+
vx(t)

R3
1
sC2
MAE140 Linear Circuits
C
+
Vx(s)

+
+ vx(t) v (t)
2

+ Vx(s) V (s)
2

C2vC2(0)
146
Example 1011 contd
A
V1(s) +
_
R1
1
sC1
C1vC1(0)
Node A: V A ( s) = V1( s)
Node B:
Node C:
R2
R3
1
sC2
C
+
Vx(s)

+ Vx(s) V (s)
2

C2vC2(0)
Node D: VD ( s) = Vx ( s) = VC ( s)
VB (s) " V A (s) VB (s) " VD (s) VB (s)
+
+
1
R1
R2
sC1
V (s) " VC (s)
+ B
" C1vC1 (0) " C2vC 2 (0) = 0
1
sC2
"sC2VB (s) + [ sC2 + G3 ]VC (s) = "C2vC 2 (0)
!
MAE140 Linear Circuits
147
Example 1016 T&R (not in 4th ed)
Find vO(t) when vS(t) is a unit step u(t) and vC(0)=0
R2
C
+

vS(t) +
_
R1
Convert to sdomain
VA(s)
VS(s) +
_
MAE140 Linear Circuits
R1
+
vO(t)
1
VB(s) sC VC(s) R2 VD(s)
CvC(0)
+

+
VO(s)
148
Nodal Analysis
VA(s)
R1
VS(s) +
_
+

Example 1016 contd
1
VB(s) sC VC(s) R2 VD(s)
+
VO(s)
CvC(0)
Node A: V A ( s ) = VS ( s )
Node D: VD ( s ) = VO ( s )
Node C: VC ( s ) = 0
Node B: (G1 + sC )VB ( s ) ! G1VS ( s ) = CvC (0)
Node C KCL: ! sCVB ( s ) ! G2VO ( s ) = !CvC (0)
( sG1C %
Solve for VO(s)
(
%
R
s
G
&
2 #V ( s ) = " & 1 !
#V ( s )
VO ( s ) = " &
S
& R2 s + 1
# S
G1 + sC #
R1C $
&'
#$
'
(
%
R
s
1
# 1 = " R1 !
= "& 1 !
& R2 s + 1
# s R2 s + 1
R1C $
R1C
'
Invert LT
MAE140 Linear Circuits
t
R1 R C
vO (t ) =
e 1 u (t )
R2
149
Features of sdomain cct analysis
The response transform of a finitedimensional,
lumpedparameter linear cct with input being a
sum of exponentials is a rational function and its
inverse Laplace Transform is a sum of exponentials
The exponential modes are given by the poles of the
response transform
Because the response is real, the poles are either
real or occur in complex conjugate pairs
The natural modes are the zeros of the cct
determinant and lead to the natural response
The forced poles are the poles of the input transform
and lead to the forced response
MAE140 Linear Circuits
150
Features of sdomain cct analysis
A cct is stable if all of its poles are located in the
open left half of the complex splane
A key property of a system
Stability: the natural response dies away as t
Bounded inputs yield bounded outputs
A cct composed of Rs, Cs and Ls will be at worst
marginally stable
With Rs in the right place it will be stable
Z(s) and Y(s) both have no poles in Re(s)>0
Impedances/admittances of RLC ccts are Positive
Real or energy dissipating
MAE140 Linear Circuits
151