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# s-Domain Circuit Analysis

## Operate directly in the s-domain with capacitors,

inductors and resistors
Key feature linearity is preserved
Ccts described by ODEs and their ICs
Order equals number of C plus number of L

## Element-by-element and source transformation

Nodal or mesh analysis for s-domain cct variables
Solution via Inverse Laplace Transform
Why?
Easier than ODEs
Easier to perform engineering design
Frequency response ideas - filtering

## MAE140 Linear Circuits

132

Element Transformations
Voltage source
Time domain

v(t) =vS(t)
i(t) = depends on cct

i(t)
vS +
_

Transform domain

V(s) =VS(s)=L(vS(t))
I(s) = L(i(t)) depends on cct
Current source

I(s) =L(iS(t))
V(s) = L(v(t)) depends on cct

iS
v(t)

133

## Element Transformations contd

Controlled sources

v1(t ) = v2 (t ) ! V1( s ) = V2 ( s )
i1(t ) = "i2 (t ) !

I1( s ) = "I 2 ( s )

## v1(t ) = ri2 (t ) ! V1( s ) = rI 2 ( s )

i1(t ) = gv2 (t ) !

I1( s ) = gV2 ( s )

## Short cct, open cct, OpAmp relations

vSC (t ) = 0

! VSC ( s ) = 0

iOC (t ) = 0

I OC ( s ) = 0

v N (t ) = vP (t ) ! VN ( s ) = VP ( s )

## Sources and active devices behave identically

Constraints expressed between transformed variables
This all hinges on uniqueness of Laplace Transforms and
linearity
MAE140 Linear Circuits

134

## Element Transformations contd

iR

+
vR

Resistors
vR (t ) = RiR (t )

iR (t ) = GvR (t )

VR ( s ) = RI R ( s )

I R ( s ) = GVR ( s )

Capacitors

Z R ( s) = R

iC

YR ( s ) =

diL (t )
vL (t ) = L
dt

v ( 0)
1
IC (s) + C
sC
s
1
Z C (s) =
sC
1t
iL (t ) = " vL (# )d# + iL (0)
L0

I L (s) =

Inductors

## MAE140 Linear Circuits

+
vL

+
vC

1t
vC (t ) = " iC (# )d# + vC (0)
C0

dv (t )
iC (t ) = C C
dt

iL

1
R

VC ( s ) =

1
i ( 0)
VL ( s ) + L
sL
s
Z L ( s ) = sL

YC ( s ) = sC

YL ( s ) =

1
sL

135

## Element Transformations contd

Resistor

IR(s)

iR(t)

vR(t)

VR(s)

Capacitor
+

IC(s)

IC(s)

iC(t)

vC(t)

+
C

VR ( s ) = RI R ( s )

VC(s)
-

1
sC

CvC (0)

1
sC

VC(s)
+
_

1
v (0)
VC ( s ) =
IC (s) + C
sC
s

vC (0)
s

## Note the source transformation rules apply!

MAE140 Linear Circuits

136

Inductors

IL(s)

iL(t)

sL
VL(s)

+
VL(s)

sL

i L ( 0)
s

+
_

vL(t)

1
i (0)
VL ( s ) + L
sL
s

IL(s)

+
+

I L (s) =

LiL(0)

137

## Example 10-1 T&R p 456

RC cct behavior
Switch in place since t=-, closed at t=0. Solve for vC(t).
t=0

VA

R I1(s)
I2(s)

+
vC
-

1
sC

CvC (0)

vC (0) = V A
Initial conditions
s-domain solution using nodal analysis
V (s)
V (s)
I1( s ) = C
I 2 (s) = C
= sCVC ( s )
1
R
sC
t-domain solution via inverse Laplace transform
VA
VC ( s ) =
1
s+
RC
MAE140 Linear Circuits

vc (t ) = V Ae

!t

RC u (t )

138

R

VA
s

i(t)

Invert
!

L + iL (0) =
s s+ RL s+ RL

LiL(0)
-

#
&
%iL (0) " V A (
R'
R +\$
s
s+ RL

VA

#V A V A " Rt
" Rt L &
L
i(t) = %
"
e
+ iL (0)e
(u(t) Amps
R
R
\$
'

## MAE140 Linear Circuits

VL (s )

VA
! ( R + sL) I ( s ) + LiL (0) = 0
s

VA

I(s) =

sL

I(s)

## KVL around loop

Solve

+
_

+
_

VAu(t) +
_

139

Impedance is the s-domain proportionality factor
relating the transform of the voltage across a twoterminal element to the transform of the current
through the element with all initial conditions zero
Admittance is the s-domain proportionality factor
relating the transform of the current through a
two-terminal element to the transform of the
voltage across the element with initial conditions
zero
Impedance is like resistance
MAE140 Linear Circuits

140

## Circuit Analysis in s-Domain

Basic rules
The equivalent impedance Zeq(s) of two impedances Z1(s)
and Z2(s) in series is Z eq ( s ) = Z1( s ) + Z 2 ( s )
Same current flows

V ( s ) = Z1( s ) I (s )+ Z 2 ( s ) I ( s ) = Z eq ( s ) I (s )

I(s)
+

Z1

V(s)

Z2

and Y2(s) in parallel is Yeq ( s ) = Y1( s ) + Y2 ( s )
Same voltage

I ( s ) = Y1( s )V ( s ) + Y2 ( s )V ( s ) = Yeq ( s )V ( s )

I(s)
+
V(s)

Y1

Y2

141

## Example 10-3 T&R p 461

Find ZAB(s) and then find V2(s) by voltage division
A

L
+

v1(t) +
_

v2(t)

A
V1(s) +
_

sL

1
sC

+
R

V2(s)
-

2+
+R
1
1
RLCs
Ls
= sL +
=

Z eq ( s ) = sL + R
+
1+
sC
RCs 1
sC
R

& Z1( s ) #
&
#
R
V2 ( s ) = \$
V
(
s
)
=
V1( s )
! 1
\$
!
2
% RLCs + sL + R "
\$% Z eq ( s ) !"

142

## Superposition in s-domain ccts

The s-domain response of a cct can be found as the
sum of two responses
1. The zero-input response caused by initial condition
sources with all external inputs turned off
2. The zero-state response caused by the external sources
with initial condition sources set to zero
Linearity and superposition

## Another subdivision of responses

1. Natural response the general solution
Response representing the natural modes (poles) of the
cct
2. Forced response the particular solution
Response containing modes due to the input

143

## Example 10-6 T&R p 466

t=0

The switch has been open for a long time and is closed
at t=0.
Find the zero-state and zero-input components of V2(s)
Find v(t) for IA=1mA, L=2H, R=1.5K, C=1/6 F

IA

v(t)

V(s)

C
-

IA
s

sL

1
sC

RCIA
-

IA
IA
C
V
(
s
)
=
Z
(
s
)
=
1
RLs
zs
eq
=
Z eq ( s) =
s s2 + 1 s + 1
2
1 +1+
sC RLCs + Ls + R
RC
LC
sL R
RI A s
Vzi ( s ) = Z eq ( s ) RCI A =
1
1
s2 +
s+
RC
LC144
MAE140 Linear Circuits

## Example 10-6 contd

IA

I
C
Vzs ( s ) = Z eq ( s ) A =
s s2 + 1 s + 1
IA
RC
LC
s
RI A s
Vzi ( s ) = Z eq ( s ) RCI A =
1
1
s2 +
s+
RC
LC

Substitute values

sL

1
sC

V(s)
RCIA
-

6000
3
"3
=
+
(s + 1000)(s + 3000) s + 1000 s + 3000
v zs (t) = 3e"1000t " 3e"3000t u(t)

Vzs (s) =

1.5s
"0.75
2.25
=
+
(s + 1000)(s + 3000) s + 1000 s + 3000
v zi (t) = "0.75e"1000t + 2.25e"3000t u(t)

Vzi (s) =
!

145

## Example 10-11 T&R (not in 4th ed)

Formulate node voltage equations in s-domain

v1(t) +
_

A
V1(s) +
_

R2

C2

R1
C1

R1

R3

R2

1
sC1
C1vC1(0)

+
vx(t)
-

R3

1
sC2

C
+
Vx(s)
-

+
+ vx(t) v (t)
2
-

+ Vx(s) V (s)
2
-

C2vC2(0)
146

## Example 10-11 contd

A
V1(s) +
_

R1

1
sC1
C1vC1(0)

Node A: V A ( s) = V1( s)
Node B:

Node C:

R2

R3

1
sC2

C
+
Vx(s)
-

+ Vx(s) V (s)
2
-

C2vC2(0)

Node D: VD ( s) = Vx ( s) = VC ( s)

## VB (s) " V A (s) VB (s) " VD (s) VB (s)

+
+
1
R1
R2
sC1
V (s) " VC (s)
+ B
" C1vC1 (0) " C2vC 2 (0) = 0
1
sC2

## "sC2VB (s) + [ sC2 + G3 ]VC (s) = "C2vC 2 (0)

!
MAE140 Linear Circuits

147

## Example 10-16 T&R (not in 4th ed)

Find vO(t) when vS(t) is a unit step u(t) and vC(0)=0
R2

C
+
-

vS(t) +
_

R1

Convert to s-domain
VA(s)
VS(s) +
_

## MAE140 Linear Circuits

R1

+
vO(t)

1
VB(s) sC VC(s) R2 VD(s)
CvC(0)

+
-

+
VO(s)

148

Nodal Analysis

VA(s)

R1

VS(s) +
_

+
-

## Example 10-16 contd

1
VB(s) sC VC(s) R2 VD(s)

+
VO(s)

CvC(0)
Node A: V A ( s ) = VS ( s )
Node D: VD ( s ) = VO ( s )
Node C: VC ( s ) = 0
Node B: (G1 + sC )VB ( s ) ! G1VS ( s ) = CvC (0)
Node C KCL: ! sCVB ( s ) ! G2VO ( s ) = !CvC (0)
( sG1C %
Solve for VO(s)
(
%
R
s
G
&
2 #V ( s ) = " & 1 !
#V ( s )
VO ( s ) = " &
S
& R2 s + 1
# S
G1 + sC #
R1C \$
&'
#\$
'

(
%
R
s
1
# 1 = " R1 !
= "& 1 !
& R2 s + 1
# s R2 s + 1
R1C \$
R1C
'
Invert LT
MAE140 Linear Circuits

t
R1 R C
vO (t ) =
e 1 u (t )
R2

149

## Features of s-domain cct analysis

The response transform of a finite-dimensional,
lumped-parameter linear cct with input being a
sum of exponentials is a rational function and its
inverse Laplace Transform is a sum of exponentials
The exponential modes are given by the poles of the
response transform
Because the response is real, the poles are either
real or occur in complex conjugate pairs
The natural modes are the zeros of the cct
determinant and lead to the natural response
The forced poles are the poles of the input transform
and lead to the forced response
MAE140 Linear Circuits

150

## Features of s-domain cct analysis

A cct is stable if all of its poles are located in the
open left half of the complex s-plane
A key property of a system
Stability: the natural response dies away as t
Bounded inputs yield bounded outputs

## A cct composed of Rs, Cs and Ls will be at worst

marginally stable
With Rs in the right place it will be stable
Z(s) and Y(s) both have no poles in Re(s)>0

## Impedances/admittances of RLC ccts are Positive

Real or energy dissipating

151