solution manual of cnc technology

© All Rights Reserved

34 views

solution manual of cnc technology

© All Rights Reserved

- Solution Manual to Third Edition AI
- Development of a Postprocessor for a Multi-Axis CNC Milling Cente
- 980MDc CNC Milling Machine Controller User Manual
- 2.68 Mill Manual
- Cnc Software Symplus
- EC-Solid Machinist Part Modeller
- TOOLS, DIES and Industrial Molds
- ORTON - Company Profile 31-12-09
- A Fuzzy Expert System for Heart Disease Diagnosis
- 22861869 Summer Training Report
- M.tech_Production Engineering Syllabus for First Year 2012-13
- Evolutionary Programming of CNC Machines
- Computer Numerical Control
- Fuzzylogic Fabric
- CV.pdf
- Adaptive Self-learning Controller Design
- Thesis Draft Ch 1 &2
- Precision Plasma Gantry
- XB013934941
- SEEDs Grant CNC High School

You are on page 1of 17

www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmactool

Chi-Ho Yeunga, Yusuf Altintasa, Kaan Erkorkmazb,*

a

2324 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ont., Canada N2L 3G1

Received 8 July 2005; accepted 4 August 2005

Available online 29 September 2005

Abstract

The paper presents a comprehensive virtual simulation model of a realistic and modular CNC system. The Virtual CNC architecture

represents an actual CNC, but with modular feed drives, sensors, motors, and amplifiers. The CNC software library includes a variety of

trajectory interpolation and axis control laws. Constant, trapezoidal and cubic acceleration profiles can be selected as a trajectory generation

module. The control laws can be selected ranging from a simple PID to complex Pole Placement, Generalized Predictive Control or Sliding

Mode Controller with friction compensation. When the Virtual CNC is assembled, its performance can be tested using frequency and time

domain response analyses, which are automated. The Virtual CNC includes both analytical tuning methods for linear controllers, as well as

Fuzzy Logic based expert auto-tuning system for Adaptive Sliding Mode Control. The paper includes detailed experimental verification of

the Virtual CNC.

q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Virtual machining; CNC; Modeling; Controls; Interpolation

1. Introduction

The objective of the Virtual Manufacturing technology is

to design a completely digital factory where the part is

modeled, machined with optimized process parameters, and

resulting errors are predicted with corrective actions being

taken in a computer simulation environment. This paper

presents a Virtual model of a CNC system for machine

tools.

The CNC system consists of mechanical feed drives,

motors, amplifiers, position-velocity-acceleration sensors,

and real-time computer algorithms which generate time

stamped position commands through trajectory generation

and close the axis servo loops [1]. The Virtual CNC requires

* Corresponding author. Tel.: C1 519 885 1211 5214; fax: 1 519 885

5862.

E-mail addresses: cyeung@mech.ubc.ca (C.-H. Yeung), altintas@

mech.ubc.ca (Y. Altintas), kaane@mecheng1.uwaterloo.ca

(K. Erkorkmaz).

0890-6955/$ - see front matter q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2005.08.002

their logical interconnection.

There has been significant research reported in modeling

various trajectory generation algorithms [24], control laws

[59], and physical components of the drives such as

motors, amplifiers, ball-screw and linear drives with various

friction characteristics [1013]. The majority of the past

research focused on trajectory generation, modeling and

identification of feed drive dynamics, and control law

development. When the trajectory generation leads to

discontinuous position commands, their first (velocity),

second (acceleration) and third (jerk) derivatives contain

fluctuation and sudden changes. High fluctuation in the

velocity results in poor feeds as well as high frequency

content beyond the bandwidth of the closed loop system,

which leads to poor tracking. High frequency content in

acceleration and large jerk commands may excite structural

modes of the machine, which are not desirable. To deal with

these problems, Pritschow [14] recommended jerk-limited

trajectories with trapezoidal or sine square acceleration

profiles, favoring the latter for better continuity. Chen and

Tlusty [2] also used the jerk-limited trajectories with

trapezoidal acceleration profiles in their feed drive

1108

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

developed a trajectory generation with cubic acceleration

profiles for high speed milling operations.

Typically, the position errors originating from the CNC

are dependent on the robustness and tracking ability of the

axis control laws. Pritschow [8] noted the importance of

achieving high servo bandwidth, in order to be able to track

sudden changes in the motion commands accurately, while

rejecting disturbances originating from axis friction and

cutting forces. Tomizuka [9] developed the Zero Phase

Error Tracking Controller (ZPETC), which provides a wide

bandwidth with zero phase delay. This design philosophy is

based on the cancellation of stable components of the closed

loop servo dynamics in a feedforward fashion. Boucher et

al. [6] used cascaded Generalized Predictive Control (GPC)

for accurate tracking of velocity and position commands.

Erkorkmaz and Altintas [5,12] applied the Sliding Mode

Control (SMC) technique for the control of high speed feed

drives. They first designed a SMC based on the rigid body

dynamics alone. Later, they improved their control

methodology to actively compensate the effect of the

structural flexibilities of ball screw drives.

Numerous publications have dealt with the modeling and

identification of the dynamics of the machine tools feed

drive system. Koren [15] used a simple first order linear

model for identifying the dynamics of classical feed drives.

In a lead screw driven mechanism, non-linear guideway

friction becomes a significant factor in degrading the

tracking and contouring accuracy, especially at motion

reversals in sharp corners and circular arc quadrants.

Armstrong et al. [10] presented an excellent survey on the

physics behind the friction phenomenon. They pointed out

that the typical friction characteristics for lubricated

metallic surfaces in contact could be described by the

Stribeck curve. Backlash is also responsible for the motion

accuracy limitation of CNC machine tools. Kao et al. [13]

reported an analytical method to observe and model the

backlash behavior on the motion accuracy of CNC lathes.

Tuning plays an important role in controller design. Over

the last two decades, the use of fuzzy logic control has been

widely proposed in literature for auto-tuning control

parameters. de Silva and MacFarlane [16] conducted

research on auto-tuning servo controllers through a

hierarchical, multi-level system that could be applied in

the control structure of industrial robotic manipulators.

Wickramarachchi and de Silva [17,18] applied a knowledge-based hierarchical control system for fish processing

applications. Later, de Silva [19] investigated an analytical

framework for knowledge-based tuning of servo controllers.

He pointed out that a substantial reduction in computational

effort could be achieved through the application of the

analytical framework. Goulet et al. [20] has also used a

hierarchical control structure for a deployable orbiting

manipulator. They addressed the advantages of combining

crisp conventional control with knowledge-based fuzzy

flexible deployable and slewing links.

Henceforth, the paper is organized as follows. The

architecture of the Virtual CNC system is presented in

Section 2, which includes the mathematical modeling of

actuators, friction, trajectory generation and control laws.

Fuzzy logic auto tuning of the axis control law is shown in

Section 3. The Virtual CNC is experimentally verified in

contouring standard diamond and circular paths in Section 4,

and the paper is concluded in Section 5.

The Virtual CNC system must be able to predict the

performance of a real CNC system during part machining.

The mathematical models of all working modules of a real

CNC must be identified and integrated as in a real CNC

system for accurate prediction of part machining performance. The architecture of the developed Virtual CNC system

is illustrated in Fig. 1, which resembles the real,

reconfigurable and open CNC developed in the Manufacturing Automation Laboratory, UBC [21]. The Virtual CNC

system accepts reference toolpath generated on CAD/CAM

systems in the form of industry standard Cutter-Location

(CL) format. Each block in the CL file contains NC block

numbers, tool paths in the form of linear, circular and spline

segments, the cutter dimensions, tool center coordinates,

and feed speed for machining a particular part on a CNC

machine tool. Each tool path segment, such as linear,

circular or spline path, is passed through the trajectory

generation algorithm which creates displacement, feed,

acceleration and jerk expression at divided segments [1].

Trajectory generation sets up the real time interpolation

parameters such as discrete displacement along the path and

its frequency. The interpolator generates discrete displacement commands for each axis at every control interval. The

axis commands are passed on to the control law, which

shapes the overall response of the feed drive transfer

function, consisting of Digital to Analog (D/A) converter,

amplifier, servo motor, inertia, viscous damping, guideway

friction and lead screw backlash. The axis can be configured

to have acceleration, velocity and position sensors with

defined accuracy and noise parameters. The position error of

each axis is evaluated in the feedback loop and combined to

predict the contouring error at each control interval. The

user can select any control law, lead screw or linear drive

parameters, as well as amplifier, motor, friction field and

sensor so that most machine tools can be reconfigured

automatically by the user, who can add new modules or

modify the existing algorithms which are created in

MATLAB environment.

The Virtual CNC system consists of three main modules:

Feed drive, trajectory generation, and axis tracking control

modules.

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

1109

A typical ball screw drive system consists of current

amplifier, servo-motor, lead screw coupling mechanism,

ball screw with preloaded nut, table carrying the workpiece,

guideway friction and feedback sensors, as shown in Fig. 2.

The ball screw drive and rotary servo-motor are replaced by

a linear motor and bearings for direct drive feed

mechanisms. Both drive mechanisms are considered in the

Virtual CNC system.

(i)Rigid body motion: The linear dynamic model of a

classical feed drive is shown in Fig. 3. The control signal

ua [V] generated by the axis controller is applied to the

current amplifier which has a gain of Ka [A/V]. In the

motor armature, the motor dynamic torque Tm [Nm]

is produced, which is assumed to be linearly proportional

to the motor current with the motor torque constant Kt

[Nm/A]. The total dynamic torque delivered by the motor

is spent in overcoming the external disturbance torque Td

[Nm] which is due to nonlinear static and Coulomb

friction in the drive and cutting forces, and in

accelerating the inertia (J [kg/m2]) of the rigid body

motion of the table, and overcoming the systems viscous

damping (B [kg/m2/s]). In return, the angular velocity u

transferred to the angular position q [rad] through

integration. The angular position of the motor shaft is

then transmitted as a linear displacement of the table by

the ball screw and nut mechanism, which has a

transmission gain of rg [mm/rad]. Further basics of feed

drive design and modeling are given in [1].

Considering Fig. 3, the angular velocity of the motor

shaft and actual position of the table can be expressed in

Laplace domain as:

us Z

1

K K u sKTd s

Js C B t a a

rg

rg

1

Kt Ka ua sKTd s

xl s Z us Z

s

s Js C B

(1)

1110

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

(

)

(

)

(

)

_

ut

ua t

ut

C Bc

Z Ac

_

xt

Td t

xt

"

#

"

#

KB=J 0

Ka Kt =J K1=J

Where Ac Z

and Bc Z

0

rg

0

0

(

~

1=du; Kdu=2% u%Cdu=2

~ Z

pu

0;

otherwise

(2)

(7)

~ Z0

~

~ 2 0 as Eu

Ru~ Z EuKE

u

(

)

(

)

(

)

uk C 1

uk

ua k

Z Fc Ts

C Hc Ts

(3)

xl k C 1

Td k

xl k

!

Ts A t

Ac Ts

c

e dt Bc , k is the

where Fc Ts Z e , Hc Ts Z

~ Z

rRu~ Z Eu

C

N

Cdu=2

~ u~ du~ Z

pu

KN

1 2

u~ du~

du

(8)

Kdu=2

du2

12

(ii) Saturation of actuation system: the saturation of the

actuation system is considered at the input as,

8

u ; us k! umin

>

< min

ua k Z us k; umin % us k% umax

>

:

umax ; us kO umax

~

~ Z xm kKxa k

xm k Z xa k C xk0

xk

respectively. Similarly, x~ is assumed to have a uniform

distribution between Kdx/2 and Cdx/2 with a zero mean

and a variance of,

(4)

Rx~ Z

the control law and ua is the actual control signal passed to

the amplifier. umin and umax are the lower and upper

saturation limits, which are identified from torque limits of

the motor Tmin/max as,

(9)

dx2

12

(10)

~

~ Z uk

~ Z um kKuk

um k Z uk C uk0

uk

(11)

digital control command is converted into voltage for

analog drives through the Digital-to-Analog converter

circuit (DAC). The DAC quantization error u~ is assumed

to be present in the control signal after being quantized by

the DAC, which has a resolution of du:

respectively. The profile of the tachometer measurement

noise is reasonably assumed to have a normal distribution

~ The variance of the

with zero mean and variance of Ru.

tachometer measurement noise is obtained either from the

catalog, or by monitoring the noise in the tachometer signal

when CNC is powered, but the axis is at rest.

(iv) Guideway friction: the disturbance torque Td consists

of non-linear guideway friction Tf and cutting forces Tc

reflected to the motor shaft as,

~

~ Z us kKuc k

us k Z uc k C uk0

uk

Td k Z Tf k C Tc k

1

T

umin=max Z

Ka Kt min=max

(5)

(6)

motion controller. The quantization error u~ has a uniform

probability distribution with zero mean and is bounded by

(12)

motor shaft is considered as the typical friction characteristic

for lubricated metallic surfaces in contact, which can be

Fig. 4. Quantization error of DAC: (a) Block diagram of DAC quantization, (b) Uniform probability distribution function.

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

1111

Fig. 5. Stribeck friction curve for two lubricated metallic surfaces in contact.

Stribeck curve consists of four different regions: static

friction zone, boundary lubrication zone, partial lubrication

zone, and full fluid lubrication zone [10]. Tstribeck can be

characterized analytically with sufficient closeness as:

G Ku=u1

Ku=u2

C TG

C Tvise u

TG

stribeck u Z Tstat e

counl 1Ke

G

(13)

where

Ta k ZTm kKTc k*Tm k ZKa Kt ua k

(15)

model of rigid body dynamics, the friction torque expression

in Eq. (13) is re-written, neglecting viscous damping

component as,

G

G

Kuk=u1

G

Tstribeck

uk ZTG

CTcounl

1KeKuk=u2

stat e

(16)

where Tstat and Tcoul are the static friction and the Coulomb

friction torque respectively. Tvisc is the viscous damping

(v) Backlash: The spacing or dead-zone between the

coefficient that corresponds to B in Eq. (1). u1 determines the

screw and nut creates the backlash, which is modeled by: a

spacing between the boundary lubrication and partial fluid

disengaged zone, engagement in the positive direction, and

lubrication zones. u2 determines the spacing between the

engagement in the negative direction, as shown in Fig. 6.

The analytical expressions for the backlash model are

partial lubrication and full fluid lubrication regions. The

summarized as follows,

superscript G corresponds to positive and negative

8

C

dK

x kK1;

>

e % xl k% de

>

< a

K

C

(17)

xa k Z xl kKDb =2; xl kR dC

e 0 set de Z xl kKDb and de Z xl k

>

>

:

K

K

C

xl k C Db =2; xl k% de 0 set de Z xl k and de Z xl k C Db

directions of motion. The parameters of the Stribeck friction

curve can be entered in the drive model. The characteristics

of guideway friction torque Tf in discrete time domain can be

summarized as follows,

8

0;

>

>

>

>

>

>

Ta k;

>

>

>

>

< TC ;

stat

Tf k Z

K

>

;

> Tstat

>

>

>

> C

>

>

Tstribeck uk;

>

>

: K

Tstribeck uk;

uk Z0 and Ta k Z0

K

C

uk Z0 and Tstat

!Ta k!Tstat

mechanism. xa and xl are the actual axis position due

to backlash and the axis position obtained from Eq. (3)

C

respectively. dK

e and de are the positions of the negative

and positive ends of the dead-band. The axis position is

assumed to be located at the middle of the dead-zone at

C

initial conditions. Therefore, dK

e and de are initially set

to be:

C

uk Z0 and Ta kRTstat

O0

K

uk Z0 and Ta k!Tstat

!0

C

initial0 dK

e ZKDb =2 and de Z CDb =2

(18)

ukO0

uk!0

(14)

shown in Fig. 7.

1112

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

Fig. 6. Classical dead-zone backlash model: (a) disengaged zone, (b) system engaged in positive direction, (c) system engaged in negative direction,

(d) backlash plot.

The trajectory generation mechanism implemented in

the Virtual CNC is illustrated in Fig. 8. After interpreting

the CL file, the start and end coordinates of the toolpath,

the types of the tool movement and the feedrate are

recognized and stored into a buffer. By executing the

buffer block by block, the descriptions for each toolpath

generation process sequentially. The trajectory generation

algorithm identifies the distance to be traveled, and

divides it into acceleration, constant velocity and

deceleration sub-segments depending on kinematic profiles selected in the CNC design. The Virtual CNC

system presented here gives a choice of constant,

trapezoidal, or cubic acceleration profiles, as shown in

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

1113

lead to infinite jerk and severe acceleration discontinuities, which contain high frequencies in the generated

position commands. Such high frequency content may

excite structural vibrations and cause severe tracking

errors in high-speed machines. Cubic acceleration leads

to much smoother position commands with continuity in

velocity, acceleration and jerk, which is better suited for

high speed and precision drives, but at the expense of

increased computational load on the CNC computer.

are not repeated here.

2.3. Axis control module

There are a significant number of control laws, which can

be implemented in CNC systems. Typically, any axis

control law has two components: the feedforward part

which processes the reference position commands, and the

feedback part that shapes the measured states such as

1114

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

Fig. 9. Feed motion profiles: (a) constant acceleration, (b) trapezoidal acceleration, (c) cubic acceleration.

loop dynamics, as shown in Fig. 10. The control law

generates the control signal command (i.e. uc(k))) which is

sent to the physical drives as:

uc k Z DT zXr kKDs zXm k

8

DT z Z dT1 z dT2 z dT2 z 1!3

>

>

>

>

>

>

D

z

Z

d

z

d

z

d

z

>

S

S1

S2

S2

1!3

<

2

3

2

3

where

xr k

xk k

>

>

>

6

7

6

7

>

>

Xr k Z 4 x_r k 5

and Xm z Z 4 x_k k 5

>

>

:

x r k 3!1

x k k 3!1

(19)

DT(z) and Ds(z) are the matrices corresponding to the

feedforward and feedback transfer functions respectively, in

the discrete time domain. Xr(k) is the reference axis

command state vector and Xm(k) is the axis measurement

state vector.

The presented Virtual CNC system has a number of

user reconfigurable control laws, which have all been

experimentally proven on our open CNC system [21].

The conventional control laws include P-PI control, PID

control and Lead-Lag control [1]. More sophisticated

control laws include Pole Placement Control (PPC) [23],

Zero-Phase Tracking Error Control (ZPTEC) [9], Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) [6], and Sliding Mode

Control (SMC) [5]. While the conventional control laws

can be found in standard control texts, details of the more

advanced control laws can be found in the referenced

articles.

optimized, further adjustments can be made on the real

machine. Depending on the structure of the control laws,

they are either analytically tuned according to desired

performance criteria, or manually tuned with trial-and-error.

Pole placement and model based control laws can be tuned

by defining the rise time, overshoot and bandwidth of the

closed loop position control system [1]. Since the analytical

tuning techniques can be found in literature, a newly

developed fuzzy logic based tuning of an adaptive Sliding

Mode Controller is presented here.

3.1. Sliding mode controller

The control law of rigid body-based Sliding Mode

Controller (SMC) for high speed feed drives is given as

follows [5]:

uSMC

k Z Je lx_r kKx_m k C x r k C Be x_m k

c

h

C KS Sk C d k

where

8

Sk Z lxr kKxm k C_xr kKx_m k

>

>

>

>

>

>

8 2

9

3

>

>

>

<

=

<

T

z

T

z

d^ kzr l4 s xr kK s xm k5 C xr kKxm k

: zK1

;

zK1

>

>

>

>

>

>

J

B

>

> Je Z

; and Be Z

;

>

:

Ka Kt rg

Ka Kt rg

(21)

It is desirable to tune the feed drives in a simulated,

virtual environment, provided that the mathematical model

of the system is sufficiently accurate. The virtual tuning

allows modification to the machine tool drive mechanism as

well as proper selection of motors and sensors during the

(20)

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

1115

damping reflected on the motor shaft respectively, S is a

stable sliding surface function and d^ is the axis

disturbance estimated using a simple observer for

adaptation. The control parameters that need to be

tuned are: sliding surface bandwidth l [rad/s], feedback

gain KS [V/(mm/s)], and disturbance adaptation gain r

[V/mm]. l is assumed to be fixed and is determined

according to the achievable bandwidth of the drive, and

the two control parameters (KS and r) are considered in

the auto-tuning of SMC.

Considering Fig. 11, the auto-tuning process has a threelevel hierarchical structure: bottom layer for SMC which

needs to be tuned, intermediate layer for system performance evaluation, and upper layer for decision making using

fuzzy logic tuning. A smooth back-and-forth motion

command is applied to the closed loop. The system

performance is observed and characterized in the intermediate layer, where descriptors of the system response

such as oscillation of the control signal, stability of the loop,

and tracking error are evaluated. If the system response is

not found to be satisfactory, then new control parameters are

Fig. 12. Fourier spectrum analysis of control signal: (a) clean signal, (b) noisy signal.

1116

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

Table 1

Primary fuzzy sets for performance attributes of OSC, PHM, and TRE

Performance attributes

OSC and

PHM

TRE

Discrete

performance

index

HIUN

LIUN

EL

LA

1

2

Index of deviation

(IOD) for OSC, PHM,

TRE

Threshold(1)%IOD

Threshold(2)%IOD !

Threshold(1)

ACCP

ME

3

Threshold(3)%IOD!

Threshold(2)

LIOQ

SM

4

Threshold(4)%IOD!

Threshold(3)

HIOQ

OK

5

Threshold(5)%IOD!

Threshold(4)

For OSC and PHM: HIOQ, over-qualified; LIOQ, little-qualified; ACCP,

acceptable; LIUN, little unsatisfactory; HIUN, highly unsatisfactory

For TRE: OK, okay; SM, small; ME, medium; LA, large; EL, extremely

large

layer. The control parameters are iteratively adjusted until

the overall system performance becomes satisfactory.

3.2. System performance evaluation and specification

System performance attributes are evaluated and classified into linguistic statements such as acceptable, overqualified, unsatisfactory, and so on. The oscillation level of

the control signal, loop stability, and tracking accuracy are

evaluated as follows.

(i) Oscillation level of control signal (OSC): a noisy

control command contains high frequency harmonics which

damages the actuators and degrades the tracking accuracy;

hence, it needs to be constrained. The frequency content and

considering the Fourier spectrum of the control commands,

see Fig. 12. The index of deviation corresponding to the

oscillation level of the control signal, OSCindex, is defined as,

9

>

Sc Hmax KHmean

>

>

OSCindex Z

>

>

=

Lmax KLmean

low frequency range0 0% f % Fthresh

where

>

>

>

>

>

;

(22)

between low and high frequency regions. FNyquist corresponds to the nyquist frequency, or the half of the control

sampling frequency. Lmax and Hmax are the maximum power

spectrum magnitudes of the dominant frequencies in the low

and high frequency ranges, respectively. Similarly, Lmean and

Hmean are the averages of magnitudes corresponding to the

low and high frequency ranges in the power spectrum

respectively. Sc is a scaling factor to adjust the sensitivity of

the control signal oscillation level, as needed.

(ii) Stability margin analysis (PHM): The system

stability can be analytically defined by evaluating the

phase margin (fm) of the loop frequency response as,

PHMindex Z fm Z 1808 C arg b Gl jug c

(23)

stability. G(ju) is the loop transfer function corresponding

to the linear system model in the frequency domain. The

gain cross-over frequency ug is the frequency where the

magnitude of the loop transfer function Gl(ju) is equal to

unity.

Table 2

Mapping from index of deviation to discrete performance index

Discrete performance index

1

2

3

4

5

1.00%OSCindex

0.75%OSCindex!1.00

0.50%OSCindex!0.75

0.25%OSCindex!0.50

0%OSCindex!0.25

PHMindex!308

308%PHMindex!408

408%PHMindex!458

458%PHMindex!608

608%PHMindex!1808

20 mm%TREindex

5 mm %TREindex!20 mm

1 mm %TREindex!5 mm

0.1 mm %TREindex!1 mm

0%TREindex!0.1 mm

Table 3

Membership functions of fuzzy input variables for OSC, PHM, and TRE

Fuzzy input variablesOSC, PHM, and TRE

5 Primary fuzzy set

For TRE

HIUN

LIUN

ACCP

LIOQ

HIOQ

EL

LA

ME

SM

OK

1

0.7

0.3

0

0

0.7

1

0.7

0.3

0

0.3

0.7

1

0.7

0.3

0

0.3

0.7

1

0.7

0

0

0.3

0.7

1

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

1117

Table 4

Membership functions of fuzzy output variables for DKS and Dr

Fuzzy output variables DKS and Dr

7 selected fuzzy set

NL (negative large)

NM (negative medium)

NS (negative small)

ZR (no change)

PS (positive small)

PM (positive medium)

PL (positive large)

K3

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

K2

0.9

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

K1

0.8

0.9

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

C1

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

0.9

0.8

C2

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

0.9

C3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Table 5

Heuristic manipulation of SMC parameters

Performance attribute

System stability (PHM)

Tracking accuracy (TRE)

KS

Decrease

Decrease

No change (or slightly decrease)

Decrease

Increase (decrease if system is unstable)

motion cycle, the tracking error is obtained by comparing

the reference (xr) and the measured (xm) axis position at

each time step. The maximum absolute value of tracking

error (i.e. TREindex) is evaluated as,

TREindex Z maxjxr tKxm tj; 0% t% Tend

(24)

back-and-forth motion. Once the system performance

attributes corresponding to the oscillation level of control

signal (OSC), the system stability (PHM), and tracking

accuracy (TRE) are evaluated, they are mapped into discrete

performance indices corresponding to selected primary

fuzzy sets as shown in Tables 1 and 2.

A Fuzzy Decision Table, which is used to tune the

control law parameters in real time, is first prepared off-line

as follows.

(i) Membership functions: In development of the fuzzy

decision table, the system performance attributes and the

corresponding tuning actions must be fuzzified into predefined membership functions. In auto-tuning of SMC, the

fuzzy input variables are the system performance attributes

based on the evaluation of OSC, PHM, and TRE. The fuzzy

output variables correspond to the tuning actions that are

defined as follows: DKS and Dr denote the changes in KS

and r, respectively. The membership function for each

fuzzy input or output set is designed in a discrete tabular

form, by applying a triangular shaped function with a full

Table 6

Linguistic rules for tuning SMC

Performance attributes

Or

Or

Or

Or

Or

Or

Or

Or

Or

Or

Or

Or

If

If

If

If

If

If

If

If

If

If

If

If

If

If

If

Tuning action

OSCZ

OSCZ

OSCZ

OSCZ

OSCZ

PHMZ

PHMZ

PHMZ

PHMZ

PHMZ

TREZ

TREZ

TREZ

TREZ

TREZ

HIUN

LIUN

ACCP

LIOQ

HIOQ

HIUN

LIUN

ACCP

LIOQ

HIOQ

EL

LA

ME

SM

OK

then

then

then

then

then

then

then

then

then

then

then

then

then

then

then

DKSZ

DKSZ

DKSZ

DKSZ

DKSZ

DKSZ

DKSZ

DKSZ

DKSZ

DKSZ

DKSZ

DKSZ

DKSZ

DKSZ

DKSZ

NL

NM

ZR

PS

PM

NM

NS

ZR

ZR

PS

NS

ZR

PS

PS

ZR

and

and

and

and

and

and

and

and

and

and

and

and

and

and

and

DrZ

DrZ

DrZ

DrZ

DrZ

DrZ

DrZ

DrZ

DrZ

DrZ

DrZ

DrZ

DrZ

DrZ

DrZ

NS

ZR

ZR

ZR

PS

NM

NM

ZR

PS

PM

NL

NM

PL

PS

ZR

1118

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

Table 7

Fuzzy decision table for SMC tuning

Performance attributes (input)

DKS

Dr

OSC

HIUN

LIUN

ACCP

LIOQ

HIOQ

K0.2545

K0.2456

0

0.1552

0.2456

K0.1552

0

0

0

0.1552

PHM

HIUN

LIUN

ACCP

LIOQ

HIOQ

K0.2456

K0.1552

0

0

0.1552

K0.2456

K0.2456

0

0.1552

0.2456

TRE

EL

LA

ME

SM

OK

K0.1552

0

0.1552

0.1552

0

K0.2545

K0.2456

0.2545

0.1552

0

representative value (i.e. diagonal elements in the membership function tables). The off diagonal terms represent the

reducing weight to model the degree of fuzziness as

indicated in Tables 3 and 4.

(ii) Fuzzy linguistic rules: Expert knowledge on tuning

the sliding mode controller is expressed as a set of linguistic

rules containing reference to the defined fuzzy sets.

According to the expert knowledge and experience, the

SMC tuning rules developed are summarized in Tables 5

as follows: If the oscillation level of the control signal is

highly unsatisfactory (if OSCZHIUN), then the feedback

gain (KS) must be largely decreased and disturbance estimator gain (r) must be slightly decreased (then DKSZNL

and DrZNS).

(iii) Fuzzy composite relation table: The performance

attributes of the controller, the tuning actions, and the rules

of tuning must be related to each other using fuzzy

composite relationship functions [24]. Through fuzzy

implication (IF-THEN), the fuzzy relation (mRi) for the ith

individual rule (Ri) defined in Table 6 is developed as,

OSC; PHM; TRE

mRi

DKs ; Dr

Z min minputi OSC; PHM; TREmoutputi DKs ; Dr

membership function of the measured fuzzy state for the

input variables (i.e. OSC, PHM, and TRE) listed in Table 3.

moutput denotes a 1!7 row vector which relates to

membership functions of the corresponding fuzzy state for

the output variables (i.e. DKS and Dr) given in Table 4.

minputi OSC; PHM; TRE+moutputi DKS ; Dr leads to the

comparison of each corresponding element and the min

operation enforces the selection of the element which has

the minimum value. Each resulting rule mRi becomes a 5!7

matrix, and there are five rules mapping from each input

Table 8

Summary of axis feed drive parameters

Feed drive parameters

(25)

X-axis

Y-axis

Current amplifier gain, Ka

Motor gain, Kt

Total reflected inertia, J

Viscous damping, B

Pitch length hp

Transmission gain rg

[A/V]

[Nm/A]

[kg m2]

[kg m2/s]

[mm]

[mm/rad]

6.4898

0.4769

0.0077736

0.019811

10

1.5915

7.5768

0.4769

0.0098109

0.028438

10

1.5915

D/A Converter bit

Voltage range of D/A chip

D/A resolution, du

Quantization variance, Ru~

Saturation limits, umin/umax

[]

[V]

[V]

[V2]

[V]

16

G10

3.0518!10K4

7.761!10K9

K5,C5

16

G10

3.0518!10K4

7.761!10K9

K5,C5

Measurement noise

Linear encoder resolution, dx

Linear encoder noise variance, Rx~

Tachometer noise variance, Ru~

[mm]

[mm2]

[(rad/s)2]

1.22!10K3

1.2418!10K7

50!10K3

1.22!10K3

1.2418!10K7

50!10K3

Static friction, TG

stat

Coulomb friction, TG

coul

Velocity threshold 1, uG

1

Velocity threshold 2, uG

2

[Nm]

[Nm]

[rad/s]

[rad/s]

2.6256, K1.8672

2.1529, K1.4730

3.88, K3.51

4.20, K3.52

2.7658, K2.4520

2.5228, K2.3887

2.37, K4.41

3.01, K4.20

Backlash

Backlash, Db

[mm]

0.003

0.003

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

Table 9

Summary of fuzzy tuning for three different scenarios

Results of fuzzy

tuning for SMC

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

Pre-selected l [rad/s]

Initial/Tuned KS

[V/(mm/s)]

Initial/tuned r

[V/mm]

Initial/final maximum

tracking error [mm]

200

1/0.363

200

0.01/0.315

200

10/0.269

100/47.16

1/39.12

10,000/37.16

0.009/0.009

0.136/0.011

Unstable/0.012

1119

relation matrices or tables are developed in total.

(iv) Fuzzy decision table: The fuzzy decision table

is calculated by matching the system performance

attributes to the composite fuzzy relation tables, through

the use of the compositional rule of inference (i.e. sup of

min operation) as [24],

!

OSC;PHM;TRE

mC Zsupmin minput OSC;PHM;TRE;mR

DKs;Dr

(27)

for each of DKS and Dr. As the individual rules are joined

through the fuzzy connective (OR) operator, the resulting

fuzzy relation matrix between each of the fuzzy input and

output variables is formed as,

"

#

OSC; PHM; TRE

OSC; PHM; TRE

5

mR

Z max mRi

DKS ; Dr

DKS ; Dr

iZ1

(26)

By comparing each element of the fuzzy relation table for

individual rules, the maximum of the membership grades

corresponding to each pair of input-output states is chosen.

Using a similar fashion, the composite fuzzy relation tables

between all condition and action variables are constructed.

Since there are 3 fuzzy input variables (i.e. OSC, PHM, and

TRE) and 2 fuzzy output variables (i.e. DKS and Dr) that are

fuzzy input variables, the resulting fuzzy composite relation

calculated using Eq. (26), and the corresponding output

variables, respectively. In the use of a sup of min operation,

the membership function vector of the input variables is first

compared with each column of the fuzzy relation table. Then,

the lower value in each pair of compared elements is taken.

For each column, the largest value in the vector of elements is

selected, thus resulting in a row vector. In order to obtain a

numerical value, c^ , that determines the degree of tuning

action, a de-fuzzification is applied using the discrete

centroid method as,

P7

i1 ci mC ci

c^ Z

mC ci

(28)

Fig. 13. System performance before and after fuzzy tuning: (a) initially noisy system, (b) initially highly stable and sluggish system, (c) initially unstable

system.

1120

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

Table 10

Summary of control parameters for PID and SMC

PID Control

Proportional gain, Kp

Integral gain, Ki

Differentiation gain, Kd

Sliding mode control (SMC)

Sliding surface bandwidth, l

Feedback gain, KS

Disturbance adaptation gain, r

[V/mm]

[V/(mm$s)]

[V/(mm/s)]

[rad/s]

[V/(mm/s)]

[V/mm]

X-Axis

Y-Axis

70

800

0.30

X-axis

200

0.30

30

70

800

0.30

Y-axis

200

0.30

30

for the tuning parameters DKS and Dr, given in Table 4. The

fuzzy decision table, shown in Table 7, is obtained off-line

which allows efficient real-time tuning of the control

parameters. Through this fuzzy decision table, the new

tuning actions are assigned according to system performance

attributes. The formulation used for updating the control

parameters is given in Eq. (29),

!

3OSC;PHM;TRE

X

KSnew ZKSold C

DKS !KSold ;

iZ1

rnew Zrold C

3OSC;PHM;TRE

X

(29)

!

Dr !rold

iZ1

parameters after fuzzy decision making. KSold and rold are

the current SMC parameters that need to be tuned. DKS and

Dr are the degree of the tuning actions obtained from the

fuzzy decision table.

on a three-axis vertical machining center with ball

screw drives. The identified feed drive parameters of

the machine are summarized in Table 8. The machine

tool is controlled by an in house developed open CNC

system [21], which allows modular integration of any

trajectory generation, control law, and compensation

strategies.

4.1. Fuzzy tuning of axis control law

The sliding mode control law for the drives is

automatically tuned in the Virtual CNC environment

using Fuzzy Logic. The desired sliding surface bandwidth

(l) is pre-selected to be 200 rad/s. A back-and-forth test

motion with a travel distance of 100 mm and a command

feedrate of 200 mm/s is used as the reference input for

system performance diagnosis. The noise in the control

law and the tracking error are identified from Virtual

CNC simulation for given feedback (KS) and disturbance

observer (r) gains. The phase margin of the closed loop

controller is also calculated. The auto-tuning starts with

initial values of KS and r, and the fuzzy logic tuner

determines the optimal gains automatically, regardless of

the initial guess. The initial and tuned control law

parameters are listed along with their performance results

in Table 9. The corresponding control performances

before and after tuning with experimental validation are

shown in Fig. 13.

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

1121

Fig. 15. Diamond-shaped contouring tests with sliding mode control (SMC).

circular and diamond profiles

The Virtual CNC system has been experimentally

verified by trying out various tracking control schemes,

with feedforward friction compensation. PID and SMC

results are reported here as examples. The control interval

was 1 ms. The control parameters of the developed PID

and SMC are summarized in Table 10. Standard circular

1122

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

Fig. 17. Circle-shaped contouring tests with sliding mode control (SMC).

diamond had a side length of 50 mm and the circular path

radius was 50 mm. The reference trajectories have been

generated to achieve a feedrate of 200 mm/s with maximum

acceleration and jerk values of 2000 mm/s2 and 50,000 mm/

s3, respectively. The selected acceleration profile was

trapezoidal, resulting in piecewise constant jerk commands

along the toolpath. The experiments were conducted under

air-cutting conditions in order to avoid structural deformations of the machine under cutting load.

The measured and predicted tracking and contour error

profiles are shown in Figs. 1417, and summarized in

Tables 11 and 12. It can be seen that the most critical parts

on the diamond paths are located at the corners where

transients in reference trajectory occur. The most significant

deviations on the circular paths are located at the quadrants

where the direction of the axis motion changes, and the

errors are mostly due to friction, which holds the slide until

sufficient torque is accumulated to overcome the static

friction disturbance. The experimental results clearly

indicate the accurate prediction capability of the Virtual

CNC system, also indicating that the sliding mode controller

(SMC) yields significantly less contouring and tracking

error than the standard PID controller.

Table 11

Summary of simulation and experimental results for air-cutting of diamond

profile

Table 12

Summary of simulation and experimental results for air-cutting of circle

profile

Axis control

law

error

Comparison analysis

Simulation

(mm)

Experiment

(mm)

Deviation

(%)

PID

0.0375

SMC

0.0122

0.0376

0.0115

0.0001

0.0007

0.2659

6.0870

PID

0.0412

SMC

0.0074

0.0414

0.0070

0.0002

0.0004

PID

0.0126

SMC

0.0084

0.0138

0.0081

0.0012

0.0003

Axis control

law

error

Comparison analysis

Simulation

(mm)

Experiment

(mm)

Deviation

(%)

PID

0.0471

SMC

0.0117

0.0436

0.0109

0.0035

0.0008

8.0275

7.3394

0.4831

5.7143

PID

0.0223

SMC

0.0077

0.0220

0.0072

0.0003

0.0005

1.3636

6.9444

8.6957

3.7037

PID

0.0215

SMC

0.0117

0.0226

0.0108

0.0011

0.0009

4.8673

8.3333

C.-H. Yeung et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 11071123

5. Conclusion

A comprehensive virtual model of a Modular CNC is

presented. The Virtual CNC allows modular integration of

trajectory planning and interpolation routines, mathematical

models of ball screw and linear drives, friction, feedback

sensors, amplifiers, D/A converters and flexible motion

control laws. The system allows the designer to try out

various feed drive design alternatives, control laws, and

sensors with different resolutions. The accurate model of the

drives allows realistic simulation of the drives high speed

contouring capability, and auto-tuning of sophisticated axis

control laws in a virtual environment, as has been

demonstrated for the presented Sliding Mode Controller.

Acknowledgements

This research is sponsored by NSERC and Pratt &

Whitney Canada under research chair and strategic grant

agreements.

References

[1] Y. Altintas, Manufacturing automation: metal cutting mechanics

Machine Tool Vibrations, and CNC Design, Cambridge University

Press, Cambridge, 2000.

[2] Y.C. Chen, J. Tlusty, Effect of low-friction guideways and lead-screw

flexibility on dynamics of high-speed machines, Annals of CIRP 44

(1) (1995) 353356.

[3] K. Erkorkmaz, Y. Altintas, High speed CNC system design. Part I.

Jerk limited trajectory generation and quintic spline interpolation,

International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 41 (9)

(2001) 13231345.

[4] K. Erkorkmaz, Y. Altintas, Trajectory generation for high speed

milling of molds and dies, Proceedings of the Second International

Conference and Exhibition on Design and Production of Dies and

Molds, Kusadasi, Turkey, DM_46 2001.

[5] Y. Altintas, K. Erkorkmaz, W.-H. Zhu, Sliding mode controller design

for high speed drives, Annals of CIRP 49 (1) (2000) 265270.

[6] P. Boucher, D. Dumur, K.F. Rahmani, Generalized predictive cascade

control (GPCC) for machine tool drives, Annals of CIRP 39 (1) (1990)

357360.

[7] K. Erkorkmaz, Y. Altintas, High speed CNC system design. Part III.

High speed tracking and contouring control of feed drives,

International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 41 (11)

(2001) 16371658.

1123

[8] G. Pritschow, On the influence of the velocity gain factor on the path

deviation, Annals of CIRP 45 (1) (1996) 367371.

[9] M. Tomizuka, Zero phase error tracking algorithm for digital control,

ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control 109

(1987) 6568.

[10] H.B. Armstrong, P. Dupont, C. Canudas De Wit, A survey of models,

analysis tools and compensation methods for the control of machines

with friction, Automatica 30 (7) (1994) 10831138.

[11] K. Erkorkmaz, Y. Altintas, High speed CNC system design. Part II.

Modeling and identification of feed drives, International Journal of

Machine Tools and Manufacture 41 (10) (2001) 14871509.

[12] K. Erkorkmaz, PhD Thesis: Optimal Trajectory Generation and

Precision Tracking Control for Multi-Axis Machines, University of

British Columbia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2004.

[13] J.Y. Kao, Z.M. Yeh, Y.S. Tarng, Y.S. Lin, A study of backlash on the

motion accuracy of CNC lathes, International Journal of Machine

Tools and Manufacture 36 (5) (1996) 539550.

[14] G. Pritschow, Course notes: control techniques of machine tools and

industrial robots, Institute of Control Technology for Machine Tools

and Manufacturing Units, Stuttgart University, Germany, 1997.

[15] Y. Koren, Computer Control of Manufacturing Systems, McGrawHill, New York, 1983.

[16] C.W. de Silva, A.G.J. MacFarlane, Knowledge-based control

approach for robotic manipulators, International Journal of Control

50 (1) (1989) 249273.

[17] N. Wickramarachchi, C.W. de Silva, Knowledge-based supervisory

control system of a fish processing workcell. Part I. System

development, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 11

(1) (1998) 97118.

[18] N. Wickramarachchi, C.W. de Silva, Knowledge-based supervisory

control system of a fish processing workcell. Part II. Implementation

and evaluation, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 11

(1) (1998) 119134.

[19] C.W. de Silva, An analytical framework for knowledge-based tuning

of a servo controller, Engineering Applications in Artificial

Intelligence 4 (3) (1991) 177189.

[20] J.-F. Goulet, C.W. de Silva, V.J. Modi, Hierarchical knowledge-based

control of a deployable orbiting manipulator, Acta Astronautica 50 (3)

(2002) 139148.

[21] Y. Altintas, N.A. Erol, Open architecture modular tool kit for motion

and machining process control, Annals of CIRP 47 (1) (1998) 295

300.

[22] C.H. Yeung, MASc Thesis: A Three-Axis Virtual Computer

Numerical Control (CNC) System, University of British Columbia,

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vancouver, BC, Canada,

2004.

[23] K.J. Astrom, B. Wittenmark, Computer-Controlled Systems: Theory

and Design, third ed., Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, 1997.

[24] C.W. de Silva, Intelligent ControlFuzzy Logic Applications, CRC

Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, 1995.

- Solution Manual to Third Edition AIUploaded byPuneet Mehta
- Development of a Postprocessor for a Multi-Axis CNC Milling CenteUploaded bywidya
- 980MDc CNC Milling Machine Controller User ManualUploaded byIch Bin Srna
- 2.68 Mill ManualUploaded byvanwyksc
- Cnc Software SymplusUploaded byMohammed Lamsalli
- EC-Solid Machinist Part ModellerUploaded byBobbyPoppagorgio
- TOOLS, DIES and Industrial MoldsUploaded byDaniel Figueiredo
- ORTON - Company Profile 31-12-09Uploaded byFabrizio Delledonne
- A Fuzzy Expert System for Heart Disease DiagnosisUploaded byMohammad Rofii
- M.tech_Production Engineering Syllabus for First Year 2012-13Uploaded bysmsmba
- Evolutionary Programming of CNC MachinesUploaded bymgipiela9752
- CV.pdfUploaded byRagil
- 22861869 Summer Training ReportUploaded byAbhas Gupta
- Computer Numerical ControlUploaded byAmirulAmin
- Adaptive Self-learning Controller DesignUploaded byASHFAQ5015
- Thesis Draft Ch 1 &2Uploaded byCharlton S.Inao
- Fuzzylogic FabricUploaded bychocklingam
- Precision Plasma GantryUploaded byRay Zer
- XB013934941Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- SEEDs Grant CNC High SchoolUploaded byArielle Breen
- cnc7x7manualUploaded byMartin Silisque
- ON SPECTRA AND BOUNDS OF FUZZY GRAPHUploaded byIJAR Journal
- E029Uploaded byasit kumar
- FuzzyUploaded byPavan Sai
- Industry 4.0 Technology (Updated) - CPD 21.12.2016Uploaded byKarthikeyan Varathan
- Chap02cFuzzyUploaded byVishnuDhanabalan
- Automation of UmpiringUploaded bypriyashri_13
- Lab 9Uploaded byHussam Rahhalzz
- OutlineUploaded byNaVdeep Bansal
- Water Quality Assessment in Qu River Based on Fuzzy Water Pollution Index Method 2016 Journal of Environmental SciencesUploaded bypelangilaksmita

- skfUploaded byM036
- Micro-v beltUploaded byAnush Swaminathan
- 18crnimo7-6Uploaded byAnush Swaminathan
- 9.9 Calculation for Planetary Gear Mechanism TechnicalData KGSTOCKGEARSUploaded byJoy Bhattacharya
- en353Uploaded byAnush Swaminathan
- Aalco Metals Ltd Stainless Steel 14301 304 Bar and Section 34Uploaded byAnush Swaminathan
- White Paper - Torque Arm - Final EditUploaded byMikeRey
- PPI_OHL_SME_2000_18CF611CDC0C0Uploaded byAnush Swaminathan
- ICA1602.pdfUploaded byAnush Swaminathan
- bobakUploaded bydivashm
- Eurodrive Torque Arm Technical NotesUploaded byLuis Rojas
- conveyorUploaded byAnush Swaminathan
- TorqueArm.pdfUploaded byAnush Swaminathan
- Euclid-suspension.pdfUploaded byEver Rivera
- ASG Premium Torque Arm CatalogUploaded byAnush Swaminathan
- Technical-Information S P en-tightening Torques on SSUploaded byAnush Swaminathan
- 6116_1-ENUploaded byaz1az
- MRP NBC BearingsUploaded bySHAMPA SINHAROY
- Clutches Brakes CtenUploaded byPhạmHuyThắng
- 3 Rothe ErdeUploaded byOscar Cruz
- Linear GuidewaysUploaded byKótai Péter
- Iso -Dn- En Technical Comparison Fof Fastener StandardsUploaded bysarath6725
- Propeller shaftUploaded byAnush Swaminathan
- Brochure Uj (2)Uploaded bySujanto Widjaja
- Accessories Catalog.pdfUploaded byAnush Swaminathan
- SKF Industrial PricelistApril2017 Edition2Uploaded byshekar_991985346
- Brd.klee-Datablad DIN 580Uploaded byAnush Swaminathan
- Brd.Klee-Datablad DIN 580.pdfUploaded byAnush Swaminathan

- JtagUploaded byunavilable
- load3Uploaded byZishan Mohd
- fba bip poster presentationUploaded byapi-316345812
- 02. Wind Turbine Concepts and Application 6 ECTS ER7001Uploaded byTrajce Stojanov
- Information Security - IAM StrategyUploaded bylojban
- To Room NineteenUploaded byGuillote Rios
- Central Limit Theorem - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded bydonodoni0008
- Carl Jung Wikipedia 2018-05-02Uploaded bypaule
- Microbial stoichiometry overrides biomass as a regulator of soil carbon and nitrogen cyclingUploaded bycpavloud
- Interim Project Report-Mangal Pandey .pdfUploaded byRohit Pandey
- 10Groovy NotebookUploaded bylapogunevas
- Journal of the Society for Psychical Research (Vol. 14)Uploaded byl00nie
- BUSCOM_MODULE1Uploaded byNithya Aathinarayanan
- 17 Fondarex FSA ForumUploaded byAditheya Varthan M
- Kirchhoff_s_Circuit_Laws.pdfUploaded byAbhishek Tripathi
- Pump TypesUploaded bydmars123
- Different Types of SQL JoinsUploaded byKarla Hernández Aburto
- effective reading and note taking strategiesUploaded byPutri Ayu Ratnasari Dewi
- Class12 Economics1 MicroEconomics Unit02 NCERT TextBook EnglishEditionUploaded byGARIMA SINGH
- Vanna CoachUploaded byDilmaCynthiaReyesNeyra
- GE McKinsey MatrixUploaded bykaartik123
- Fmincon Test OutputUploaded byGesang Rakhmad Utomo
- Example 1Uploaded byphineasscribd
- Notas BioingI 2017Uploaded byJose Manuel Miranda Onofre
- Social Communication Final 6-13-13Uploaded byAbhishekh Chauhan
- QPM - Construction Manager - Civil StructuralUploaded bymedhat145
- Quadrotor Dynamics and ControlUploaded byAli Emrah Yarar
- Hospital Management System Project ReportUploaded byVipin Sharma
- grailzine artificial universe matrixUploaded byapi-351435970
- Keyboarding Final Exam Study Guide 1Uploaded byHerbert Shirov Tendido Securata