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- is composed of interacting individuals and interacting groups sharing a common culture
(Perucci and Knudsen, 1983; p.9)
- Composed of interacting individuals occupying a definite territory, having a common
culture and goal.
- Scientific study of human society (Hun, 1994).
- Scientific study of patterns of human interaction that deals with the study of group life
(Joseph Fichter)
Latin – socius – companion/partner
Greek – logos – study of (group behavior)

“A person who does not honor the country into
which his ancestors are buried will be cursed
for eternity.”
- Paulo Coelho, Like the Flowing

 Family
 School
Social Institutions – Social Structure
 Government
- Building blocks of society
 Church
 Economy

1. Structural-functionalism
- Structure— parts, elements of society (Social Institutions)
- Function— use/ purpose
 Family – procreation (through marriage => norm)
 Government – peace and order (laws & policies)
 School – productive members of society
 Church – spiritual development
 Economy – goods and services
2. Conflict
- Society is divided into different groups that are in constant state of competing
with one another.
- Power struggle (e.g. inequality, oppression)
- Conflicting groups = social change
- Ex. Why inequality and oppression exist in the society
- Karl Marx


Reference: Palispis, Epitacio. (2008).Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology.

Devoted self to the development of the society . Social Dynamics .Sociology as the “queen of social sciences”. his student and secretary. (2008). Social Statics .Father of Sociology TWO DIVISIONS OF SOCIOLOGY ACCORDING TO COMTE: 1.Attaching meanings to symbols  Language  Gestures  Facial expressions  Objects DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY The conscious adoptions of the scientific approach began in the early part of the 18th century and the first quarter of the 19th century when social philosophers began to be interested in the natural development of sciences that would eventually lead to the development of society.Using of symbols on everyday interaction .A French philosopher who coined the term sociology in 1838.He believed sociology could help change society for the better Durkheim was particularly interested in what holds society together.Against armchair theorists . .Finished his schooling in philosophy in 1882. .Born in France (1858) .Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology. Epitacio.Concentrated itself with social evolution and change. . Symbolic-interactionism . . .the study of the structure of society . HENRI SAINT-SIMON (1760-1825) .Father of Sociology .He believed that the methods and techniques of the natural sciences could also be applied to the study of society. . AUGUSTE COMTE . .Why is society relatively unchaotic? .He advocated the idea of positivism or the use of empirical investigations (scientific method) to understand phenomena. EMILE DURKHEIM .How is this related to social change? - Reference: Palispis.Wrote his ideas on the science of society which he discussed with Isadore Auguste Marie Francois Comte.composition of the elements of society 2.3.

tasks.Collective Consciousness – common beliefs.Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology.In such societies all individuals are part of. (2008).A new form of social cohesion that is based on interdependence (independent of one another)  Durkheim believed that people are exclusively the product of their social environment.Homogeneity . Anomic . and they share common views of what is right and wrong.A society with little differentiation: individuals are all fairly similar to one another.Ex. .A society with much differentiation.Earlier belief = Individual is suffered from psychological illness TYPES OF SUICIDE 1.A society won’t be a society without solidarity. Mechanical Solidarity . with similar responsibilities. . . Epitacio. Organic Solidarity .THEORY OF SOLIDARITY . . During economic depression - Reference: Palispis. traditional and simple society . SUICIDE . and behaviors. and networks of friends. with people performing diverse types of work and exhibiting various behaviors.People who have no longer consistent.Rises within an industrialized society . no constant collective consciousness to guide them and they would be more likely to commit suicide. and norms the 2. values. clear-cut norms to direct them.Individuals share a special bond with each other . or integrated into. the same group. important and unimportant. .Sui generis reality (social existence) . the society shapes people in every possible way. from families and work organizations to religious groups.Individuals may also belong to any number of different groups. TYPES OF SOLIDARITY/SOCIETY 1.driven by social factors  the society shapes the individual in every possible way .influenced behavior based on external factors . political parties. .Usually found in a primitive.

Epitacio. Family bonds disintegrated Social change may occur due to conflict between the two opposing classes.He questioned why oppression and inequality existed and how this situation might change?  Marx suggested that in any society those who control the means of production are the dominant group. Bourgeoisie .The workers (the oppressed). . community or group . they can be the new oppressors and overthrow the bourgeoisie Alienation – using the lower population for work and their purpose for thousands are lost and only work for their oppressors Capitalism – abuse of the proletariats - Reference: Palispis.To die for the benefit of others or for the society. Proletariat .Marx became attached to the “Young Hegelians”. 2. 1.A person is willing to die for a great cause. .The introduction of machinery and technology .It is due to a defect in social organization. People worked for wages b. (2008). . Victim of bullying/abuse KARL HEINRICH MARX .The capitalists who owned the factories and mills (oppressor).Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology. Egoistic .Effect: (New social classes of businessmen and capitalist emerged) a.Father of Communism.2. .Pursued his interest in radical social and economic analysis and worked for a while as a newspaper writer and editor in Germany.Ex. 19th Century Europe (Industrial Revolution) . . suicide bombers 3. the person would search for an escape from a group. .Born in Germany in 1818. . .Ex. Altruistic . Japanese Kamikazes.Marx was greatly concerned with the conditions that the workers of his day faced.A period of turmoil. . » Social Revolution – If the proletariat becomes enlightened.Marx dreamt for an ideal society which is a classless society .

He was trained as an economic historian.Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology.Born on 1820 . 2. Social Darwinism . THEORY OF AUTHORITY 1.Experienced mental health issues that limited the amount of work he can do . 3.Basic view front of the society - Reference: Palispis.Conditions of the workers:  Child labor  Low wages  Hazardous work conditions  Long work hours  No benefits Society = Utopia = Classless community = Communism MAX WEBER .Society is analogous to a living organism .Had an excellent education in his early years and was extremely well read. Charismatic Authority . . . The authority is vested on the individual who inherits the position. .Survival of the fittest . A position is based on formal system of rules. the meanings that people attribute to their actions.Born in Germany (1864).Known for evolutionary thinking USE OF SOCIETY A.It exists when the control of others is based on an individual’s personal characteristics. HERBERT SPENCER . (2008).  Weber gave central importance in his analyses to social action. Traditional Authority .Theory used in science applied in sociology B.The exercise of authority is subject to a system of generalized rules. and the way these actions and meanings affect the social order. Epitacio. Society as a “Social Organism” .The legitimacy of the leader is rooted in customs.Animals best adapted survive and prosper. Rational – Legal Authority . those adapt poorly die out .

It deals with the study of various social institutions. 4. social mobility. bureaucracy.To create a secure system that for its economic activities Function of war A. Social Change/Social Disorganization .It deals with the study of the change in culture and social relations and the disruption that may occur in society.It deals with the study of human nature as an outcome of group life. .It studies the nature and behavior of a given population and its relationships to the group’s present social institutions. and prestige. power. Society undergoes growth from simple to complex Society is composed of different parts (institutions) which served specialized functions All parts of the society is interrelated A certain part cannot function without the others Use of government . Social Organization .Everyone unites against their common enemy B. 4. 3. and other similar topics. 2. It includes the study of current social problems in society.Division of people according to attributes such as wealth. 3. Epitacio. . to coordinate the functions of the government in a formal and organized way. collective behavior.Social classes Bureaucracy— introduced by Max Weber. Solidarity . social attitudes. Human Ecology . Unity .Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology.CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIETY 1. social stratification.Warfare brings solidarity in a group BRANCHES OF SOCIOLOGY 1. social groups. Social Psychology . and personality formation. (2008). Social Stratification . - Reference: Palispis. .Personality Group life 2.

*Scientific observation 2.5.Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology. Critical Spirit . social work. “critical thinking” . 4. Inductive 2. Applied Sociology . Epitacio. and social system.It includes theory building and testing the applicability of the principles of group life as the basis of prediction and control of man’s social environment.Knowledge must be obtained through direct observation and experience using the senses. *Analyzing various phenomena in society. and other aspects and problems of daily life.Makes skillful judgment.Is the set of mind that enables the individual to examine his own experiences by locating himself in the period in which he lives and studying the events in his personal life against events in society. etc. Empirical Observation . and quality as they influence the economic.Details are being analyzed and supported by reason/evidence. 6. community development. Deductive - Reference: Palispis. *Understanding events in society through personal experiences. political. change. Wright Mills) . 7.Ability to give account on things as they are not as what you want them to appear. SOCIAL INVESTIGATIONS REQUIRE: 1. (2008). Sociological Imagination (C.It utilizes the findings of pure sociological research in various fields such as criminology. METHODS OF INQUIRY 1..It is concerned with the study of population number. composition. Population Or Demography . Objectivity . . *Non-biased 3. Sociological Theory And Method .

Mechanism for recruiting members .g. each has a sense of what others do and think. (2008). Admission for schools 4. Social status/roles .GROUP THE CONCEPT OF GROUP 1. Social group is different from social aggregates . identification cards) 2. Epitacio. treasurer) 6.Every member has certain roles in a group (e.  To sociologists.It is important for every group to have their own goals and purposes 5.Members are expected to mirror their group’s values 3.e.g. 2. which are made up of people who happen to be in the same place but share little else (they do not interact with one another. president. but rather the fact that people interact. guided by a set of norms. what makes a group is not just the similarity of traits of individuals or the physical proximity of individuals.Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology. .Social interaction or interpersonal behavior of group members are the most important criteria in the concept of group. .Having objects that identify which institution one is from (e. not they consider their temporary association to have any meaning) CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUPS: To be considered as a social group. Permanence beyond meetings and members even when members are dispersed . Try-outs for sports clubs. A group is a specified number of individuals where each recognizes members as distinct from non-members.Rules and regulations are imposed in the group - Reference: Palispis.A formal process to be initiated into a group . Goals and purposes . Means of controlling the members’ behavior . A group is composed of two or more persons interacting with each other. as well as the purpose of the association or grouping. Marriage for families. one must have: 1.g. Means for identifying the members .

Task group – Employees working together to complete a particular task of project Informal group .Alliances that are neither structures nor organizationally determined.It is type of group in which relationships are impersonal and widely separated. They involve interaction among members who have emotional investment in one another and in a situation. Epitacio.Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS PRIMARY GROUP Small in number Long duration Inclusive knowledge of other persons Feeling of freedom and spontaneity SECONDARY GROUP Large in number Short duration Specialized and limited knowledge of other persons Feeling of external constraints Formal cooperation Informal cooperation (deliberate and contractual (involves mutual give and take nature prescribing the specific attitude) reciprocal rights and obligations of the members) Formal group . They usually have specific goals and are formally organized and impersonal. with designated work assignments A. and intimate. - Reference: Palispis. .Social ties develop around individuals.defined by the organization’s structure. Secondary group . .Relationships are spontaneous.Forms naturally as response to the need of social contract. personal. Command group – Employees reporting directly to a supervisor B. 2. who know one another intimately. . (2008).Charles Horton Cooley defined primary group as a group that is characterized by “intimate face-to-face relationships and close interaction. not necessarily about positions.BASIC CLASSIFICATION OF SOCIAL GROUPS 1. They are characterized by much less intimacy among members.Tend to be larger than primary groups and their members do not necessarily interact with all other members. . Primary Group . and cooperation”. .

2.People regard one another. . Barrios Gesellschaft . behavior. beliefs. NON-MATERIAL CULTURE .Urban communities.It is the meaning and substance inherent in culture. (2008).Impersonal and segmented. morals.Rural communities. Cities GEMEINSCHAFT Personal Community Traditions Public Property Mutual Cooperation Familiarity GESELLSCHAFT Impersonal Individualism Private Property Deliberate/Contractual Anonymity CULTURE - - “… that complex whole which includes knowledge. the ideas. . . the habits they follow. their relationships are close and personal . of any society profess and to which they strive to conform.Relationships that may appear in complex urban societies . arts. - Reference: Palispis. MATERIAL CULTURE . 1. much deviance) .Used by Ferdinand Tönnies to describe the relationship of people in either a gemeinschaft community or gesellschaft society.’ respectively.Includes physical objects or artifacts – things that human beings create by altering the natural environment. fleeting society of bargaining and contracts .GEMEINSCHAFT AND GESELLSCHAFT . customs.Individualism prevails (little argument on norms. ETYMOLOGY Greek – cultus – “care” – cultura – “civilization” *Culture provides the needed care and attention as one grows to a mature and grown individual.Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology. laws.German words literally translated as ‘community’ and society. . Gemeinschaft .Consists of words people use.It refers to the concrete and tangible things that man creates and uses.B. Taylor) Society & Culture are interrelated. customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” (E. Epitacio.Have high degree of conformity .

. standards. .Some norms apply to everyone.Norms are usually in the form of rules. (2008). .Customary patterns of everyday life that specify what is socially correct and proper in everyday life. customary and habitual ways and patterns of expected within a society. They are repetitive or the typical habits and patterns of expected behavior followed within a group of community. Reference: Palispis. . They are the general rules. . Epitacio.These are guides or models of behavior which tell us what is proper and which are not.Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology.Norms regulate people’s behavior in a given society. appropriate or inappropriate.COMPONENTS OF CULTURE A.Created to make a society unchaotic TWO TYPES OF NORMS  Ideal Norm – norm expected to exist  Real Norm – norm actually existing  One way sociologists classify norms is on the basis of the degree of disapproval that results when they are violated. or prescriptions and socially shared expectations. Other norms apply to particular categories of people who assume certain roles. NORMS .Norms define the proper way of behaving. Norms vary from society to society or from group to group within a society. . right or wrong. Sanctions – Socially imposed reward and punishment INFORMAL SANCTIONS Praise Friendship REWARD PUNISHMENT FORMAL SACTIONS High Grades Awards in school Promotion Favorable public opinion Salary increase Medals of honor Ridicule Failing grades Gossip Demotion Embarrassment Removal from office Withdrawing of friendship and Fine affection Imprisonment/Death Penalty FORMS OF NORMS  - Folkways .

taboos . (2008). .  Mores . They are based on ethical and moral values which are strongly held and emphasized. They embody the code of ethics and standards of morality. no matter how far or how wrongly one has wandered. . D. crazes .These values are the basis of our judgment. and correct as well as what is considered bad.Formalized social norms. Values .  Laws . . C. . Language . .Special folkways which are important to the welfare of the people and their cherished values.Represent the standards we use to evaluate the desirability of things.It provides understanding. Some of the laws grew out of the folkways and mores (legalized mores).Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology. enacted by people who are vested with governmental power and enforced by political and legal authorities designated by the government.They are more short-lived social norms which demand compliance at the time they operate. Epitacio.Every culture has a basic set of values which make up its core. VALUES FILIPINOS HOLD HIGHLY According to Jaime Bulatao. Fashions. Values define what is important and worthwhile.The observance is compulsive and violation of mores is regarded as immoral and sinful. It is the symbolic communication or language that sets human beings apart from other species. of what we consider good.‘thou shall not’. SJ’s study about Filipino Values 1. undesirable. acceptance. . he can always return to his family. desirable. B. Emotional closeness and security in the family . - Reference: Palispis.It refers to a system of symbols that have specific and arbitrary meaning in a given society. fads.They are powerful determinant of behavior. a place where.. ugly and wrong. the prestige and status of a person depend on his or her use of these new styles.The key factor in human race’s success in creating and preserving culture.They are rigidly enforced but the sanctions in violating the folkways are mild.

- Reference: Palispis. 2. 5.The process of imitation becomes possible because of the examples set by the social environment. Culture is adaptive . No one is born equipped with a particular language. 3.This may take the form of formal teaching which may take place anywhere the individual finds himself interacting with his fellow humans (school.This refers to the approval by the authority figure. It is adaptive with respect to specific physical and social environment.  Conditioning . .2.Culture changes over time. The authority value . CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE 1.It is conceptualized by not only one person. often as a repayment for one’s debt of gratitude (utang na loob) to parents and relatives.Culture is not instinctive. 4. MODES OF ACQUIRING CULTURE  Imitation .Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology. Filipino family places high authority on the elders. Epitacio. (Family members).It varies from one society to another.It appears most often as a desire to raise the standard of living of one’s family or of one’s hometown. It is acquired by each person through the senses and experience. Culture is relative . Economic and social betterment . Culture is a group-product . (2008). Culture is transmitted from generation to generation .The survival of a society requires that the people provide means by which their culture can be learned and transmitted from one generation to the next. 3.  Indoctrination . or a knowledge of religious beliefs.This process is further reinforced by a system of reward and punishment found in the cultural system. church). Culture is learned and acquired . and the changes are adjustments to the prevailing environment.

Epitacio. Reference: Palispis. Reasons for existence:  promote unity  protection from change     - Xenocentrism .It happens when a person has internalized his own culture.the learning of one’s own culture Acculturation .It occurs when a person loses familiar symbols and signs of his culture and he goes through unpleasant and frustrating experience.CULTURAL TERMS  Ethnocentrism . (2008).Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology.The people regard its own culture as inferior to that of other groups.The learning of another culture after learning your own. Culture Shock . Enculturation .The members of society have the tendency to regard its culture as the best and superior than that of other groups. . .