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Soil & Tillage Research 156 (2016) 110–118

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Soil & Tillage Research
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/still

Phosphorus sorption index in humid tropical soils
Murilo de Campos, João Arthur Antonangelo, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú Alleoni*
University of São Paulo, College of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz, Department of Soil Science, CP 09 – Piracicaba, SP 13418-900, Brazil

A R T I C L E I N F O

A B S T R A C T

Article history:
Received 20 January 2015
Received in revised form 28 September 2015
Accepted 29 September 2015
Available online 9 November 2015

The dynamics of phosphorus (P) in soils is strongly influenced by organic and inorganic solid phases,
biological activity and environmental factors. Highly weathered soils naturally contain low levels of P
available to plants and have high adsorption capacity. The maximum adsorption capacity of P (Smax) has
been widely used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of soil P. The P sorption index (PSI) is also used for
evaluating the P adsorption capacity of soil from a single concentration of P and is an effective alternative
in the estimation of maximum adsorption. We obtained the maximum capacity of P adsorption (Smax) and
the P sorption index (PSI) of 29 Brazilian soils with different chemical, physical and mineralogical
attributes. The use of the PSI to estimate the adsorption of P in a long-term experiment was also
evaluated. For Smax, rates of 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 260 mg L1 of P in 24 h of contact were used. For the
PSI, soils were divided into groups because of the variation in their capacity to adsorb P, and each group
received an optimal P rate: 200, 500, 1000, 1500 or 3000 mg L1 of P. The periods of reaction assessed
were 1, 3, 7, 21, 42, and 84 d. Smax was affected by amounts of clay, Fe and Al oxides and organic carbon
(OC), which ranged from 61.7 (Typic Haploxeralf) to 5459.5 mg kg1 (Mollic Fluvaquent). In the PSI, the
average percentage of P adsorbed at the end of the contact period (84 d) ranged from 23% to 49% of P that
was mixed initially and was, on average, four times higher than their values after 1 d of contact. Oxisols,
Alfisols and Gleysols had the highest values of PSI. On the other hand, Ultisols and Entisols had the lowest
ones. The PSI behaved similarly to the Smax, and the highest values were found in soils with high contents
of clay, C, crystalline and poorly crystallized Fe and Al oxides. Furthermore, the PSI was higher in the 84th
day, highlighting the influence of the period of contact on P adsorption.
ã 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Maximum P adsorption
P sorption index
Humid tropical soils

1. Introduction
The dynamics of phosphorus (P) is controlled by the organic and
the mineralogical constitution of the soil, by the pH and the ionic
strength of the soil solution, as well as by environmental factors
such as moisture content and temperature (Pierzynski et al., 2005).
Highly weathered soils naturally contain low levels of P
available to plants and have a high P adsorption capacity. An
example of these soils are the Oxisols, which cover immense areas
of humid tropical and subtropical regions in Brazil and account for
about 60% of the areas of agricultural importance (Tiessen, 2005;
Soares and Alleoni, 2008). In these soils, due to the advanced
process of weathering, the clay fraction is dominated by 1:1 silicate
minerals, oxides, hydroxides and oxihydroxides of Fe, Al and Mn,
which have a high affinity to adsorb P. This adsorption, at first, is
rapid, and is followed by a period of specific adsorption (Sposito,
1989).

* Corresponding author.
E-mail address: alleoni@usp.br (L.R.F. Alleoni).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2015.09.020
0167-1987/ ã 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

In general, high rates of fertilizers and/or agro-industrial
residues containing P are usually applied to the soil with the
aim of increasing crop production (Townsend and Porder, 2012).
This practice, however, can saturate binding sites in P soil particles
and result in a reduction of the capability of the soil to retain P. In
soils with low P retention potential, there is high likelihood of
release the P into the soil solution, and the element could reach
aquatic environments through runoff or drainage water (Sims
et al., 1998; Allen et al., 2006).
The degree of P saturation is a potential risk indicator of P losses
from non-point sources such as agricultural soils under field
conditions (Hooda et al., 2000; Casson et al., 2006) and has been
used in many countries. This parameter is calculated from P, Al and
Fe contents extracted with an acidic ammonium oxalate solution
(Pox, Alox and Feox), which will represent the P already sorbed (Pox)
and the most active binding sites (Alox and Feox). It is defined as the
ratio of the amount of P is already sorbed and the sorption capacity
of the soil P (Maguire and Sims, 2002; Hughes et al., 2005). The P
sorption capacity is defined as the sum of P sorption index with Pox
(PSC = PSI + Pox).

Il. 1960) was used to obtain the crystalline oxide contents of Fe and Al.0 8.5 0.2 2. P Adsorption capacity (Smax) The residual phosphorus content (P-rem) was used to obtain the most appropriate rates of P to add when estimating the Table 1 Chemical.0 0. The hypothesis was that the degree of phosphorus saturation can be calculated for these soils through the presented methods in order to assess the potential of P releasing to the environment.3 9.1 205. there is a need to evaluate the P sorption capacity using techniques as is used to calculate DPS.9 0.2 1.3 0.8 2.5 2. Hm Kt.9 7.5 1. Il Kt.4 0. Gb. Inceptisols. Entisols. Soils Geographical coordinates C Clay Feox Alox FeDCB AlDCB Qualitative mineralogy 8 14 8 10 24 50 14 24 14 24 4 4 20 9 19 23 4 22 6 13 8 29 29 33 103 16 12 4 28 181 221 202 201 530 684 716 222 342 470 60 100 247 202 366 246 100 427 80 142 101 345 658 532 476 243 204 40 543 0. Gt.2 20. Gt = Goethite. Iron and aluminum content were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Adsorption of P by the soil 2. 2002). Gt.4 1.8 6. The PSI is calculated from the addition of a single rate of P and 18 h of contact being a fast and effective form to estimate the maximum P adsorption due to the high correlation with the Smax (Mozaffari and Sims. Because it is so practical. Poorly crystallized forms or “amorphous” Fe and Al were extracted by 0.7 10.0 8. Chemical characterization was obtained from air-dried soil samples and passed through a sieve 2 mm in diameter (10 mesh). 0. Hm Kt Kt.2 20.1 3.9 6.6 5. Il Kt.6 1.5 2. Gt Kt.7 7. where soil is equilibrated with solution containing different amounts of P.2 40. Ultisols. The carbon content (C) was obtained using a modified Walkley– Black method (Nelson and Sommer.5 1.4 15. Gb.7 1.6 111.1 0.2 mol L1 ammonium oxalate at pH 3 (Schoumans.2 32.5 18. Hm Kt Kt Kt.8 2.3 1. 2014).0 106. Details of the attributes of these soils can be found in Soares and Alleoni (2008).2 4. Histosols and Mollisols (Table 1).0 44.3 0.2 1.0 13. Bache and Williams (1971) developed a simple and alternative way to calculate Smax called the P Sorption Index (PSI).4 25. However. FeDCB e AlDCB = Fe and Al content extracted by sodium citrate–bicarbonate–dithionite solution.9 0.2 0.4 2. To adopt this practice.. Gt.6 1.8 52.0 2.6 Kt.6 0. HIV Kt. Hm Kt.2 20.5 1. Gb Kt. Gt. Gb.4 0.1 8. Il Kt.8 1.1 0.4 0.9 2. Hm = Hematite. the PSI is often used in environmental studies to calculate the degree of P saturation (DPS).5 8.6 2.8 0. Hm Kt Il. Hm 1 g kg Arenic Hapludox Typic Hapludox-1 Typic Hapludox-2 Rhodic Hapludox-1 Rhodic Hapludox-2 Rhodic Eutrudox Rhodic Acrudox Xanthic Hapludox-1 Xanthic Hapludox-2 Xanthic Acrudox Arenic Hapludult-1 Arenic Hapludult-2 Typic Hapludult-1 Typic Hapludult-2 Typic Hapludult-3 Typic Hapludult-4 Rhodic Hapludult-1 Rhodic Hapludult-2 Typic Quartzipsamment Typic Udorthent Typic Psammaquent Typic Rhodudalf Rhodic Eutrudalf Typic Fluvaquent Mollic Fluvaquent Typic Haplustept Typic Albaqualf Typic Haploxeralf Typic Argiudoll 22 190 S 47 100 W 22 150 S 47490 W 22 190 S 47 100 W 22 010 S 47 530 W 21050 S 47 080 W 22 430 S 47 380 W 21100 S 47480 W 22 150 S 47490 W 21570 S 47 590 W 20 100 S 48 020 W 22 320 S 47 540 W 22 380 S 47 110 W 22 430 S 47 380 W 22 170 S 49 330 W 22 060 S 46 400 W 22 430 S 47 380 W 22 120 S 49 560 W 22 590 S 47 300 W 22 320 S 47 540 W 22 120 S 49 390 W 22 260 S 49 450 W 22 590 S 47 300 W 22 060 S 47 070 W 24 430 S 47 520 W 21100 S 47480 W 22 070 S 47 390 W 22 420 S 47 380 W 22 220 S 46 560 W 22 080 S 47400 W Kt = Kaolinite. Gt.M. Material and methods Soil samples were collected from several sites under forestry (native and planted) in the state of Sao Paulo.4 6. which is used to evaluate the soil adsorption capacity from the addition of a single concentration of P. the traditional method of calculating Smax requires an extended period. Gt. A sodium dithionite–citrate– bicarbonate solution (Mehra and Jackson. Il = Illite e HIV = hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite.6 0. . Gt.3 21.6 5. Gt.4 183. to data from laboratory experiment.1 mol L1 of oxalic acid solution + 0. Feox e Alox = Fe e Al content extracted by ammonium oxalate. Gt. Xue et al.4 0. Gb = Gibbsite.9 1. firstly.1 0.6 3.4 5.9 8.2 1. Gt. 2.0 19. and is both laborious and expensive for routine use (Bache and Williams.1. the PSI and the DPS are not widely disseminated in Brazil. and to evaluate the viability of using the PSI to estimate P adsorption in soils over the long term.2 6. The DPS is used for estimating the risk potential of loss of P from the soil and takes into account the percentage of sites saturated by P in relation to its adsorption capacity.3 0. taking the water eutrophication by phosphorus accumulation into account. 2009).1 0.167 mol L1 (K2Cr2O7) in concentrated sulfuric acid. The aim in this study was to obtain the maximum P adsorption capacity (Smax) and the P sorption index (PSI) of highly weathered tropical soils from Brazil. Il Kt.7 190. 2009.5 0.1 0. such as the Langmuir isotherm.4 10.0 0. 111 2.4 0.5 0. de Campos et al.4 3.5 0.7 0.1 2.2 31. Hm Kt. HIV Kt. physical and minerological properties of the soils.7 17.1.5 1.5 85.1 0.1.1 5. Hm Kt Kt. Hm Kt.3 0. Soil classes used were as follows: Oxisols.4 10. Gb. which had not been exposed to artificial sources of P (Table 1). Il Kt.7 83. This technique is used mainly in European countries and USA.4 0.1 2. Gt. / Soil & Tillage Research 156 (2016) 110–118 Maximum P adsorption capacity (Smax) is estimated by fitting empirical models.4 7. making a total of 29 soil samples (Soil Survey Staff. However. The clay content was determined following the hydrometer method (Gee and Or. Hm Kt. Brazil.5 18. 1999).3 1. The samples were passed through a 100 mesh sieve. Sims. and the organic carbon content was measured after oxidation by organic matter in the soil with potassium dichromate solution. Il. Hm Kt.2 0. 1971). Alfisols.7 0. 1982). Hm Kt. Gb. and determination was by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS).6 0.0 1.7 1. Gb.3 1.3 48.7 0. Hm Kt. 1994. Gt.6 1.5 0.2 2. Hm Kt.7 41.8 3. HIV Kt.

Because these soils are well-drained and located in humid tropical regions. II—Rhodic Eutrudalf. Rhodic Hapludox-1 and Typic Hapludox-3 (Medium Adsorption Capacity with Smax between 500 and 1000 mg kg1). were mixed to 25 ml of a solution containing 0. Results and discussion The values of Smax for the soils followed the expectations and varied mainly as a function of clay content. P = initial P in equilibrium concentration (mg L1) and Pf = final P in equilibrium concentration (mg L1). Typic Haplustept. Typic Hapludult-3. thus. As regards correlations. 2. Freese et al. 1962). In order to determine the rates. 200 and 260 mg L1) were determined in accordance with the value of the P-rem (Alvarez et al. Rates of P (KH2PO4) were calculated from the Smax of previous experiment for every soil type. we used the Tukey test at 1%. Mollic Fluvaquent had high contents of C and Alox (Table 1). in general (Table 2).70 | (Manly. Rhodic Acrudox. Typic Psammaquent and Typic Haploxeralf (Very Low adsorption capacity with Smax < 200 mg kg1). 100.01 mol L1 CaCl2 solution amended with rates of P. which is the amorphous forms of aluminum. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the principal components analyses using the computer statistical package from Statistica (Statsoft. Due to the wide variations of these attributes (Table 1). unfavorable because of the blocking of adsorption sites (Guppy et al. 1962). as well as the Alfisols. After each period. Arenic Hapludox. 1957). Typic Hapludox-1 and Typic Albaqualf (Low adsorption capacity with Smax between 200 and 500 mg kg1). Alvarez et al. 3. 2009): C 1 ¼ þ ð1 þ Smax ÞC e . 3.1. 2001). To achieve this. The P rates (10. since one single concentration would not be effectively with all the soils over a determined time. each receiving the optimal concentration of P in relation to its adsorption capacity. Some Oxisols such as Rhodic Acrudox and Xanthic Acrudox had high potential for adsorption (Table 2). so as to ensure about 70% of the initial concentration that was mixed still remained. Freese et al.0025 kg soil).. in terms of its anionic character. Rhodic Hapludult-2. derived from a solution of KH2PO4. The P concentrations in solution were assessed at 1. Arenic Hapludult-2. Xanthic Acrudox and Rhodic Eutrudox (Very High adsorption capacity with Smax > 2000 mg kg1). 7.. These were shaken daily for 2 h after the first 24 h of agitation. the content obtained (mg L1) in one day was multiplied by 3 to achieve a concentration of P sufficient to attain P adsorption. ðlogCÞ in which X = P sorbed (mg kg1) = (PiPf)  (0. The P content in the equilibrium solution was determined by colorimetry (Murphy and Riley. the Smax ranged from 61. 2005). Due to the low standard deviation of the results.. 50. and Al and these cations induce P retention (Sanyal and De Datta. 400. also represents the most reactive aluminum oxide from clay fraction. which was already expected for tropical soils. de Campos et al. Considered as ambivalent. C = Concentration of P in equilibrium (mg L1). Thus. 1962). the solutions were calculated so that the equilibrium concentrations at the end of the contact period would be equivalent to approximately 70% of the amount of P mixed. III—Typic Fluvaquent. Rhodic Hapludox-2 and Xanthic Hapludox-2 (High adsorption capacity with Smax between 1000 and 2000 mg kg1). Typic Quartzipsamment.. and favorable. using a horizontal end-over-end agitator. they have an accumulation of oxides and . 2000). (1995.112 M. Typic Rhodudalf. Typic Udorthent. samples were centrifuged at 1844  g for 15 min. OM is capable of performing a dual role with regard to the adsorption of P. The Oxisols and the Alfisols had high levels of FeDCB and AlDCB. The groups were divided as follows: I—Mollic Fluvaquent. the Langmuir equation was linearized as (Graetz and Nair. 1958). 1991). 600 and 800 mg L1 of P were mixed to the soil samples. Accordingly. and Ce = the final concentration of P in the equilibrium solution in mg L1. The strong positive correlations between Smax and Alox as well as the clay can be observed in Table 3. IV—Typic Hapludult-4. 21. Typic Argiudoll. (1995) and Indiati and Diana (2005) observed that adsorption in 90 d is approximately three times higher than that attained in one day. since the sites attract electrostatically cations such as Ca. 1971).2. and the P content determined by colorimetry (Murphy and Riley. For estimation of the constants KL and Smax. Smax = the Smax of the soil in mg kg1. Typic Hapludult-3.0 g of soil were mixed to a 0. 2000). 2000). The P content in the solution was determined by colorimetry (Murphy and Riley. The samples were analyzed in triplicate using a batch for each reaction period.5 mg kg1 in Mollic Fluvaquent (Table 2). In this way. High Smax values are found in these soils due to the intense process of desilicatization. Consequently. Criteria used to determine the factors followed the Kaiser rule. KL = the constant related to the energy used in the adsorption of P to the soil in L mg 1. The other Oxisols. Arenic Hapludult-1. The Langmuir isotherm is given by equation: x ðK L  ADmax  C e Þ ¼ . sifted through a 2 mm sieve. 25. which was sufficient to maintain a constant ionic strength in the solution and induce adsorption. This fraction influenced the large adsorption of P in Mollic Fluvaquent. the Alox.7 mg kg1 in the Typic Haploxeralf to 5459. and V— Typic Hapludult-2. The samples have been shaken for 24 h and centrifuged for 15 min at 1844  g. Rhodic Hapludult-1. Some soil samples received further rates. 1994). / Soil & Tillage Research 156 (2016) 110–118 maximum P adsorption capacity (Smax) (V. 2. Xanthic Hapludox-1. The adsorption isotherms were fitted according to the P concentration values as a function of the P adsorbed in final equilibrium concentrations in the solution (Olsen and Watanabe. 2005). the values of Smax (mg kg1) were first converted to mg L1. Fe. 1992) suggested that the rates applied should be decreased by approximately 30% at the end of the contact period. the samples were divided into five groups. which thereby gave the content level of P in the solution required to attain maximum adsorption in one day. The Langmuir P adsorption isotherm was fitted to the experimental data for each soil to estimate Smax. also showed an affinity for adsorbing P (Table 2). 42 and 84 d. PSI values and the percentage of adsorbed P were evaluated by the means comparison test (Tukey test) using SASM AGRI software (Canteri et al. a high number of active sites (Paulter and Sims. Fe and Al oxides and C. In fact. since those first applied were not sufficient to establish maximum adsorption.01 mol L1 CaCl2 as supporting electrolyte. The poorly crystallized fraction of Al hydroxides is primarily responsible for the adsorption of P by having a high specific surface area and. The adsorbed P was calculated as the difference between the mixed P and the P that remained in the solution and the PSI was estimated as: 1 PSIðmgkg Þ¼ X .025 L)/(0. those considered were  | 0.5 g of soil. Phosphorus saturation index (PSI) The PSI was calculated from a single point isotherm (Bache and Williams. m ðð1 þ ðK L  C e ÞÞ in which x/m = the amount of P adsorbed to the soil in mg kg1. For this calculation. which takes into account the eigenvalues 1 or to explain over 85% of the total variance (Kaiser. responsible for the high phosphorus adsorption. ðx=mÞ ðK L  Smax Þ 2.

4 g kg1 in Mollic Fluvaquent.84 0.18 10.354.08 3.53 0.89 0.447.20 638.81 576.54 85.62 565.442. the variation was 0. the adsorption on the first day represented 20–30% of the total.33 533.67 276.72 0.70 545. b Second line for each soil property represents the correlation coefficients for all soils except Rhodic Acrudox.49 425.757.26 97.81 0.64 0.15 127.42 mg L1).82 0.19 121.05 42.56 4.000–2. (2013) evaluated the adsorption capacity in the Brazilian Savanna (“Cerrado”) Oxisols and found Smax values ranging from 283 to 2635 mg kg1.79 Clay 0.28 91.03 310.23 175.33 6.1 in Arenic Hapludult-1 and Arenic Hapludult-2 to 6.75 815.2000 500 .500 1.96 0.79 0.92 146.61 303. it was possible to fit the four soils into the same group.85 0.000 .000 3. Table 3 Correlations among soil properties.77 0.66 56.86 0.90 0.15 1.47 1.80 0.80 161.75 a First line for each soil property represents the correlation coefficients for all soils.500 200 . which showed a close correlation between these levels and the degree of weathering of the soil.1 in Arenic Hapludult-1.81 0. In the other soils FeDCB had a range from 3.82 302.69 0.3 in Typic Psammaquent to 213.57 211.80 138.73 290.66 1.55 30. In groups I and II. These values show low adsorption capacity.30 31.000 1.86 0.5 g kg1 in Typic Fluvaquent.93 0.14 285.84 172.09 30.487.66 0.000 500 500 500 500 500 500 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 > 2000 > 2000 >2.50 0.31 61.55 0.06 36. Guardini et al.459.000 1.95 FeDCB 0.042.74 0. In PSI.85 0.40 104.33 2.000 3.53 Alox 0.500 1. the P adsorption capacity in the Typic Haploxeralf and in the Typic Albaqualf was low.32 406.58 455.44 0.77 135.38 0. by using this rate. Rates of P applied in each group.22 1.36 21. Mollic Fluvaquent and Typic Argiudoll. Quartzipsamment Typic Udorthent Arenic Hapludult-1 Rhodic Hapludult-1 Arenic Hapludult-2 Typic Psammaquent Typic Haploxeralf a b c d P solution (90 d)b mg kg1 P solution (1 d)a mg L1 5.85 0. the corresponding first day .88 570.81 0.27 61.2000 1.000 1.29 2.88 0.09 18.49 42.51 Calculated ratec Added rated Groups mg kg1 5.09 282.56 0. and the concentration of P applied was sufficient to maintain 50% of the P in solution at the end of the contact period. 1:1 silicate mineral predominance.63 64. which deviate from the norm (outliers).500 1.65 0.500 200 .26 54.3 mg kg1 in Rhodic Hapludult-2 and 1.89 421.71 0. However.36 892. Rhodic Eutrudalf.61 0.1000 500 .61 0. In our study.68 90.85 560.6 mg kg1 in Rhodic Hapludult-2 and 103.56 30.99 538.2 AlDCB in Arenic Hapludult-2 to 41.28 1. / Soil & Tillage Research 156 (2016) 110–118 113 Table 2 Maximum P adsorption capacity (Smax).16 2.75a 0.93 305.62 0.96 448.29 0.76 0.70 0. P Content in the solution required for maximum adsorption at 90 d (mg L1).91 0. de Campos et al. respectively.6 in Typic Fluvaquent.1000 500 .08 2.61 102.96 and 4442.57 213.52 0.71 267.80 0.91 0.71 0.14 883.35 0.05 179.76 0.91 0.57 978.41 179.107.000 1.86 181.66 0.60 0. With regard to Alox levels.75 0.87 Feox 0.44 0.000 1.2000 1.500 < 200 < 200 < 200 < 200 < 200 < 200 < 200 < 200 P Content in the solution required for maximum adsorption in 1 d (mg L1).83 0.79 120. In soils corresponding to group III and IV. whereby P is preferentially adsorbed (Mesquita Filho and Torrent. Mollic Fluvaquent and Rhodic Acrudox belong to the group I.17 2.462.68 0. 1).43 213.71 0.000 1.59 0. Typic Fluvaquent.60 53. The Ultisols and Entisols presented Smax ranging from 121.69 138.71 0.99 18. Pinto et al.33 0.88 0.5 in Arenic Hapludult-1 to 51.19 872.42 2.78 0.690. Properties Correlation coefficients – Pearson (r) Smax PSI1d PSI3d PSI7d PSI21d PSI42d PSI84d C 0. primarily represented by the low content of crystalline and non-crystalline oxides (Table 1). Arenic Hapludult-2 and Typic Haploxeralf to 9.54 21. Typic Fluvaquent.91 93.500 200 .90 922.01 1.88 0.000 >2.500 200 .11 913.28 57.129.16 14.89 92.000 1.90 46.45 0.740.95 0.000 .1000 500 .70 0.000 1.85 0.35 300. 42 and 84 days).87 1. Soil Smax Mollic Fluvaquent Rhodic Acrudox Xanthic Acrudox Rhodic Eutrudox Rhodic Eutrudalf Typic Argiudoll Rhodic Hapludox-2 Xanthic Hapludox-2 Typic Fluvaquent Typic Rhodudalf Xanthic Hapludox-1 Typic Haplustept Rhodic Hapludult-2 Rhodic Hapludox-1 Typic Hapludox-3 Typic Hapludult-4 Arenic Hapludox Typic Hapludult-1 Typic Hapludult-3 Typic Hapludox-1 Typic Albaqualf Typic Hapludult-2 T.346.71 0. 21. About 30 to 45% of the P adsorption occurred on the first day of contact with the soil in group V (Fig.500 200 .02 12. since they are sandy and medium textured soils.77 0.1000 500 .5 mg kg1 in Typic Quartzipsamment (Table 2).00 307. The rate mixed to these soils (3000 mg L1) was lower than the rates calculated (5404.86 0.06 54.89 AlDCB 0. calculated rate to maintain 70% of P in solution. Smax and PSI (1. 3.53 0.000 1.000 3.1000 500 -1.97 460.83 103.24 89.76 0.637. The Feox content varied from 0.909.81 0.340.51 28. with low concentrations of oxides.07 64.81 0. Likewise.500 1.97 0.92 271.20 312.77 438.74 0.99 169.77b 0.73 1.81 0.1000 500 .8 in Arenic Hapludult-2 to 576.96 4.73 212.78 0. 7. calculated rates and added to the P sorption index (PSI) for soil groups.93 1.77 293.57 0.62 140.68 527.14 969. Typic Hapludult2 and Typic Quartzipsamment had a calculated rate slightly higher than the rate actually mixed but none of them had levels of P in solution tending to zero.55 180. The Typic Haplustept and the Typic Argiudoll presented intermediate Smax values.717. (2012) evaluated the P saturation in Ultisols after application of pig slurry and found a Smax range of 367–426 mg kg1.67 0.000 200 .M.35 18.43 211.17 1. 1993).032.000 .880.73 0.404.

In soils from Groups I and II the decrease of the mixed rates averaged 50%. These results are related to P adsorption kinetics. 1000 (Smax 500–1. 1).. The PSI84d varied increasingly with the Fig.9 times higher. 1994). IV and V. 500 (Smax 200–500). being 2.000) and 3000 mg L1 (Smax > 2. As for Groups III. that occur rapidly at first. 1992) suggested that the mixed rates should be reduced. featuring a specific adsorption (Barrow and Shaw.000) versus contact time (Tukey test. respectively. (1995. 31 and 23%. PSI84d represented. followed by a slower reaction. . 1500 (Smax 1000–2. Torrent et al.2–8. on average. The bars represent the mean standard deviation. / Soil & Tillage Research 156 (2016) 110–118 adsorption was 30–50% of the amount adsorbed after 84 d. P < 0. Our purpose was to mix rates in proportion to the soil’s P adsorption capacity. In all soils. Freese et al. 1975. 1. Percentage of P adsorbed at rates of 200 (Smax < 200). the mean decrease was 37.000). four times the PSI1d. about 30% by the end of the contact period.01). The average percentage of P adsorbed at the end of the contact period ranged from 23 to 49% of P initially mixed (Fig. and thus ensure the concentrations were sufficient to maintain the ionic strength at a constant level that would favor adsorption over the long term.114 M. de Campos et al. on average.

In Typic Psammaquent.8 mg kg1 in Rhodic Acrudox. / Soil & Tillage Research 156 (2016) 110–118 applied rates. the Alfisols.01). by the sandy texture and the low levels of oxides and C (Bolland et al. 1000 (Group III).M. Together with the Oxisols. the PSI (Fig. The bars represent the mean standard deviation. thus characterizing maximum adsorption. The low adsorption capacity in these soils. The Ultisols and the Entisols recorded low PSI84d values. Arenic Hapludult-1. Unlike all other soils.. was influenced. the Entisols. Typic Haploxeralf and Typic Albaqualf had low values of PSI84d. Likewise. Mollic Fluvaquent. 2). 1500 (Group II) and 3000 mg L1 (Group I) according to contact time (Tukey test. 115 mainly. 2) did not always increase. as evidenced by Smax. Rhodic Eutrudox. P sorption index (PSI) at rates of 200 (Group V). The PSI values varied in a similar way to Smax. since they were affected by the same attributes in the soil. Fig. 500 (group IV). and Typic Hapludult-4 did not differ in ratings between 42 and 84 d. 2003). de Campos et al. 2. In Oxisols.01). the Typic Argiudoll and the Typic Haplustept showed the highest values of ISP84d (Fig. the PSI84d ranged from 480 in Typic Hapludox-1 to 4975. . Rhodic Acrudox. Over the course of the evaluations. and Arenic Hapludult-2 soils PSI values differed only after 42 d of contact (p < 0. P < 0.

4 7 -0. Arenic Hapludox 2. reaching the maximum when it covers the adsorbent surface. Ty pic Rhodudalf 23. and expresses a finite number of binding sites (Langmuir. adsorption continued throughout the experiment.5%) in some soils during the last days of reaction. However. In general.0 Fe ox 0. Xanthic Hapludox 9. Rhodic Acrudox 8. 1918). Ty pic Albaqualf 28.6 -0. 3. Fig.35% 0. PSI values at the end of the reaction period were higher than the values estimated by Smax due to increased contact time in the PSI. Ty pic Argiudoll Active Suppl. Ty pic Hapludult 16. 3).0 Factor 1 : 97.5% of the total adsorbed content. Indiati and Diana (2005) evaluated the retention of P in ten acidic European soils up to 180 d of reaction and found that. suggesting that even over the long-term. whether it is used either as an indicator of environmental hazards or as available P for cultivated plants. Mollic Fluvaquent 26.8 b -1. The Smax and PSI parameters were also submitted to principal component analysis (PCA) that showed what attributes were responsible for explaining the variations in results in tropical soils. Rhodic Hapludox 5. Arenic Hapludult 12. Projection of variables (a) and cases (b) subjected to PCA with a number of the soil attributes. (Fig. Arenic Hapludult 13. Rhodic Eutrudalf 24. Ty pic Hapludult 15. even down to a minimum rate (about 2. Ty pic Hapludox 4. Ty pic Udorthent 21.0 it represented only 3.5 0.116 M. however. Ty pic Quartzipsamm ent 20.0 0. Ty pic Hapludox 3. on average.5 1. Xanthic Hapludox 10. Ty pic Hapludult 14. de Campos et al. Xanthic Acrudox 11.2 25 -0. 65% AlDCB Clay CEC pH Fe DCB PSI C Alox 0. The reaction time of P in soil interferes with the adsorption. Maguire et al.. 1. Rhodic Hapludult 19. 65% In the Langmuir adsorption model it is assumed that adsorption occurs at specific sites and takes place in a single layer. Rhodic Hapludox 6. Ty pic Haplustept 27. making it difficult to reproduce in the laboratory what actually happens under field conditions (Maguire et al.5 F actor 2 : 2. Ty pic Psamm aquent 22. 2001). Rhodic Eutrudox 7. Ty pic Haploxeralf 29. which is an important parameter in the management of P.90 PSI84d (mg kg-1) 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 -1 Smax (mg kg ) 95% confidence Fig.81 + 1. Linear regression between the Smax and the PSI84d in tropical soils. 3 4 5 6 .6 6 0. 4. in the last 60 d.5 a -1.2 4 10 5 23 1 131618 27 21 2 28 19 26 17 12 14 20 15 3 8 11 0. 1. Ty pic Fluvaquent 25.8 24 0. 92% of P was adsorbed after 90 d of contact. the adsorption continues to occur.0 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 Factor 1: 97. From this. Rhodic Hapludult 18.0 29 -0. Ty pic Hapludult 17.14 (Smax) R2 = 0.0 S max -0. the 84 d contact period used may not have been sufficient to reach maximum adsorption. 4 shows the projection of variables (a) and cases (b) for all the 1. since most of the soils seem to continue retaining P with the increase of reaction time. 0. / Soil & Tillage Research 156 (2016) 110–118 6000 PSI84d = 361.0 -0. (2001) evaluated 37 soils from Northern Ireland left 252 d to react and observed P adsorption continuously.0 -1.4 22 9 F actor 2: 2.35% Fig.

. Soil Res.70 Correlations between soil properties 97. W. 33–38. S. G. D. Rendell.. Blamey.. Gee. J.D.R. A. Influence of particle size and mineralogy on phosphorus retention in Oxisols under pasture in the cerrado.A.. Allen.35 2. 1009–1016 (in Portuguese).. Virgens Filho. 2002... 3. J. Nolan.. C. Becquer. J.A.. G.. 2.. Belli Filho. 2008. J.B.L. 239–245.95 0. Guimarães. Rheinheimer. Bulletin 4591 (Depart. Aitken. Or. 2012.. L.16 -0. 119... 599–610. and Waters.S. Van Der Zee.V. P. Novais. Comparison of different models for phosphate sorption as a function of the iron and aluminium oxides of soils. P.R. where high levels of crystalline oxides are observed (Table 2). Casson. A phosphate sorption index for soils. J. Canteri. D.W. Residuals. Freese. Barrow. G.65 Correlations Fator 2 0.. 167–177.H. J. Degree of phosphorus saturation thresholds in manure-amended soils of Alberta. 27–32. Although they were not significant in the PCA. Particle-size analysis.S.G. 729–738. Relating soil phosphorus indices to potential phosphorus release to water. It is necessary to vary the rates of P as a function of the P adsorption capacity of the soil. N. North Carolina State University.P. J.. Gatiboni. Guardini. D. Fontes and Weed (1996) used multiple regression equation on Savanna soils in Brazil and oberved that the contents of Alox..... M. J... Qual.00 97. were the main components related to the adsorption of P in humid tropical soils.R. In this study.A. S. Moody.16 PSI Smax Fator 1 0.J.F.F. P. D.. V..A. J. These results were expected due to the strong relationship between these attributes and the adsorption of P.C.. Bender. Mesquita Filho and Torrent (1993) also used multiple regression analysis on Brazilian Oxisols samples and observed a good fit of the maximum P adsorption to kaolinite and attributed this result to the abundance of this mineral in the soils studied. Soil and surface runoff phosphorus relationships for five typical USA Midwest soils. Food: South Perth).). Environ.A.65 0. V.M. levels of Feox and kaolinite were not included..C. J. D. In general. G. but the PSI can be recommended for long-term adsorption studies in highly weathered tropical soils because it is practical to determine. Comin.S.V. Determination and use of the remaining phosphorus.. soils studied.. the crystalline structures may influence the adsorption of P because they are highly weathered soils. Camara. N Eigenvalue % Total variance Cumulative eigenvalues Cumulative % 1 2 1. D.. Althaus. J. E.. 46. (2003) also found a significant correlation with Alox. Eberhardt. Cienc.81 0.N.E. Rev. clay.C.C.E. 35. 2006. N. Environ. A. B.. 4. pp. Alvarez. M. Weed. In this case.. Competitive sorption reactions between phosphorus and organic matter in soil: a review. The PSI behaved similarly to the Smax due to the high correlation between values of both... 43.. however. Eur.M. 2000. Aust.. Truesdale. R.00 Fator 1 0.S. the following attributes: Alox.N.. R. J.66 Feox Alox Clay pH CEC C FeDCB AlDCB (1) Correlations |0. Phosphorus accumulation and pollution potential in a Hapludult fertilized with pig manure. M. Madison 29.P.. M. Van Riemsdijk. Solo 25. Menzies. as was the case in our study.81 -0. the PSI was higher at the end of the contact period.G.H. Oliveira. S.M.98 0. Phosphorus Sorption Isotherm Determination. N.. Bolland.A. Ontkean. Soil Sci.J. 2001. C. goethite and hematite accounted for more than 95% of the variation in maximum P adsorption. Factor 1 (horizontal axis in Fig. (Eds. T.C. Solo 36. Environ. Schmitt. Van Der Zee. 1996. M. Phosphate adsorption by clays from Brazilian Oxisols: relationships with specific surface area and mineralogy... P. S.A. Madison 35. J. M. 1975. 37–51. 2003. 18–24.. Hooda. Cienc. (1) Acknowledgment To CAPES (Brazilian Coordination for the Improving of Higher Education Personnel) for financial support of this research. / Soil & Tillage Research 156 (2016) 110–118 117 Table 4 Results of principal components analysis.W. B. The influence of clay minerals in the adsorption of P is related to the specific surface area of the structures (Mesquita Filho and Torrent.. Brunetto.73 0.H. References Allen.T. Bras.W. Sediments. Van Riemsdijk. 2212–2221. G. Methods of Phosphorus Analysis for Soils. Vendrame. Graetz. Soil Sci.M.70 1.W.Knott.P. 1993).F.. Pierzynski. The slow reactions between soil and anions: effect of time and temperature on the decrease in phosphate concentration in the soil solution. Sorption of phosphorus by soils –how it is measured in Western Australia. C and both crystalline and poorly crystallized oxides of Fe and Al. Fontes. L.T. 2005. 1992. V.R. 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