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Module 3

Tony Skinner
Critical Reading and Writing Supplementary
Course for Students in the British Higher School
of Art and Design

DELTA

Contents
1. Introduction.................................................................................................. 3
1.1

Overview................................................................................................... 3

1.2

What is EAP............................................................................................ 3

1.3 Student Autonomy................................................................................... 3


1.3

Critical thinking..................................................................................... 4

1.4

Reading in EAP....................................................................................... 4

1.5

Writing in EAP........................................................................................ 4

2. Part two: Needs Analysis............................................................................5


2.1

The Learners........................................................................................... 5

2.2

Data collection methods.......................................................................5

2.3

Findings................................................................................................... 6

2.4

Wants....................................................................................................... 6

2.5

Necessities.............................................................................................. 7

2.6

Lacks........................................................................................................ 7

3. Part three: Course Proposal.......................................................................8


3.1

Course aims and objectives.................................................................8

3.1.1

While reading students will be able to........................................9

3.1.2 While writing students will be able to...........................................9


3.2

Constraints............................................................................................. 9

3.3

Rationale of syllabus............................................................................. 9

3.3.1

Rationale of writing design...............................................................10

3.3.2

Rationale of Reading design.............................................................10

3.4 Materials..................................................................................................... 11
4. Part four: Assessment................................................................................ 11
4.1 Reasons for assessment........................................................................11
4.2 Assessment requirements....................................................................11
4.3 How assessment will be carried out...................................................12
5. Conclusion................................................................................................... 13
Bibliography......................................................................................................... 14
Appendix 1........................................................................................................ 16
Course Plan...................................................................................................... 16
Appendix 2........................................................................................................... 19
Reading Data................................................................................................. 19
Writing Data................................................................................................... 21
Classwork....................................................................................................... 23
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Appendix 3........................................................................................................ 24
Materials......................................................................................................... 24

1. Introduction
1.1 Overview
I have chosen the specialism of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) as I feel that my skills
as a teacher, and career in general, will benefit greatly from the research and designing of
courses for EAP students. I have taught in two universities, and on several university
preparation courses, and have seen how many foundation year and EAP courses have been
heavily focused on IELTS, which may not satisfy all the learners academic needs in the
current situation. My goal in undertaking this study and assignment is to create a course
which can run in parallel with an IELTS course in my university, the British Higher School of
Art and Design (BHSAD).

1.2 What is EAP


The academic world is full of discourse communities, or tribes (Becher, 1989;
Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 15), each their own particular voice in
writing, and principles which are considered appropriate, and to fit in, the
students must learn and follow international and the subject specific norms and
practices through EAP (Hyland K. H.-L., 2002). It differs from General English in
that the focus shifts from being perfect in the surface level use of the language,
to achieving academic goals within the Higher Education sphere, and is directed
more towards a global level of understanding of ideas and having ones thoughts
understood. It is a mode of teaching which is driven by the needs of the students
and is goal driven, essentially focussing on what the students will or currently
need to do, and making them more capable (Gillet, 1996, 2000). EAP has
difference branches of importance, but for the students in the BHSAD, learner
autonomy, critical thinking, reading and writing form the focus.

1.3 Student Autonomy


Student autonomy is when a learner is able to study successfully in their chosen
field without the total control of their Language tutor both inside and outside the
classroom (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 273), and far beyond the
lifespan of the EAP course (Borg, 2012), and this is what EAP courses should
facilitate (Hyland K. H.-L., 2002). Both Holec and Little state that students must
take the initiative when it comes to being autonomous successful students in
university (2015). They further state that learners must have a positive attitude,
set clear goals, take responsibility for their learning both in and out of class,
understand the purpose of what they are doing and where they are going, and be
pro-active about self-management during their studies. Moreover and more
importantly, students must take time to reflect on what they have learned and
how successful the strategies for learning have been (Borg, 2012). They will
continually make use of learned academic techniques, allowing them to be a
communicative part of their discourse community.

1.3 Critical thinking


In EAP, being autonomous and responsible is partnered with a need for critical
thinking, which is the questioning of new information, the formation and
presentation of own ideas based upon evidence and other sources, and the
bonding of accepted ideas with new knowledge. For this to be done in reading,
the learner must be dominant while reading, and not absorb without reflection,
and as Alexander puts it, they must question the text for relevancy, accuracy
and for placement in their repertoire of knowledge (2008, p. 259). A critical
thinker will have in mind other sources connected to the sphere which they are
reading about, they will be able to form relationships and find faults, which in
turn allows them to fully evaluate what has been read (Alexander, Argen, &
Spencer, 2008, p. 254). When a critical thinker writes, they take a stance on
what they are writing about, but they use all of their knowledge and academic
experience to support their views (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 256)
Moreover, they must seek originality in their writing, which may be completely
new ideas, but more than likely showing new relationships between known ideas
(Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 255). This essential thinking process is a
prerequisite in the U.K. education system (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p.
251), and students must be successful at it in this course as it is a British
accredited university situated in Moscow.

1.4 Reading in EAP


When reading for EAP, is often less important to read the whole text, and more
important to read the right text, and due to the fact that reading forms the basis
for academic study, speed and selectiveness is vital. The difficulty of reading at
bachelors and masters degree level is further exacerbated if one is not a native
speaker. Typically, these individuals read at far slower speeds, Alexander puts
the rate at 60 WPM, compared with 300 WPM for native speakers (Alexander,
Argen, & Spencer, 2008). There is a tendency to focus on reading quickly under
pressure in many IELTS preparation courses, but reading comprehension must
not be lost at the expense of speed, as a reader needs to understand 70% of a
text for it to be deemed adequately comprehended. Moreover, readers can find
themselves acting as submissive readers (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p.
128), allowing the text to dictate proceedings, whereas a more dominant reader
would continuously ask questions of the text and finds the answers while reading
(Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 130).

1.5 Writing in EAP


Writing shares importance with reading in EAP, and must be treated as a never
ending process of development, unlike what students are used to in other forms
of study. This type of writing will often include sources, be drafted numerous
times, and vary in length to what students are accustomed to. When students
write for EAP, their voice must be heard in their text, and they just keep in mind
their audience. Like reading, writing academically takes time, and it is the
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responsibility of the teacher to provide support and guidance on this journey to


academic proficiency (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 191). It is also their
responsibility to help overcome the culture of surface level focus in GE and to
some extent IELTS (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 188). Although writing
is indeed a crucial skill needed to succeed in all academic spheres, an EAP
course alone cannot make completely capable academic writers (Alexander,
Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 191), but it can set them on the path to becoming so.
For students to become proficient writers at academic level, development classes
are needed (Silva, 1993), and these are typically carried out in either a product
or process approach. The former method is more focussed with a final draft, and
by using samples, the learners try to find commonalities in organisations,
functions and structures (Harmer, 2004, p. 92). They can acquire genre specific
rhetoric and vocabulary, or what Harmer calls register of a genre, and
ultimately replicate the samples (2004, p. 17)The latter methodology builds up to
a piece of text being written, like for example brainstorming, discussions and
group work, which results in a more creative process, but ultimately being a
more time-consuming one (Harmer, 2004, p. 12). There is more focus on the
theme of the text, the ideas and the global aspects of the text than with product
writing. The two types of writing, however, are not exclusive (Alexander, Argen,
& Spencer, 2008, p. 199) (Harmer, 2004, pp. 92-93), and a combination of the
two can be used. It is important in EAP writing to focus on the purpose for which
the learners are writing (Harmer, 2004) (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008),
and to consider the audience so that it can be fine-tuned (Alexander, Argen, &
Spencer, 2008), and the structure it much follow.

While it is well-known that learners like to have their spelling and grammar
marked (Silva, 1993) (Myles, 2002), and Alexander suggests that the low level
marking is better done by the students and their peers, with the teacher able to
focus in on the deeper, more global aspects of the composition (Alexander,
Argen, & Spencer, 2008, pp. 207-210).

2.Part two: Needs Analysis

2.1 The Learners


The group consists 10 Russian students, with English as their second language,
working towards an IELTS score to 6.0 in order to progress from the foundation.
They are team taught by myself and a non-native speaker, with each of us taking
a 2.5 hour class a week. Outside these hours, they attend art lectures, research
for projects, conduct written work and produce pieces of art. They are all highly
motivated and recognise the limited time available to prepare for and pass IELTS.
While they have support from their team teachers for IELTS related work, they do

not have any support regarding reading and writing for their art projects and
research.

2.2 Data collection methods


To take the learners from their present situation (PS) to the requirement of the
target situation (TS) it is essential to conduct a Needs Analysis (NA) and design
the course from the findings.This prior awareness of the needs is where EAP
courses differ to GE and IELTS (Graves, 2000, p. 53), and creates a more
conducive course to achieve success in the TS (Benesch, 1996, p. 723;
Hutchinson & Waters, 1991, p. 53; Graves, 2000, p. 98).

I have chosen to use objective and subjective NA gathering in the form of a


triangular approach, i.e. from the students and other stakeholders because any
single data collection method is insufficient (Hutchinson & Waters, 1991, p. 57;
Richards, 2001; Graves, 2000). The results represent a set of wants which is the
views shown by the students, the lacks or in other words the difference between
what the learner knows now and the target situation, and necessities, which are
the target situation tasks (Hutchinson & Waters, 1991, p. 56). Informal
discussions will be held during the course and at the end for continuously
monitor the students needs (Graves, 2000, pp. 98, 107), and at least once
during and at the end because there will be some questions which students may
be able to answer better once they have had experience of engaging in the EAP
course (Graves, 2000, pp. 107,111).

2.2.1 Subjective gathering


The more subjective insights will reveal the felt needs of the students through
questionnaires and discussions, and the perceived needs (Graves, 2000, p. 99)
stated by the lecturers and the director of the university programme in
interviews. It is highly likely that the views of these two stockholders in the EAP
programme are likely to differ (Hutchinson & Waters, 1991, p. 56) and this NA
may prove to be a reconciling tool for them both (Hutchinson & Waters, 1991, p.
56; Graves, 2000, p. 99).

2.2.2 Objective gathering


The objective parts of my NA will be conducted via reading and writing tasks
which have been designed to replicate what students must do in their art
projects. These tasks will be monitored during class activities carried out during a
total of 2.5 hours with students assessing their own success at the tasks. I will
also be able to diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of their written work and
reading skills (Graves, 2000, p. 105).
Diagnostic testing strengths and weakness (lacks)

Formative and less formal than summative

2.3 Findings

Wants
2.4.1 Reading Insight
The questionnaire, conducted during an open class discussion to promote
dialogue (Graves, 2000), shows that with regards to reading, students felt that
they had an almost unmanageable amount to do in order to satisfy their course
demands. The students highlighted biographies, internet sources and briefs as
their main sources of information as research for their projects and for directions
and inspiration, see Appendix 2 Charts 2 and 3. An additional, and promising,
finding is that some of the students try to predict and understand a words
meaning from the context and surrounding words, see Appendix 2 Chart 6.

2.4.2 Writing Insight


Vocabulary and grammar were highlighted as being their biggest concerns, and
hold them back from writing well in their opinions, see Appendix 2 Chart 8. In
the same charts in Appendix 2, confidence in cohesion and coherence and idea
generation are expressed as not being difficult. This appears as a surprise as the
students felt that writing for their art programme was different to GE and IELTS
classes. The often write Reflections and evaluations, which is further emphasised
later in this essay by the course director. Another promising insight is that the
students are willing to have their written work checked by their peers, and if
checked by their teacher, they would prefer that the errors are only highlighted
so that they can correct themselves.

2.4 Necessities
This input from the director help to form the picture of the target situation and
where students need to be by the end of the EAP course (Dudley-Evans & St.
John, 1998, p. 125). He stated:
Students must

Write weekly review to reflect and self-critique in order to grow as


an artist.
Read from provided reading lists and read beyond this scope.
Organise ideas in a logical order when writing.
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Express themselves, ideas and show research in writing without


considerable amounts of mistakes so as to disrupt a readers
comprehension.
Show where ideas and techniques have come from.

2.5 Lacks
The academic-lite reading task, combined with a written reflection, was able to
look at the students objective and subjective needs (Graves, 2000, p. 117). In
general all the students were able to read the text and gain an understanding of
the opinions of the writer. Their lack of vocabulary was evident through
observations and their written evaluations. From observing and discussing the
topic with the students, it was evident that they had no experience of linking
prior reading with the current, and that knowledge connection appears to be an
unknown concept to them, and this shows that the students need practice at this
to become more autonomous.

3.Part three: Course Proposal


3.1 Course aims and objectives
The needs analysis has shed light on both the subjective and objective strengths
and weaknesses of the students, along with their wants for the course. From
these sets of data it is possible to assign overall aims and objectives of the
course, with the aims representing the aspirations of the course and the
objectives being the steps on the journey to achieving the said goal of the course
REF Richards 2001 P120-123. For these aims and objectives to be met the course
will need to follow the three overarching principles laid out in Alexanders book
which are:

Have a developmental approach, building up to the complexities required


of the aims and objectives
Employ recycling, both natural and planned, throughout the lifespan of the
course to enable better acquisition
To ensure that what is taught has a high level of transferability

(2008, pp. 87-88)

The course has the following aims:


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Raise students present skills in reading and writing to that required of a


student in the preceding years in the BA programme
Develop students passive knowledge and active use of vocabulary related
to their academic sphere.
Advance students level of autonomy as defined in section one
Generate a better sense of awareness of the students responsibilities
within the learning environment

To support the attainment of these goals by the end of the course the students
must be able to satisfy the following objectives:

3.1.1 While reading students will be able to

take control of what they read by determining its usefulness using


skimming techniques
read more dominantly by forming questions and answering these during
reading
deduce the meaning of unknown words
connect ideas in a text to previous discussions, writings and read works
read more quickly while comprehending more than the current situation

3.1.2 While writing students will be able to

connect their reading with writing


put to use an academic style of writing including the use of vocabulary,
grammar and rhetorical functions (notions) necessary for the target
situation
plan, structure and redraft writing
write on a more coherent and cohesive manner

3.2 Constraints
The course will take place alongside an IELTS course and a foundation art course
in the British Higher School of Art and Design in Moscow, and like any EAP course
it will face constraints (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 83). It has been
designed to be taught by myself, which means there will be added pressure as I
do not possess specific knowledge of the art sphere, and it is likely that some
texts and vocabulary will prove testing. There is also only a handful of native
English teachers who could work as an EAP tutor due to them being part-time
employees with additional work commitments outside. There are plenty of
available rooms within the university, so space will not prove an issue. The
course will mean an increase in the study hours for students and they will need
to be convinced of the merits as they may not immediately see the benefit of
sacrificing their time for more English (Alexander, 2008, P98).

3.3 Rationale of syllabus


Designing any syllabus is as Alexander describes a messy business (2008, p.
228), and at first glance at the materials selection in Appendix 1 and the
relation to the aims objectives in 3.1, 3.11 and 3.1.2, it appears a very chopped
up course. However, in truth what has been designed is a course which is
multidimensional (Johnson, 2008, p. 236)REF Hedge P339-340 because it
blends vocabulary, grammar, or in other words the notions, with functions. This
shifting between focus allows the course to be more well-rounded and tailored,
and avoids situations where either the student is grammatically adept but unable
to put this to productive use, or in possession of vast amounts of phrases and
little else (Johnson, 2008).
The course in Appendix 1 is a negotiated syllabus because central to the needs
analysis was the experiences and thoughts of the students, learner centred
(Johnson, 2008, p. 228; Lynch, 2001), and as a consequence, likely to contribute
towards better student motivation. However, it is understood that students
perceived strengths and weakness, shown in Appendix 2, will change as the
course progresses, with new wants and possibly lacks being highlighted later in
the courses lifespan, as the students learn more about themselves (Johnson,
2008, p. 228).
Due to the necessities presented in 2.5 and the responses from students in
Appendix 2, this course centres on developing critical readers and writers, with
the goal of developing intertextuality (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p.
130), the connection between different texts in a field, by having the learners
connect what the read and write with other texts in their discourse community to
meet academic expectations (Lynch, 2001). Therefore, the course uses a mix of
process and product writing development (Harmer, 2004, pp. 92-93; Hedge,
2000, p. 359).

3.3.1 Rationale of writing design


Writing as a process will allow students to use their creativity which is likely to be
quite abundant with the specific art students. They have shown in their answers
to the question about difficult in writing that they perceive ideas as being
relatively easy to generate, see Appendix 2 Chart 8, but they struggled for
ideas during the Needs Analysis writing task. This difference between their
subjective and objective reality will be remedied by process writing practice in
classes 1,5,9 and 10, see Appendix 1. Further to this, the redrafting and proof
reading elements in classes 2,3,5,9 Appendix 1, will help to develop more
autonomous learners, and thus satisfy our aims. Students will then be able to
start to see their global errors more clearly after practice at drafting and proofreading. These are key skills required of autonomous students and are also
transferable to other subjects and fields (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, pp.
52, 87), and form part of the overarching principles mentioned in 3.1
In addition to writing as a process, students will need to write as a product,
modelling their texts on those which have been written by others in their
discourse community. It will help them to see how others have done this
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successfully, so that they can shape and organise their writing in such a way that
it fits in with the community. In appendix 3 it can be seen that certain rhetorical
functions will be taught alongside materials which are authentic and taken from
the target situation.

3.3.2 Rationale of Reading design

It has been decided that all texts should be supported with authentic examples,
as is seen in lessons 2, 3, 4, 7 and 9 Appendix 1, as students may see
inauthentic texts as mere vehicles for the language (Alexander, Argen, &
Spencer, 2008, p. 132). Johnson elaborates on this point by stating that students
need to become a specialist in their particular area (Johnson, 2008, p. 232), and
by using their sphere as the vehicle for learning, they will gain more valuable
insights and vocabulary during the process (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008,
p. 90). However, they will still be presented with texts which are not from their
discipline, and this occurs, as shown in Appendix 1, when they learn how to
connect ideas between texts and how to be more selective. This has the
advantage of provided the learners with the opportunity to step out of their
discipline as they are likely to do quite often in the life of a university student in
the art scope (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 124). My role as the
teacher of reading in this course will be to deconstruct the authentic texts,
supplement and compliment the non-authentic texts used in Baileys examples
(Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 113), and gradually build up the levels of
competence in reading in line with the developmental nature of the course.
Therefore, for example, class 1 starts with reading at the paragraph level
because it is the foundation of text comprehension, while the later classes focus
on extracting ideas and opinions, see classes 7, 9 and 10 Appendix 1.

3.4 Materials
Due to the time scope of this course, and the inadequacy of any particular book
to cater for all of the aims and objectives stated in 3.1, 3.1.1 and 3.1.2, it has
been decided to use a blend of three books. These will be modified, as is shown
in the course plan in Appendix 1, with supplementary art related texts and
writing topics, which will be sourced by myself.
The following books best suit this course:

Academic Writing: a Handbook for International Students (Bailey)


Academic Writing (R.R.Jordan)
Academic Vocabulary in Use

The relationship between each of these books and the course aims and
objectives can be seen in Appendix 3.

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4. Part four: Assessment


4.1 Reasons for assessment
The process of course design and implementation comes full circle when
assessment is carried out, completing the process once needs analysis and
learning have been completed (McGrath, 2006, p. 179; Graves, 2000, p. 207).
This assessment process is important for all involved in the course, from the
students to the authorities involved with its implementation (Johnson, 2008, p.
301; Richards, 1990), and will be expected by them as a conclusion to what has
occurred. It allows the identification of strengths and weaknesses of the students
(Johnson, 2008, p. 376; Hyland, 2006, p. 99; Hughes, 1989, p. 13), teacher and
course alike. The abilities can be reflected upon to observe the progress which
has been made between the initiation to completion, and as a result, the
students ability to perform in the target situation. In the current setting, this is
important for the British Higher School of Art and Design, as authorisation of the
course rests upon this. The university found that IELTS assessment was not a
good measure for a students ability to perform well in the university, and this
has also been highlighted upon by Alexander in reference to such exams
(Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 308).

4.2 Assessment requirements


The assessment will fulfil the six principles of Bachman and Palmers usefulness
(Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 315), namely reliability, Validity,
authenticity, impact and practicality (Johnson, 2008; Bachman & Palmer, 1996).
Reliability refers to the ability for the assessment to have the same results in
different situations to make sure that students can never be at any disadvantage
(Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 315), and Hyland suggests using multiple
samples from students to have a better reliability, so the assessment for this
course has a fundamental thread of coursework running through the course
(2003; 2006), see Appendix 1. The course has been designed to bring students
critical reading and writing skills to the level required in the university, and the
ongoing formative assessment will be able to assess exactly that, meaning it is
more valid according to Hyland (2006). This coursework enables the assessment
to have better authenticity, because unlike the IELTS test for example, it is
directly related to the students art courses and the skills, vocabulary and
knowledge of topics can be directly transferred into these studies. Assessment
will also take the form of regular spelling tests and vocabulary development, and
a final reading, writing and redrafting assignment, which are both practical and
have a positive impact on the learners, creating a positive backwash for the
course (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 315).

4.3 How assessment will be carried out

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4.3.1 Formative via:

Teacher assessed writing/activities


Vocabulary development and spelling tests
Peer correction

This course, like any is at the mercy of its constraints, and as such, time is a big
factor in the administering of assessment as seen in 3.2, so therefore, much of
the assessment will take place during classes in what has been defined as
formative assessment, see Appendix 1 (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008;
Hyland, 2006; Richards, 1990)and as homework. In the course plan Appendix 1,
it can be seen that regular vocabulary development activities and spelling have
been incorporated into the course, and this alongside repeated peer correction
sessions, as suggested in Graves (2000, p. 229), help to create an ongoing
formative assessment perception for the students, resulting in better motivation
according to Alexander (2008). This regular notion of testing in an informal and
formative manner, with the input of the students, helps to keep the course
negotiated (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 305), fulfilling the syllabus
style outline in 3.1. To further enhance the level of student input and to give
more insight to the course, there will be preliminary discussions about the
methods of assessment before each formative activity. Hutchinson & Waters and
Alison agree that such a system works to the benefit of the learners (1991).

4.3.2 Summative

Final piece of writing which includes research with Feedback from


tutor

As stated in the course constraints 3.2 the learners in the course will be
expected to attain a 6.0 score in IELTS regardless of the outcome of this
assessment, so the summative element of assessment will be more integrated
(Johnson, 2008) in that it starts as a class activity, see Lesson 10 in Appendix
1, with self-correction using skills learned in lesson 1, and expanded upon in
lessons 3 and 5, see Appendix 1, and rewriting happening as homework. This
piece of writing will be in response to a question about their studies, and thus will
be directly related to the art. Although the students will certainly be able to
produce a much better piece of writing than they would under more high-stakes
tests (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 307), it is the achievement which
will be measured and not the proficiency. The former enables the assessment of
how well the learners have done with regards to what they have learned from the
course (Johnson, 2008, p. 302; Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 306),
which in this instance is very specifically art-related. This final piece of writing,
requires a minimum of three sources, as has been taught initially in the 4 th class,
then recycled and expanded in the 7th and 9th class, see Appendix 1, and is a
criterion referenced form of summative assessment. Students will be shown the
criteria for successful performance in this test during the class, and it will be
discussed in depth with students being a part of the criteria development. This
involvement, and higher level of authenticity, will result in positive wash back
from this assessment (Johnson, 2008, p. 301; Alexander, Argen, & Spencer,
2008), and presents a situation very much like that of the target (Graves, 2000,
p. 210), and so meets the aims and objectives laid out in 3.1.
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It is accepted that students may well feel that summative tests would be more
beneficial in measuring their levels (Alexander, Argen, & Spencer, 2008, p. 306),
but this is already catered for by the IELTS test they must do. In addition to this
point, the course is relatively small in scope and time, and as a result, students
may not have time to fully digest all that has been learned Timlinson in
(McGrath, 2006), and may need more time to put into practice the learning they
have done.
5. Conclusion
Section 1 helped to form an in depth understanding of the principles of EAP with
regards to reading and writing, and how it differs to my experiences in IELTS and
General English courses. From this information, I have seen that it is quite
possible that the EAP class will likely be the learners last English class, and it is
essential to equip them with the specific and transferable tools to succeed in the
academic sphere.
From the knowledge gained in part 1, it was possible to explore the concept of
Needs Analysis, and gain insights to the students wants, lacks and the
necessities facing them in the current situation. This helped to build a course
which incorporated these necessities and lacks, but which was built heavily upon
the wants of the students due to motivational and constraining factors laid out in
3.2 and in Appendix 2. The understanding from 1.5 and 3.3.1 formed the
reasoning for using a mix of product and process writing. Moreover, the data in
Appendix 2 Classwork shaped the way the course was designed so that
there is a continuous cycle of group and pair work or proof-reading, and elements
of self-correction, which helps to meet the aim of autonomy and responsibility,
and objectives in 3.1.2. The course follows a path of recycling vocabulary,
grammar and structures which is evident in the course plan in Appendix 1, and
enables the course to be built up gradually and consistently in line with the
principles in 3.1
Assessment has been included throughout the course, in formative and
summative form, but ultimately forming an ungraded, but source of reference
and feedback for the learners. It shows the achievement of the learners, but not
necessarily the proficiency due to the arguments present in 1.1, 4.1 and 4.3
regarding the IELTS test.
It is acknowledged that there will not be enough time for the course to cater for
all of the wants and lacks of the students, and necessities of immediate nature
have taken centre stage, and if the course were to be expanded it would likely
continue with the focus of referencing and plagiarism as a follow on from lesson
10 in Appendix 1.
Ultimately, the course has been designed to meet the aims and objectives, and
with modifications and negotiation in course, should do just that, and greatly
help the students in the British higher School of Art and Design.

14

Bibliography
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Bachman, & Palmer. (1996). Language Testing in Practice:Designing and
Developing Useful Language Tests. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Hyland. (2006). English for Academic purposes: An advanced resource book.
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McGrath, I. (2006). Maerials evaluation and design for language teaching.


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The ESL Research and Its Implications. TESL Quarterly , 657-677.

16

Appendix 1
Course Plan
Focus

Vocabulary

Grammar

1
Paragraph
structures

Linking phrases within a paragraph


produce/sourced by teacher and extracted
from texts in Bailey P77-81

Reading

Writing

Homew
ork

Paragraph structures
Bailey P77-81

Bailey P.77-81

Thematic
Discussions

Process writing
paragraphs

Write two
or three
paragrap
hs
(Two/thre
e ideas)
Art
should
not be
privately
owned

Formative
Assessment
Discussion

Academic
phrasal
verbs
Vocabular
y in use
P20

2
Introductio
ns

Synonym building
Word association
activity
(Brainstorming)

Matching
vocabulary to
synonyms from
homework

Formative
assessment

3
Skimming
and
Scanning,
Vocabular
y
developm
ent

Focus on what it
means to know
a word.
Discussion on
vocabulary
development and
recording
strategies.
Vocabulary book
use.

Discussion
about typical
and expected
mistakes in
paragraphs
Proof-reading
Bailey P93-95
Peer checking
and discuss
errors Record
common in
books
Collect
writings for
assessment
Use Proofreading codes
to peer correct
(Recycled)
Collect
writings for
assessment

Read T produce
introductions for art
related questions.

Bailey P83-86

Product
approach to
Introductions

Paraphrasing
(Synonyms)
Formative
Observations

Formative
Assessment

Read peers
answers to
homework and
to formulate
questions they
answer.
(Passively
looking at
opinions in
writing)
Practice
mapping and

Formativ
e
Assessm
ent
Write 2
art
related
questions
, then
write
introducti
ons for
these.

Find two
sources
by title
only,
linked to
field of
study and
bring to
next
class.

17

Analyse unknown
words of texts in
context

titling
paragraphs
Skimming and
Scanning Bailey
P11-14
Academic vs
non-academic
text genre
analysis (T
provided)

Vocabular
y in use
Academic
verbs

Study
vocabular
y and
practice
developm
ent
strategies
Write a
descriptio
n in one
or more
paragrap
hs
describin
g
favourite
type of
material
for
working
with.
Include
reasons.
Use
passive
where
necessary
.

Formative
Discussions and
Teacher
Observation
4 Reading
selectively

Spelling test and


put vocabulary
from homework
into sentences
Formative
Assessment

Orally discuss
previously
learned
strategies.

Rank according
to perceived
usefulness.

5
Processes
and
procedure
s

Record useful
vocabulary
during class on
board this
forms regular
spelling and
vocabulary
development
activities for
forthcoming
classes.

Spelling test and


put vocabulary
into sentences
Formative
Assessment

Maintain policy of
recording
unknown
vocabulary in
special books
Student
autonomy

Introduce/Revi
ew Passive
forms in
context of
material
descriptions.

Formative
Discussions and
Teacher
Observation

Peer check
Material
descriptions,
find any
mistakes which
are common
for pairs and
then for class.
Formative
Assessment

Work on Class
grammar
problems.

Processes
using passive
form. R.R.
Jordan P14-16

Use skimming
and scanning
strategies to be
more selective
with texts.

Judging sources
Bailey P20-25

Material
descriptions
produced by
teacher

Formative
Discussions and
Teacher
Observation

Stages of writing
an essay Process
approach to writing
Bailey P17-18
(Sub focus Passive
grammar)

Find a
source on
the
productio
n of any
material
or
medium
used for
art
purposes,
read and
then
write in
own
words the
process.
Self-

18

Specific
procedures
using passive
forms R.R.
Jordan P16-17

Advice for
procedures
and processes
using passive
form. R.R.
Jordan P17

correct
work
after
writing

Formative
Discussions and
Teacher
Observation
6
Dealing
with briefs

Spelling test and


put vocabulary
into sentences
Formative
Assessment

Vocabulary in use
problems and
solutions

Maintain policy of
recording unknown
vocabulary in special
books Student
autonomy
7
Describing
opinions &
Critical
reading
Continued

Expressing
opinions
Vocabulary in use
P80-81

Review
vocabulary from
homework

Discuss tasks
and duties in
groups

Look at rubric for


project criteria

Discuss
problems and
solutions for
project brief
Critical thinking
when reading
Forming and
answering
questions during
the process
Bailey P27-29

Formative
Assessment

Read sample
briefs from
course.

(Process writing)
Bailing P148-149
Problems and
solutions

Academic
vocabular
y in use
nouns
P28-29

Review
vocabular
y from
class
Vocabular
y in use
academic
adjective
s P30-31

Skim through
provided options
of texts, select
one. Use skills
and sample
questions to
critically read
chosen text.

Formative
Discussions and
Teacher
Observation

8
Narratives
&
Personal

Spelling test and


put vocabulary
into sentences

Read text on the history of art Put


key dates onto a time line

Focus on Narrative/Past tenses

R.R.Jordan
Writing Personal
statements and
Reflections based
on narrative

Vocabular
y in Use
Study
habits
and Skills

19

statement
s and
Reflection
s
continued

Maintain policy of
recording unknown
vocabulary in special
books Student
autonomy

9
Combining
sources
for
reading
and
writing

Spelling test from


Vocabulary in use
P50-51. Put
vocabulary into
sentences

Formative
Assessment
Maintain policy of
recording unknown
vocabulary in special
books Student
autonomy

10
Evaluation
s&
Rewriting
process

Review
vocabulary from
homework.
Discuss how
phrases can be
used to make
connections
between different
writers onions in
own text.

Maintain policy of
recording unknown
vocabulary in special
books Student
autonomy

o
o
o

Past tenses
Present perfect tenses
Past perfect tenses

Look at History of universities in the


U.K. R.R. Jordan P29-30
Formative Discussions and Teacher
Observation

Peer check
writing

tenses. P30
(Modified)
Product Writing
Use samples of
Reflections and
personal
statements

Look at how writers mention other


sources in their writing Bailey P72-76

Discuss plagiarising and benefits of


including other works in own writing.

Recycle paraphrasing techniques to


avoid plagiarising

Look at three texts for art subjects,


skim to find best two to answer T
provided art question. Rephrase
needed information using citations and
narrative tenses where needed.
(Product and process writing)
Formative Discussions and Teacher
Observation

Develop
redrafting skills
via Bailey P9193

Use skills to
rewrite and
improve text
from previous
lesson
including
vocabulary
from
homework

Look at
structure and
examples of
writing
reports/evaluat
ions based on
T provided
examples for
BA
Programme.

P.50-51
Selfcheck
written
work
Formativ
e
Assessm
ent
Vocabular
y in Use
94-95
Making
connectio
ns

Continue
class
reading
and
writing
Add
further
sources
to
support
ideas
Final
piece of
Summati
ve
writing
for
Summati
ve
Assessm
ent

Appendix 2
Reading Data

20

Chart 1 Reading genres

Types of reading Types of reading

Bibliograp
hy

Projec
ts

Proce
ss

Interi
or
desig
n
1

Materi
al
analys
is
1

Articl
es

Intervie
ws

Exhibitio
ns

Techniques

Chart 2 - Source of information read

Internet

Books

Magazines

Brief

Chart 3 - Reasoning for reading


21

Chart 4 - Noted difficulty in reading

Vocabulary

Sentence grammar

Main idea

Chart 5 - Frequency of reading

Often

Sometimes

Rarely

Chart 6 - Support for reading by means of

22

Translator

Predictions and context

More time

Dictionary

Writing Data
Chart 7 - Type of writing

Chart 8 - Difficulty

Chart 9 - Source of support


23

Chart 10 - Difference between Art writing and IELTS classes

Chart 11 - Regularity of writing

Often

Sometimes

Rarely

Chart 12 - Most difficult aspect

24

Vocabulary

Grammar

Organisation

Ideas

Chart 13 - Easiest Aspect

Vocabulary

Grammar

Organisation

Ideas

Classwork
Chart 14 - Checking work Preference

25

Teacher checks and corrects all

Teacher shows where mistake is

Students check and correct each others

Students check and show each other where mistakes are

Chart 15 - Working style preference

W hole class

Groups

Pairs

Alone

Appendix 3
Materials
Aims

Raise students current reading


situation to target requirement

Objectives
Be a dominant reader,
as describe above in the
objectives, by:
connecting ideas
between texts
questioning text
and finding
answers
being selective
with sources

Materials and sources

Unit 1.9 Combining sources


(Academic writing, Bailey,2011)
Unit 1.2B Reading: finding
suitable sources (Bailey 2011)
Unit 1.2B Reading: finding
suitable sources (Bailey 2011)

Read more quickly


Predict and manage
unknown vocabulary
26

Raise students current writing


situation to target requirement

Connect reading
knowledge and
experience with writing
output
Develop academic style:
Vocabulary
Grammar
Rhetorical
functions
Coherence& Cohesion

Write Reflections

Write Evaluations

1.6 Paraphrasing (Bailey)


1.9 Combining sources (Bailey)

(From authentic sources)


(Need passive grammar)
(TBC)
1.10 Organising paragraphs
(Bailey)
1.11 Introductions and
conclusions (Bailey)

Unit 4 Narratives (R R Jordan)


Unit 9 Cause and effect (R R
Jordan)
(Course Samples?)

Describe processes and


objects
Unit 2Description: Processes
and Procedures (R R Jordan)
Unit 3 Description: Physical (R
R Jordan)
(Passive Grammar)

Develop student autonomy

Proof-reading
Vocabulary recording
and development

1.12 Re-writing and proofreading (Bailey)


Vocabulary in use Multiple
units

Reflection of progress
1.12 Re-writing and proofreading (Bailey)

27