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LBYCVG1 EI1

Experiment 10

Permeability Test for Granular Soils

(Constand-Head Test)

Submitted by:

Mary Grace DC. Odiamar

Submitted to:

Engr. Sevilla

Date Submitted: November 23, 2015

I.

Theory

Introduction

Soils are permeable because of voids through which water can flow from

points of high energy to points of low energy. Hydraulic conductivity, also

known as coefficient of permeability is one of the major physical parameters

of soil that controls the rate of seepage of water through it. The hydraulic

conductivity of soils is dependent on several factors: fluid viscosity, pore-size

distribution, grain-size distribution, void ratio, roughness of mineral particles,

and degree of saturation. For clayey soils, structure, ionic concentration and

thickness of layers of water affect their permeability.

The constant-head test is one of the two standard laboratory tests used to

determine the hydraulic conductivity of soil. In this type of laboratory setup,

a constant flow rate is established where the difference of the head between

the inlet and the outlet remains constant throughout the experiment.

The equation for hydraulic conductivity through the constant-head test is

QL

given by k =

where:

Aht

k = hydraulic conductivity

Q = flow rate

L = length of soil

A = permeameter cross sectional area

h = height of constant head

t = time [1].

Objectives

This experiment aims to:

II.

Show the relationship between hydraulic conductivity k and void ratio e

through a graph

Table 1. Dimensions.

Group 1

Group 2

Group

3

Group 4

Permeameter diameter, cm

Permeameter cross-sectional area, cm^2

Volume

Mass of permeameter, kg

Mass of permeameter + soil, kg

Mass of soil

Height of constant head, cm

Moisture content of air-dried sample, %

6.115

6.4225

29.369

32.397

375.9176 447.07171

991

45

3.12

2.91

3.773

3.73

0.653

0.82

72.4

73.5

0

0

6.27

30.876

398.61

3

1.85

2.52

0.67

75

0

Table 2.

Trial

Time, s

Temperature, C

66

27.4

67

27.3

66

27.1

Length of soil, cm

12.8

Trial

Time, s

Temperature, C

68.96

27.5

74

27.5

80.66

27.6

Length of soil, cm

13.8

Trial

Time, s

Temperature, C

70.34

27.1

70.3

27.2

70.78

27.4

Length of soil, cm

12.91

Trial

Time, s

Temperature, C

Length of soil, cm

1

2

73.533

75.66

28.1

27.5

13.4

6.325

31.420

421.032

615

2.45

3.16

0.71

76

0

78.27

27.7

Table 3.

Dry unit

weight,

kN/m3

Void ratio,

e

k, cm/s

k20, cm/s

Trial 1

17.04079

0.52555

0.04561

0.03844

Trial 2

17.04079

0.52555

0.04492

0.03795

Trial 3

17.04079

0.52555

0.04561

0.03869

Trial 1

17.99309

0.44480

0.04202

0.03534

Setup 2

Trial 2

17.99309

0.44480

0.03916

0.03293

0.03281

Setup 3

Trial 3

Trial 1

Trial 2

17.99309

16.48893

16.48893

0.44480

0.57660

0.57660

0.03593

0.03963

0.03965

0.03015

0.03362

0.03356

0.03346

Trial 3

16.48893

0.57660

0.03938

0.03319

Trial 1

16.54291

0.57146

0.03816

0.03167

Trial 2

16.54291

0.57146

0.03708

0.03119

Trial 3

16.54291

0.57146

0.03585

0.03073

Setup 1

Setup 4

Average

k20, cm/s

0.03836

0.03120

Calculations for dimensions

Volume=Permeameter cross sectional arealength of soil

Volume=32.39713.8=447.079 cm

Mass of soil=3.732.91=0.82 kg

Calculations for k,

k=

QL

Aht

and k20 ,

Kcorrection factor

k=

(500)(13.8)

=0.042

(32.397)(73.5)(68.96)

k 20=0.0420.841=0.035340

Trial 2 @ Temp = 27.5 C

(500)(13.8)

k=

=0.0392

(32.397)(73.5)(74)

k 20=0.03920.841=0.032933

(500)(13.8)

k=

=0.0359

(32.397)(73.5)(80.66)

k 20=0.03590.030149=0.030149

Calculations for e,

Setup 2

e=

2.65(0.4470717)

1=0.44480

447.0717

Chart Title

0.70000

0.60000

f(x) = 0.50000

- 0.12x + 0.54

R = 00.40000

0.30000

Void Ratio, e

Linear ()

0.20000

0.10000

0.00000

0.1

0.01

Hydraulic conductivity, k

Figure 1. e vs k.

III.

Discussion of Results

conductivity. However, as shown in the results, there was no significant trend

as the values were erratic in order. This is most likely due to errors incurred

in the experiment. As demonstrated in the data, the void ratio increased

along with the hydraulic conductivity for the first two setups, then the

hydraulic conductivity decreased as the void ratio increased for the last two

setups.

IV.

permeability test for granular soils by constant-head test theoretically and

practically. The primary aim of the activity was for the students to be able to

determine the hydraulic conductivity in this specific sample of soil. This

experiment also showed the relationship of void ratio to hydraulic

conductivity. As the void ratio increases, the hydraulic conductivity also

increases. This is not only seen in the experiment, but theoretically, having a

larger void ratio also means having a greater chance for water to flow

through the voids. The study of flow of water through permeable soil media

is significant in soil mechanic. These values are important for estimating the

quantity of the seepage of water for investigating problems involving the

pumping of water for underground construction and for making stability

analyses of earth dams and earth-retaining structures that are exposed to

seepage forces [1].

The experiment was performed with some perceptible errors. The

experiment took place in the same environment, the laboratory. Prior to the

experiment, the students should ensure that the instruments and equipment

to be used are working properly. The instructions, methods and safety

procedures should be followed religiously in order to obtain accurate results.

In this particular experiment, it should be ensured that no water leaks. It

should also be noted that the weighing scales accuracy should be checked.

During weighing of the samples and containers, the students should steer

clear in order to guarantee the precision of the equipment. In transferring

samples, it should be ensured that no sample spills. For computations, the

formula and values to be applied should be checked by several members.

Several trials of computation could also be done to ensure accuracy of the

result.

V.

[1]

References

B. Das and K. Sobhan, Soil Compaction in Principles of Geotechnical

Engineering, Eighth Edition. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning, 2012.

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