You are on page 1of 17

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO.

5, MAY 2008

1893

Multiphase Electric Machines for


Variable-Speed Applications
Emil Levi, Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractAlthough the concept of variable-speed drives, based


on utilization of multiphase (n > 3) machines, dates back to the
late 1960s, it was not until the mid- to late 1990s that multiphase
drives became serious contenders for various applications. These
include electric ship propulsion, locomotive traction, electric and
hybrid electric vehicles, more-electric aircraft, and high-power
industrial applications. As a consequence, there has been a substantial increase in the interest for such drive systems worldwide,
resulting in a huge volume of work published during the last ten
years. An attempt is made in this paper to provide a brief review of
the current state of the art in the area. After addressing the reasons
for potential use of multiphase rather than three-phase drives and
the available approaches to multiphase machine designs, various
control schemes are surveyed. This is followed by a discussion
of the multiphase voltage source inverter control. Various possibilities for the use of additional degrees of freedom that exist in
multiphase machines are further elaborated. Finally, multiphase
machine applications in electric energy generation are addressed.
Index TermsMultiphase electric machines, multiphase
variable-speed drives, multiphase voltage-source inverters (VSIs).

I. I NTRODUCTION

ARIABLE-SPEED ac drives are nowadays invariably


supplied from power electronic converters. Since the converter can be viewed as an interface that decouples three-phase
mains from the machine, the number of machines phases is not
limited to three any more. Nevertheless, three-phase machines
are customarily adopted for variable speed applications due
to the wide off-the-shelf availability of both machines and
converters. Such a situation is expected to persist in the future
and multiphase variable speed drive utilization is always likely
to remain restricted to specialized niche applications where for
one reason or the other, a three-phase drive does not satisfy the
specification or is not available off-the-shelf either.
The roots of multiphase variable speed drives can be traced
back to the late 1960s, the time when inverter-fed ac drives
were in the initial development stage [1]. Due to the sixstep mode of three-phase inverter operation, one particular
problem at the time was the low frequency torque ripple. Since
the lowest frequency torque ripple harmonic in an n-phase
machine is caused by the time harmonics of the supply of
the order 2n 1 (its frequency is 2n times higher than the
supply frequency), an increase in the number of phases of the
Manuscript received February 28, 2007; revised January 16, 2008. This work
was supported in part by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research
Council (EPSRC) under Research Grant EP/C007395/1, in part by Semikron,
U.K., in part by Moog, Italy, and in part by Verteco, Finland.
The author is with the School of Engineering, Liverpool John Moores
University, Liverpool, L3 3AF, U.K. (e-mail: e.levi@ljmu.ac.uk).
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2008.918488

machine appeared as the best solution to the problem. Hence,


significant efforts have been put into the development of fivephase and six-phase variable-speed drives supplied from both
voltage source and current source inverters [2][6]. This is an
advantage of multiphase machines that is nowadays somewhat
less important since pulsewidth modulation (PWM) of voltagesource inverters (VSIs) enables control of the inverter output
voltage harmonic content. The other main historical reasons for
early developments of multiphase drives, better fault tolerance
and the possibility of splitting the motor power (current) across
a higher number of phases and thus reducing the per-phase (per
switch) converter rating, are nowadays still as relevant as they
were in the early days.
Over the years, many other beneficial features of multiphase
machines and drives have become recognized. The pace of
research started accelerating in the second half of the 1990s,
predominantly due to the developments in the area of electric
ship propulsion, which remains nowadays one of the main
application areas for multiphase variable-speed drives [7][12].
A huge body of published work has appeared during the last
decade and an attempt is made in this paper to provide a brief
but up-to-date survey of the current situation, together with
an extensive bibliography. In writing this paper, every effort
has been put into making this review complementary to the
already existing surveys [13][16]. Reference [13] discusses
multiphase induction machines. It provides a treatment of the
stator winding layouts for various phase numbers, as well as
a discussion of space harmonics of the magnetomotive force
(MMF). Multiphase drive control schemes were reviewed in
[14] and a table, with reference classification according to the
machine type and phase number, has been provided. A survey
of control schemes for asymmetrical six-phase induction motor
drives and associated methods of VSI PWM control is given
in [15]. Finally, [16] covers multiphase induction machines and
drives in a considerable detail. It includes basic models, control schemes in developed form, and experimentally obtained
illustrations of performance for various multiphase induction
motor drives (asymmetrical and symmetrical six-phase, and
five-phase machines). It should be noted that all these survey
papers [13][16] contain at least some additional references,
when compared to the bibliography given here.
This paper addresses multiphase machines and drives of all
available types (induction and synchronous), with the exception
of switched reluctance machines. The references are grouped
in various subcategories, in accordance with what is perceived
to be their main contribution. Table I illustrates, for quick
reference, relationship between topics covered in this paper and
the references.

0278-0046/$25.00 2008 IEEE

1894

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 5, MAY 2008

TABLE I
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DISCUSSED TOPICS AND REFERENCES

II. T YPES AND A DVANTAGES OF M ULTIPHASE M ACHINES


FOR V ARIABLE -S PEED D RIVES
The types of multiphase machines for variable-speed applications are in principle the same as their three-phase counterparts.
There are induction and synchronous multiphase machines,
where a synchronous machine may be with permanent magnet
excitation, with field winding, or of reluctance type. Threephase machines are normally designed with a distributed stator
winding that gives near-sinusoidal MMF distribution and is
supplied with sinusoidal currents (the exception is the permanent magnet synchronous machine with trapezoidal flux
distribution and rectangular stator current supply, known as
brushless dc machine, or simply BDCM). Nevertheless, spatial
MMF distribution is never perfectly sinusoidal and some spatial
harmonics are inevitably present.
Multiphase machines show more versatility in this respect. A
stator winding can be designed to yield either near-sinusoidal
or quasi-rectangular MMF distribution, by using distributed
or concentrated windings, for all ac machine types. Nearsinusoidal MMF distribution requires use of more than one
slot per pole per phase. As the number of phases increases
it becomes progressively difficult to realize a near-sinusoidal
MMF distribution. For example, a five-phase four-pole machine
requires a minimum of 40 slots for this purpose, while in a
seven-phase four-pole machine at least 56 slots are needed (for
a three-phase four-pole machine the minimum number of slots
is only 24). Multiphase machines where an attempt is made to
realize near-sinusoidal MMF distribution by using an appropriate number of slots are termed henceforth, for simplicity and
brevity, machines with sinusoidal MMF.
In both stator winding designs, there is a strong magnetic
coupling between the stator phases. If the machine is a permanent magnet synchronous machine, then concentrated winding
design yields a behavior similar to a BDCM [159][169]. A
permanent magnet multiphase synchronous machine can also

be of so-called modular design where an attempt is made to


minimize the coupling between stator phases, for the reasons
detailed later on (a three-phase permanent magnet machine may
be designed in the same manner, but the most important benefit
of modular design, fault tolerance, is then not exploited to the
full extent). It should be noted that the spatial flux distribution in
permanent magnet synchronous machines (including BDCM)
is determined by the shaping of the magnets. Stator current
supply should match the spatial flux distribution in terms of
torque-producing stator current components (harmonics), as appropriate for a given phase number, for optimum performance.
An illustration of the possible stator winding arrangements in
multiphase machines is shown in Fig. 1.
Stator winding of an n-phase machine can be designed in
such a way that the spatial displacement between any two
consecutive stator phases equals = 2/n, in which case a
symmetrical multiphase machine results. This will always be
the case if the number of phases is an odd prime number.
However, if the number of phases is an even number or an
odd number that is not a prime number, stator winding may
be realized in a different manner, as k windings having a
subphases each (where n = a k). Typically, a = 3 (although
a = 5 exists as well) and k = 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .. In such a case,
the spatial displacement between the first phases of the two
consecutive a subphase windings is = /n, leading to an
asymmetrical distribution of magnetic winding axes in the cross
section of the machine (asymmetrical multiphase machines).
In this multiphase machine type there are k neutral points
and these are typically kept isolated, for the reasons discussed
later on.
Some of the advantages of multiphase machines, when
compared to their three-phase counterparts, are valid for all
stator winding designs while the others are dependent on the
type of the stator winding. Machines with sinusoidal winding
distribution are characterized with [17][21] the following.
Fundamental stator currents produce a field with a lower
space-harmonic content.
The frequency of the lowest torque ripple component,
being proportional to 2n, increases with the number of
phases.
Since only two currents are required for the flux/torque
control of an ac machine, regardless of the number of
phases, the remaining degrees of freedom can be utilized
for other purposes. One such purpose, available only if the
machine is with sinusoidal MMF distribution, is the independent control of multimotor multiphase drive systems
with a single power electronic converter supply.
As a consequence of the improvement in the harmonic content
of the MMF, the noise emanated from a machine reduces and
the efficiency can be higher than in a three-phase machine.
In a concentrated winding machine, a possibility of enhancing the torque production by stator current harmonic injection
exists. Given the phase number n, all odd harmonics in between
one and n can be used to couple with the corresponding
spatial MMF harmonics to yield additional average torque
components. This possibility exists if the phase number is odd,
while the only known case where the same is possible for an

LEVI: MULTIPHASE ELECTRIC MACHINES FOR VARIABLE-SPEED APPLICATIONS

1895

TABLE II
POTENTIAL UTILIZATION OF ADDITIONAL DEGREES OF
FREEDOM IN MULTIPHASE MACHINES

All multiphase variable-speed drives share a couple of common features.


For the given machines output power, utilization of more
than three phases enables splitting of the power across
a larger number of inverter legs, thus enabling use of
semiconductor switches of lower rating.
Due to a larger number of phases, multiphase machines
are characterized with much better fault tolerance than the
three-phase machines. Independent flux and torque control
requires means for independent control of two currents.
This becomes impossible in a three-phase machine if one
phase becomes open-circuited, but is not a problem in
a multiphase machine as long as no more than (n 3)
phases are faulted.

Fig. 1. Illustration of stator windings in multiphase machines:


(a) sinusoidally distributed winding (two-pole, five-phase), (b) concentrated
winding (two-pole, five-phase), and (c) modular design (four-phase; cross
section and an actual stator [170] are shown; photograph provided courtesy of
B. C. Mecrow of University of Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K.).

even phase number is the asymmetrical six-phase machine with


a single neutral point. Torque enhancement by stator current
harmonic injection is one possible use of the additional degrees
of freedom, offered by the fact that only two currents are
required for flux and torque control due to the fundamental
stator current component.

In summary, taking n as an odd prime number and assuming a single neutral point of the star connected stator
winding, there are (n 3) additional degrees of freedom in
a multiphase machine that can be used for different purposes:
torque enhancement in concentrated winding machines, realization of multimotor drive systems with independent control
and single inverter supply with machines having sinusoidal
MMF distribution, and design of fault-tolerant strategies for
all multiphase machine types. However, the available degrees
of freedom can be used for only one purpose. Hence, if for
example a five-phase concentrated winding induction machine
operates with the third stator current harmonic injection and a
fault takes place, implementation of a fault-tolerant operating
strategy requires that the stator current harmonic injection is
dispensed with. Possible uses of additional degrees of freedom
in different types of multiphase machines (according to the
stator winding design of Fig. 1) are summarized in Table II.
The main advantages of multiphase machines when compared
to their three-phase counterpart, discussed previously in this
section, are summarized in Table III.
The main driving forces behind the rapid development
of multiphase variable speed drives in recent times have
been some very specific application areas, in addition to the
aforementioned electric ship propulsion. These are primarily locomotive traction, industrial high-power applications,
electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (propulsion, integrated
starter/alternator concept, and others), and the concept of the
more-electric aircraft. Table IV lists some of the applications
for which use of multiphase motor drives has been considered,
together with associated references. The common features of

1896

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 5, MAY 2008

TABLE III
OVERVIEW OF MAIN ADVANTAGES OF
MULTIPHASE-MACHINE-BASED DRIVES

TABLE IV
MULTIPHASE-MOTOR-DRIVE APPLICATIONS

most of the recent works related to these applications are that


typically high-performance motor control is utilized [vector
control or direct torque control (DTC)] and that the machines
supply is VSI based. Hence, this paper predominantly deals
with the review of topics pertinent to such solutions. The
exception is the material covered in Sections VIII (high power
compressors, where synchronous motors supplied from loadcommutated inverters (LCIs) are used) and IX, where other
possibilities are briefly addressed.
Drive systems, aimed at safety-critical applications such as
more-electric aircraft, are very specific and utilize the modular design of both the machine (which is always a permanent
magnet synchronous machine) and the supply system, so that
the stator phases are isolated and independent magnetically,
electrically, thermally and mechanically [170][179]. Individual H-bridge (single-phase) inverters are used for such drives.
In these multiphase drive systems, the available additional degrees of freedom are normally used for achieving fault-tolerant
operation of the drive.
III. M ODELING OF M ULTIPHASE M ACHINES
General tools for multiphase machine modeling have been
developed in the first half of the 20th century [22]. The wellknown space vector and dq models of three-phase machines
are only particular cases of the universal n-phase machine

models. Since the phase-variable model of a physical multiphase machine gets transformed using a mathematical transformation, the number of variables before and after transformation
must remain the same. This means that an n-phase machine
will have n new stator current (stator voltage, stator flux)
components after the transformation.
If a machine is with sinusoidal-field distribution, standard
modeling assumptions apply and only the first harmonic of
inductance terms exists in the phase-variable model. Application of the decoupling (Clarkes) transformation produces
a set of n equations. The first, , pair is identical to the
corresponding pair of equations for a three-phase machine.
The last equation (or the last two, for even phase numbers) is
the zero-sequence equation, again the same as for a three-phase
machine. In between, there are (n 3)/2 (or (n 4)/2 for
n = even) pairs of rows which define (n 3)/2 (or (n 4)/2
for n = even) pairs of equations, featuring the same number of
new variables that are termed further on as xy components.
In principle, the form of xy equations is the same as for
the zero-sequence component, meaning that the impedance for
xy stator current components is in essence the stator winding
leakage impedance. Provided that the machine is supplied
with purely sinusoidal voltages and the field is sinusoidal,
the xy voltage components are zero and there are no stator
current xy components.
Corresponding decoupling transformation matrices are available also for asymmetrical multiphase machines and the result
of the application of the decoupling transformation matrix is the
same as for symmetrical machines (for example, the models
obtained by applying appropriate decoupling transformation
matrices in conjunction with an asymmetrical and a symmetrical six-phase induction machine are identical, as long as there
is a single neutral point). In the special case when an n-phase
winding is created using k individual a subphase windings with
k isolated neutral points, the total number of equations and
variables reduces to (n k) after transformation, since zerosequence components cannot flow in any of the star-connected
k windings.
Since coupling between stator and rotor appears after decoupling transformation only in equations of the multiphase machine, it is only these equations that have to be
transformed further, using rotational transformation. The form
of this transformation is the same as for the corresponding
three-phase machine. The resulting final dq model in the
common reference frame contains dq and torque equations
identical to those of a corresponding three-phase machine, zerosequence equations that are also the same, and, additionally,
the xy pair(s) of equations that, in form, correspond to zerosequence equations.
Modeling of multiphase machines has been and still is a
subject of considerable interest [23][36]. A great deal of effort
has been put into modeling of concentrated winding machines,
where both the starting physical-variable model and the final
dq model are different. In principle, the inductance terms
in the initial model have to include not only the fundamental
harmonic but also one (or more, as appropriate for the given
phase number) higher harmonics. Decoupling transformation
results now in (n 1)/2 (or (n 2)/2 for n = even) pairs

LEVI: MULTIPHASE ELECTRIC MACHINES FOR VARIABLE-SPEED APPLICATIONS

of equations (variables) that are again mutually decoupled but


correspond, in form, to the equations, since stator to rotor
coupling appears in all of them. Consequently, an appropriate
rotational transformation has now to be applied to all equations
(except for the zero-sequence components) and the final dq
model contains (n 1)/2 pairs of equations of the form valid
for dq equations of a three-phase machine. Torque equation
has now, in addition to the component due to the fundamental
stator current, (n 3)/2 new components, each of which is due
to the interaction of a certain stator current harmonic and the
corresponding spatial harmonic of the field.
If an n-phase machine with sinusoidal winding distribution
is formed by using k three-phase (a = 3) stator windings,
then a rather different modeling approach can be used. It is
based on the observation that each three-phase winding can be
replaced with an equivalent dq winding, so that the complete
n-phase machine model then contains k pairs of dq equations.
As a consequence, the torque equation is a sum of individual
contributions of each of the three-phase windings. Such a
modeling approach [31], [32] is widely used in conjunction
with asymmetrical six-phase machines in the development of
vector control schemes [15].
Basic transformation equations, as well as the resulting
mathematical models of multiphase induction machines with
sinusoidal winding distribution and with concentrated stator
winding are available in [16].
As far as modeling of modular permanent magnet synchronous machines is concerned, it corresponds closely to the
procedure described in conjunction with machines with sinusoidal field distribution. The difference is in the absence of the
mutual inductance terms within the stator winding, since these
are deliberately eliminated by virtue of the machines design
(basically, winding of one phase occupies two consecutive slots
[Fig. 1(c)] so that the phases are isolated).
IV. C ONTROL OF M ULTIPHASE V ARIABLE -S PEED D RIVES
The methods of speed control of multiphase machines are
in principle the same as for three-phase machines. Constant
V/f control is nowadays of relatively little interest, since the
cost of implementing more sophisticated control algorithms is
negligible compared to the cost of multiphase power electronics
and the multiphase machine itself (neither are available on the
market). The emphasis is therefore placed further on vector
control and DTC.
As long as a symmetrical multiphase machine with sinusoidally distributed stator winding is under consideration, the
same vector control schemes as for a three-phase machine are
directly applicable regardless of the number of phases [37]
[51]. The only difference is that the coordinate transformation
has to produce an n-phase set of stator current (or stator
voltage) references, depending on whether current control is in
the stationary or in the synchronous rotating reference frame.
If current control is in the stationary reference frame, (n 1)
stationary current controllers (assuming stator winding with
a single neutral point) are required. Either phase currents or
phase current components in the stationary reference frame can
be controlled and here the standard ramp-comparison current

1897

Fig. 2. Basic rotor flux oriented control scheme for a multiphase machine with
current control in the stationary reference frame.

Fig. 3. Basic rotor-flux-oriented control of a five-phase machine with concentrated winding and with current control in the stationary reference frame
(indexes 1 and 3 stand for the first and the third stator current harmonic
references).

control method offers the same quality of performance as with


three-phase drives. Assuming that indirect vector control is
used, basic rotor-flux-oriented control scheme of an n-phase
induction or synchronous machine (permanent magnet or synchronous reluctance) with sinusoidal MMF distribution is of the
form shown in Fig. 2. The block vector controller is identical
to the one for the three-phase machine of the same type and
the value of the stator d-axis current reference depends on the
machine type (as does the transformation angle as well). For
example, vector controller for a surface-mounted permanent
magnet synchronous machine is just a speed controller, stator
d-axis current reference is zero and transformation angle is the
rotor position angle. In the case of an induction machine, stator
d-axis current reference is the rated magnetizing current, while
vector controller includes a speed controller, calculation of
the angular slip speed and calculation of the transformation
angle by summation of the slip angle and rotor position angle.
If current control is in the rotating reference frame, then it
would appear that only two current controllers are sufficient
since torque production is governed only by dq stator current
components. However, since an n-phase machine essentially
has (n 1) independent currents (or (n k) in the case of
the n-phase winding being formed of k identical a subphase
windings with isolated neutral points), utilization of only two
current controllers is in practice not sufficient, since winding
and/or supply asymmetries lead to the unbalanced load sharing and effective flow of undesired xy current components.
Application of the current control in synchronous reference
frame also requires an adequate method of inverter PWM
control in order to avoid creation of unwanted low-order stator
voltage harmonics that map into voltage xy components (as
discussed in the next section) and therefore lead to the flow of
large stator current xy current components. The problem of
winding/supply asymmetry is well documented for the asymmetrical six-phase induction machine (with two isolated neutral

1898

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 5, MAY 2008

Fig. 4. Illustration of DTC schemes for multiphase machines: (a) Switching-table-based DTC and (b) constant switching frequency DTC.

points) and it is in principle necessary to employ four current


controllers rather than a single pair of dq current controllers.
If a concentrated winding machine is used, torque can be
enhanced using low-order stator current harmonic injection
[52][54]. Hence, the vector control scheme has to be modified
accordingly [55][69]. The injected low-order stator current
harmonics are firmly tied to the fundamental in terms of
magnitude, frequency and phase and the major modification
of the vector control scheme consists in calculating the references for these harmonics (on the basis of the fundamental)
and on utilization of the modified rotational transformation.
Vector control schemes have to utilize again (n 1) current
controllers. Vector control of concentrated winding machines
is well-documented in literature for five-phase induction, permanent magnet synchronous, and synchronous reluctance machines, where torque enhancement is provided by the third
harmonic injection. Similarly, third harmonic injection can be
used in asymmetrical six-phase machines [58][61]. In a sevenphase machine both the third and the fifth harmonic can be
used to improve torque per ampere characteristic [64], while
with a nine-phase machine injection of the third, the fifth,
and the seventh harmonic is possible [56]. A conceptual block
diagram of a rotor flux oriented control scheme for a fivephase machine, assuming again current control in the stationary
reference frame, is shown in Fig. 3. The block vector controller now additionally includes partitioning of the overall
torque reference (obtained at the output of the speed controller)
into the stator q-axis current references for the first and the
third stator current harmonic, as well as the calculation of
the transformation angles for the first and the third harmonic.

Notice that the rotational transformation block in Fig. 3 is


different from the corresponding one in Fig. 2 (see [16]). The
outputs of this block are now four stator current components
(rather than just two as shown in Fig. 2), which reflect the
desired first and the third stator current harmonic.
There are two basic approaches to DTC of three-phase
machines. Hysteresis stator flux and torque controllers can be
used in conjunction with an optimum stator voltage vector
selection table, leading to a variable switching frequency. Alternatively, the inverter switching frequency can be kept constant
by applying an appropriate method of inverter PWM control
(usually space vector PWM). In principle, both approaches
are also applicable to multiphase machines [70][77] and are
shown in Fig. 4. However, there are some important differences,
predominantly caused by the existence of additional degrees
of freedom in multiphase machines (xy components). If a
multiphase machine is with sinusoidal MMF distribution, the
DTC scheme needs to apply sinusoidal voltages to the machines stator winding (neglecting PWM ripple), without any
unwanted low-order frequency components (since these excite
xy circuits, as explained in the next section). With constant
switching frequency DTC, this problem can be solved relatively
easily. It is only necessary to apply one of the PWM methods
that will provide inverter operation with sinusoidal (or at least
near-sinusoidal) output voltages.
A problem that is encountered in hysteresis-based DTC
schemes for sinusoidal multiphase machines is that optimum
stator voltage vector selection table, designed in the same manner as for a three-phase induction machine, dictates application
of a single space vector in one (variable) switching period.

LEVI: MULTIPHASE ELECTRIC MACHINES FOR VARIABLE-SPEED APPLICATIONS

1899

However, each individual inverter output voltage space vector


inevitably leads to generation of unwanted low-order harmonics, which excite xy stator circuits and lead to large unwanted
stator current low-order harmonics. This problem has so far
not been solved completely although a significant improvement
has been reported for an asymmetrical six-phase induction
machine in [74]. The solution is based on modifications of
the basic hysteresis-based DTC and it requires introduction of
additional hysteresis controllers, thus increasing substantially
the complexity of the control scheme (and therefore negating
the main advantage of DTC when compared to vector control,
relative simplicity).
If the multiphase machine is with a concentrated stator
winding, hysteresis-based DTC can be utilized without any
modifications, using optimum stator voltage vector selection
table with large vectors only. This is so since in this case at
least some of the low-order harmonics actually lead to torque
enhancement by higher stator current harmonic injection. For
example, in a five-phase machine, utilization of only large
inverter vectors generates the third harmonic, causing flow of
the third stator current harmonic. However, since the winding is
concentrated, the third current harmonic couples with the third
field harmonic and produces an average torque, thus yielding an
automatic enhancement of the overall torque.
A more detailed description of the control schemes shown
in Figs. 24 and their detailed outlay for multiphase induction
motor drives is available in [15] and [16] for asymmetrical sixphase and five-phase induction machines, respectively.
V. M ULTIPHASE VSI C ONTROL
By and large, the existing research related to PWM control
of multiphase inverters applies to two-level inverters [78]
[117] [Fig. 5(a) and (c)]. The most straightforward approach
is undoubtedly utilization of the carrier-based PWM methods.
Similar to the carrier-based PWM with third harmonic injection
for a three-phase VSI, it is possible to improve the dc bus
utilization in multiphase VSIs by injecting the appropriate zerosequence harmonic (or adding the offset) into leg voltage references. As the number of phases increases, the improvement
in the dc bus utilization by zero-sequence harmonic injection
rapidly reduces. The gain in the maximum fundamental in the
linear modulation region is only 5.15% for the five-phase VSI,
while it is 15.47% in a three-phase VSI. Table V illustrates the
improvement in the dc bus utilization as a result of the zerosequence injection, for various odd phase numbers. Carrierbased PWM is also suitable for control of concentrated winding
machines, where in addition to the fundamental and zerosequence voltage, references also need to contain a certain
amount of specified low-order harmonic(s) aimed at providing
torque enhancement. In principle, carrier-based PWM can be
used without any problems for generation of multifrequency
output voltages with any number of components.
Space-vector PWM is undoubtedly the most popular method
as far as the three-phase inverters are concerned. However,
as the number of phases of the inverter increases, the available number of inverter output voltage space vectors changes
according to the law 2n , since there are 2n different switch-

Fig. 5. Basic building blocks for VSI supplied multiphase machines: (a) Leg
of a two-level inverter; (b) leg of a three-level NPC inverter; and (c) H-bridge
supply. For an n-phase machine, legs of the type shown in (a) or (b) are
combined into an n-phase bridge inverter or n individual H-bridge inverters
of (c) are used.
TABLE V
PERCENTAGE INCREASE IN THE FUNDAMENTAL OUTPUT VOLTAGE
OBTAINABLE WITH ZERO-SEQUENCE INJECTION

ing configurations. This means that, as the number of phases


increases, the problem of devising an adequate space vector
PWM scheme becomes more and more involved. On the other
hand, space-vector PWM offers a good insight into VSI operation. The available 2n switching configurations define 2n
space vectors that map into (n 1)/2 planes (n is taken as
an odd number in this section). These planes correspond to
and xy pairs of components. Harmonics of the order

1900

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 5, MAY 2008

TABLE VI
HARMONIC MAPPING INTO DIFFERENT PLANES FOR FIVE-PHASE AND
SEVEN-PHASE SYSTEMS (j = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .)

2jn 1(j = 0, 1, 2, . . .) map into the first, plane, while


all the other harmonics map into the other (n 3)/2 planes.
For example, for a five-phase VSI, harmonics of the order
10j 3(j = 0, 1, 2, . . .) map into the (single) xy plane. An
illustration of the harmonic mapping in five-phase and sevenphase systems is given in Table VI (harmonics in bold denote
those that are available for average torque production in concentrated winding machines). Since machines with sinusoidal
MMF distribution have very small impedance for xy voltage
components, it is imperative that space vector PWM does
not generate such harmonics, since only the first harmonic is
available for the torque production.
If the goal is to generate purely sinusoidal voltages, then the
reference voltage space vector appears only in the plane,
while references in all xy planes are zero. To get at the output
desired sinusoidal voltages using space vector PWM, it is
necessary to use in one switching period (n 1) active vectors
neighboring the reference. Duty cycles can be calculated using
either analytical expressions (similar to the well-known ones
for a three-phase VSI) or online solution of an appropriate
system of equations. Sinusoidal output voltage generation using
space vector PWM has been reported for five-phase, sevenphase, nine-phase, and six-phase VSIs. If the multiphase VSI
is used to supply a concentrated winding machine, then in
addition to the reference voltage space vector in the plane
there will be nonzero reference voltage space vector(s) in other,
xy plane(s). These references are firmly tied to the reference
in the plane with regard to amplitude, frequency, and
phase. Since the amplitude of the reference(s) in xy plane(s)
is considerably smaller than the amplitude of the reference
in the plane, the desired reference voltages can still be
synthesized by selecting the same set of active space vectors
as for the case of purely sinusoidal output voltage generation.
Typically, an online solution to the set of n algebraic equations
is required to calculate application times of the (n 1) active
vectors and the zero vector.
Selection of the active vectors according to the described
principle (i.e., by considering only the reference in the
plane) automatically restricts the achievable voltage in the
other, xy planes. While this is not a problem when only a single multiphase machine (with either sinusoidal or concentrated
winding) is supplied, it means that it is not possible to generate
multifrequency output voltages required for normal operation
of multimotor multiphase drives with single inverter supply, of
the type discussed in Section VII.
Carrier-based PWM with zero-sequence injection and spacevector PWM are exact equivalents in the three-phase case,
which simultaneously enable both full dc bus utilization and

Fig. 6. Double-sided supply of an n-phase machine with an open-end stator winding structure using VSIs of m and l levels at two winding ends,
respectively.

stator current ripple minimization. The same kind of equivalence exists in the PWM of multiphase VSIs. However, full
dc bus utilization is not possible if purely sinusoidal output
voltages are required. In addition, zero-sequence injection,
explicitly present in the carrier-based PWM and implicitly in
the space-vector PWM, although giving the maximum achievable output voltage in the linear modulation region, does not
minimize the current ripple [111], [112]. Stator current ripple
minimization requires a different approach to the selection of
the active space vectors, based on selecting the closest vectors
to the reference with due regard for the reference voltage
amplitude (rather than selection purely based on the reference
belonging to a given sector).
Multilevel inverters [Fig. 5(b)] for multiphase variable speed
drives appear to be a natural solution for high-power inductionmotor drives, such as those aimed at electric ship propulsion
[118][120] or locomotive traction [121]. A rather different
application, for microelectromechanical systems, is elaborated
in [122], where a six-phase machine supplied form five-level
inverter is used. Configurations considered in the existing literature are typically either H-bridge based or of neutral-point
clamped (NPC) inverter type [118][125]. Another approach to
realizing multilevel supply for a multiphase machine consists
of the use of an open-end stator winding machine, supplied
at both ends from a two-level VSI. Such an approach has so
far been considered only in conjunction with asymmetrical sixphase machine [126], [127]. A set of four two-level three-phase
VSIs is used, configured into two six-phase VSIs, connected
at each side of the stator winding. Three-phase motor drives
with the open-end winding structure and double-sided supply are currently being investigated extensively as a potential
advanced solution for high-power applications. It is therefore
anticipated that more work will be done in conjunction with
the applicability of this supply arrangement for high-power
multiphase motor drives in the near future. In principle, two
inverter systems at the two sides of the open-end winding can be
of the same or different number of levels, which can be two or
more. The concept is shown in Fig. 6 for an n-phase machine.
Two inverters are of bridge structure and can utilize inverter
legs, as shown in Fig. 5(a) and (b), as the basic building blocks.
VI. F AULT -T OLERANT O PERATION
One of the most important properties of multiphase machines
is their ability to continue to operate after the loss of one

LEVI: MULTIPHASE ELECTRIC MACHINES FOR VARIABLE-SPEED APPLICATIONS

(or more) phase(s) without problems, something that cannot


be achieved with three-phase machines. Under the faulted
phase(s) conditions, the available degrees of freedom that exist
in multiphase machines are effectively utilized for an appropriate postfault operating strategy. Behavior of multiphase drives
in faulted operation and development of postfault operating
strategies, in conjunction with sinusoidal and concentrated
winding machines, is covered in [128][158], while similar
considerations related to the permanent-magnet machines of
modular design can be found in [170][179].
The analysis of the fault impact is most frequently based on
simulations using models of the type described in Section III.
Such relatively simple circuit modeling usually suffices for the
studies related to the design of postfault operating strategies. It
is also possible to use more complex machine representations
in fault studies, such as, the dynamic reluctance mesh model
[137], or generalized harmonic analysis [138].
The basic idea of all fault-tolerant strategies is that a multiphase machine can continue to operate with a rotating field
as long as no more than (n 3) phases are faulted. How the
strategies are actually developed and implemented depends to
a large extent on the application of the multiphase drive. The
simplest case arises in multiphase machines with k windings of
a subphases each, with k isolated neutral points. If one phase
fails, the complete a subphase winding, in which the fault has
taken place, is taken out of service. For example, in the case
of a six-phase machine with two isolated neutrals, if one phase
fails the whole three-phase winding is taken out of service. The
machine can however continue to operate without any control
algorithm modification using the remaining healthy three-phase
winding, of course with the available torque reduced to one
half of the rating (assuming no increase in the current in the
healthy phases). This is a perfectly satisfactory solution in,
for example, traction applications [129], [130]. Similarly, the
15-phase induction machine for ship propulsion of [7] and [8],
configured with three five-phase stator windings, can continue
to operate with one or even two five-phase windings disconnected from the supply due to faults. Taking out of service the
whole a subphase winding results, in these applications, in a
simple slowing down of a ship, train, or a vehicle.
Such a simple postfault operating strategy does not suffice for
safety-critical applications, such as for example fuel pump for
more-electric aircraft. Single neutral point now gives better
characteristics in postfault operation than the configuration with
k isolated neutral points. This is so since the single neutral
point enables utilization of all the remaining healthy phases
for postfault control, while in the case of the isolated neutral
points the complete faulty a subphase winding(s) is(are) taken
out of service. In this case, the control algorithm of the drive has
typically to be reconfigured in the software, so that a new set of
current references is generated for the remaining healthy phases
after disconnection of the faulty phase(s). Since it is desirable
now to continue to operate with a rotating field although one (or
more) phase(s) is not available any more, the new set of currents
becomes inevitably asymmetrical, meaning that the available
degrees of freedom are used for postfault operation (i.e., the
xy current components become of nonzero values). Hence,
for example in a concentrated winding five-phase machine,

1901

TABLE VII
IMPACT OF THE POSTFAULT STRATEGY ON MULTIPHASE INDUCTION
MOTOR DRIVE POSTFAULT OPERATION

torque enhancement by stator current harmonic injection is not


available any more for postfault operating conditions.
The impact of the postfault operating strategy on the drive
behavior depends on both the operating point and on the
characteristics of the load torque (speed-dependent or speedindependent). Suppose that one phase is open-circuited. One
possible criterion for postfault operation can be that the machines torque remains of the same value as before the fault and
without any pulsations (strategy 1). While this is in principle
possible with multiphase machines, one inevitable consequence
is the increase of the current amplitude in the remaining healthy
phases over the prefault value, by a factor n/(n 1). This
leads to an increase in the stator winding loss and may cause
overheating if the operation is sustained for a prolonged period
of time. In addition, the semiconductor switches of the power
electronic converter must be able to withstand operation with
an increased current level. Alternatively, one may wish to keep
the stator winding losses at the prefault level (strategy 2). This
allows for an increase in the current
 magnitude in the remaining
healthy phases by a factor of n/(n 1), but simultaneously
reduces the available output torque at any given speed. Finally,
one may wish to continue to operate the machine without
any change of the currents in the remaining healthy phases
(strategy 3). This will lead to both stator winding loss reduction
and torque reduction.
A qualitative impact of these three strategies on postfault
operation is illustrated in Table VII for a multiphase induction
motor drive. It is assumed that one phase is open-circuited
and that the load torque is proportional to the speed squared
(corresponding quantitative data for prefault slip of 0.01,
as a function of the machines phase number, are available
in [16]).
While by and large postfault operating strategies require
software reconfiguration only, meaning that the faulty phase(s)
is not supplied any more, control algorithm modification (software reconfiguration), can be combined with hardware reconfiguration if the reason for the loss of supply to a phase is not a
fault within the machine itself [131]. For example, in the case of
a fault of one inverter leg in a six-phase motor drive, the phase
that would be left without supply in postfault operation if only
software reconfiguration were applied gets connected to one of
the remaining healthy inverter legs (so that two motor phases
are now supplied form the same inverter leg) using additional
semiconductors (triacs) for this reconfiguration [131].

1902

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 5, MAY 2008

VII. M ULTIMOTOR M ULTIPHASE V ARIABLE -S PEED


D RIVES W ITH S INGLE I NVERTER S UPPLY
As already emphasized, flux and torque control of a multiphase machine requires only two currents regardless of the
number of phases. How the remaining degrees of freedom can
be utilized for torque enhancement in concentrated winding
machines, using stator current harmonic injection, and for development of postfault operating strategies, has been addressed
in Sections IV and VI, respectively. An entirely different utilization of the remaining degrees of freedom is however possible
with multiphase machines having sinusoidal field distribution
(Table II). A certain number of machines can be connected in
series, using an appropriate transposition in the connection of
the machines phases, in such a manner that flux/torque producing (dq) currents of one machine appear as nonflux/torque
producing (xy) currents for all the other machines and vice
versa. The idea has been floated for the first time in [180] in
conjunction with two-motor five-phase series-connected twomotor drive and is shown in Fig. 7(a) at a conceptual level for
an n-phase supply. However, the origins can be traced back to
[181], where a symmetrical six-phase machine was considered
and the phases were supplied with two current components.
One of these was generating flux and torque, while the second
one was creating forces required for bearing relief, without
impacting on the machines flux and torque production.
The concept of series connection using phase transposition
enables completely independent control of all the machines although a single multiphase inverter is used as the supply. Vector
control is applied in conjunction with every machine in the
group and the inverter is required to generate a multifrequency
output voltage for the supply of the complete drive system. Such
multimotor drive systems are possible for symmetrical multiphase machines with both an even and an odd supply phase
numbers and they have been investigated in a considerable
depth in [182][198]. The number of machines connectable in
series is at most w = (n 2)/2 for even supply phase numbers
and w = (n 1)/2 for odd supply phase numbers. Whether or
not all the series-connected machines are of the same phase
number depends on the supply phase number. The possibility
of series connection exists also in the case of asymmetrical
machines and it has been so far developed for the asymmetrical
six-phase case and asymmetrical nine-phase case. The asymmetrical six-phase supply enables series connection of either
two asymmetrical six-phase machines or one asymmetrical sixphase machine and a two-phase machine. The latter possibility
has a drawback in that it requires the neutral of the drive system
to be connected either to the seventh inverter leg or to the
midpoint of the dc link. On the other hand, the properties of the
former are practically the same as for the two-motor five-phase
drive. The concept is independent of the machine type and has
been studied using induction, permanent-magnet synchronous,
and synchronous reluctance machines.
From the application point of view, two potentially viable
solutions appear to be two-motor series-connected five-phase
(or asymmetrical six-phase, comprising two asymmetrical sixphase machines) and symmetrical six-phase two-motor drives.
In the symmetrical six-phase configuration, the second machine

is three-phase and it is not in any way affected by the series


connection. Since flux/torque producing currents of the threephase machine flow through the six-phase machines stator
winding, impact of the series connection on the efficiency of
the six-phase machine will be negligible provided that the sixphase machine is of a considerably higher rating than the threephase machine.
In contrast to this, in five-phase and asymmetrical six-phase
configurations, both machines are affected by the series connection since flux/torque producing currents of each machine
flow through both machines. Hence, the potential applicability
of this configuration is related to either two-motor drives where
the two machines never operate simultaneously or where the
operating conditions are at all times very different (for example,
two-motor center driven winder drives). However, the efficiency
of such a two-motor drive will always be lower than in a
corresponding two-motor drive with two independent VSIs as
the supply.
It is also possible to connect the multiphase machines in
parallel instead of in series [Fig. 7(b)]. Using the same idea of
phase transposition, independent control can again be achieved
[199], [200]. However, parallel connection can only be realized
when the system (VSI) number of phases is an odd prime
number. While parallel connection looks more attractive than
the series connection at first sight, it suffers from some serious
disadvantages that make it far inferior to the series connection. First of all, the dc-link voltage in the series connection
is split across machines connected in series, while in parallel connection each of the machines is subjected to the full
dc-link voltage (dc-link voltage has to be increased by the same
amount, regardless of whether machines are connected in series
or in parallel). Even more importantly, in series connection all
inverter current components are directly controlled and therefore known. In contrast to this, in parallel connection it is the
inverter voltage components that are directly controlled, leading
to essentially uncontrollable stator xy current components
in the machines of the group. The net result is that, although
fully decoupled dynamic control of all the machines of the
multimotor drive is possible using both series and parallel
connection, it is only the series connection that holds some
prospect for industrial applications.
VIII. M ULTIPHASE M ACHINES IN
E LECTRIC -E NERGY G ENERATION
Potential utilization of multiphase (in essence, six-phase)
synchronous generators was considered extensively in the
1970s and 1980s [201][208]. The perceived applications
were related predominantly to uninterruptible-power-supply
systems. A similar but permanent-magnet-based synchronous
generator configuration has also been analyzed more recently
in conjunction with high-power high-speed systems for rectifier
load supply [209].
In recent times, interest in the use of multiphase generators
has reappeared, in conjunction with renewable electric-energy
generating sources [210][215]. It needs to be emphasized
though that there is no evidence at present of any industrial uptake of such solutions. Permanent-magnet synchronous

LEVI: MULTIPHASE ELECTRIC MACHINES FOR VARIABLE-SPEED APPLICATIONS

Fig. 7.

1903

Concept of multimotor multiphase drive systems with single inverter supply and independent control: (a) Series and (b) parallel connection.

multiphase generators [210][212] may become a viable solution for the direct-driven applications in wind-powered plants,
while multiphase induction generators with multiple threephase windings may have a prospect for applications in standalone self-excited generating systems in rural areas [213] and
low-power hydroelectric plants [214].

A somewhat specific use of machines with more than threephases is met in Lundell alternators, aimed at the generation of
two independent dc voltages for automotive applications [216],
[217]. Typically, the machine is designed with two independent
three-phase windings which may [216] or may not [217] have
strong magnetic coupling. However, since the outputs of the

1904

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 5, MAY 2008

three-phase windings are kept independent and are individually


rectified, these machines are better described as dual-stator
machines than as multiphase machines (although the design of
the machine may be such that the stator winding is in essence a
six-phase winding).
IX. O THER M ULTIPHASE M OTOR D RIVE S OLUTIONS
Multiphase variable-speed drives, discussed so far, are predominantly based on utilization of VSIs (as noted, current
source inverters were also considered in the early days of
the multiphase motor drive development [5], [6]). A different
solution is however used in conjunction with high-power synchronous motors for pumps and compressors. Indeed, one of
the first actual applications of a multiphase electric drive was
aimed at such an application [218] and it was based on utilization of an asymmetrical six-phase synchronous motor. Highpower multiphase synchronous motors for such applications
are usually supplied from current-source thyristor-based 12pulse LCIs [219], [220]. Typically, two three-phase windings
are displaced by 30 and supplied by two independent threephase LCIs, which receive dc current from two three-phase rectifiers [219]. The rectifier input comes from a transformer with
star/delta connected dual secondary. Such multiphase drives are
of more than 10-MW rating and utilization of a multiphase
machine enables splitting of the power across more than three
phases, thus reducing the required rating of the semiconductor
components.
In addition to the mainstream trends in the development
of multiphase machines for variable-speed drive applications,
along which this paper has been organized, there are also some
very specific solutions [221][229] that do not fit any of the
main categories. In majority of cases, the intended application is
automotive [223][228]. Potential multiphase-machine-based
solutions for integrated starter/alternator applications are elaborated in [226] and [227], while potential application of a sixphase induction motor for electric power steering is discussed
in [228].
X. C ONCLUSION
Variable-speed electric drives, based on utilization of multiphase machines, have been known for half a century. A substantial growth in this area has been witnessed during the last
decade, due to the developments in some specific application
areas. An attempt has been made in this paper to provide a brief
review of the state of the art in multiphase variable-speed drives,
as well as an up-to-date and exhaustive bibliography.
The main aspects of the multiphase variable-speed drives
have been surveyed. These have included, to start with, types
of multiphase machines, modeling, and control. Next, PWM
methods for multiphase VSI PWM have been reviewed. Utilization of the additional degrees of freedom, available with
multiphase machines, for the design of postfault operating
strategies and for multimotor multiphase drives with single
inverter supply, has been further covered. Finally, the potential
of multiphase machines for electric-energy generation is briefly
addressed.

R EFERENCES
[1] E. E. Ward and H. Hrer, Preliminary investigation of an invertor-fed
5-phase induction motor, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng., vol. 116, no. 6,
pp. 980984, Jun. 1969.
[2] M. A. Abbas, R. Christen, and T. M. Jahns, Six-phase voltage source
inverter driven induction motor, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-20,
no. 5, pp. 12511259, Sep./Oct. 1984.
[3] K. N. Pavithran, R. Parimelalagan, and M. R. Krishnamurthy, Studies
on inverter-fed five-phase induction motor drive, IEEE Trans. Power
Electron., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 224235, Apr. 1988.
[4] E. Andrese and K. Bieniek, 6-phase induction motors for current-source
inverter drives, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Philadelphia,
PA, 1981, pp. 607618.
[5] K. Gopakumar, S. Sathiakumar, S. K. Biswas, and J. Vithayathil, Modified current source inverter fed induction motor drive with reduced
torque pulsations, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng., vol. 131, no. 4, pt. B, pp. 159
164, Jul. 1984.
[6] J. Dente and F. Labrique, Induction motor-current source inverter systems with phase number greater than 3, in Proc. EPE, Brussels, Belgium, 1985, pp. 3.1433.147.
[7] T. McCoy and M. Bentamane, The all electric warship: An overview of
the U.S. Navys integrated power system development programme, in
Proc. Int. Conf. ELECSHIP, Istanbul, Turkey, 1998, pp. 14.
[8] M. Benatmane and T. McCoy, Development of a 19 MW PWM converter for U.S. Navy surface ships, in Proc. Int. Conf. ELECSHIP,
Istanbul, Turkey, 1998, pp. 109113.
[9] C. Hodge, S. Williamson, and A. C. Smith, Direct drive marine propulsion motors, in Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical Machines (ICEM), Bruges,
Belgium, 2002, CD-ROM, Paper 807.
[10] S. Smith, Developments in power electronics, machines and drives,
IEE Power Eng. J., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1317, Feb. 2002.
[11] F. Terrien, S. Siala, and P. Noy, Multiphase induction motor sensorless control for electric ship propulsion, in Proc. IEE PEMD Conf.,
Edinburgh, U.K., 2004, pp. 556561.
[12] C. L. Ferreira and R. W. G. Bucknall, Modelling and real-time simulation of an advanced marine full-electrical propulsion system, in Proc.
IEE PEMD Conf., Edinburgh, U.K., 2004, pp. 574579.
[13] G. K. Singh, Multi-phase induction machine drive researchA survey,
Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 139147, Mar. 2002.
[14] M. Jones and E. Levi, A literature survey of state-of-the-art in multiphase AC drives, in Proc. UPEC, Stafford, U.K., 2002, pp. 505510.
[15] R. Bojoi, F. Farina, F. Profumo, and A. Tenconi, Dual-three phase
induction machine drives controlA survey, IEEJ Trans. Ind. Appl.,
vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 420429, 2006.
[16] E. Levi, R. Bojoi, F. Profumo, H. A. Toliyat, and S. Williamson, Multiphase induction motor drivesA technology status review, IET Electr.
Power Appl., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 489516, Jul. 2007.
[17] P. Ferraris and M. Lazzari, Phase numbers and their related effects on
the characteristics of inverter fed induction motor drives, in Conf. Rec.
IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Mexico City, Mexico, 1983, pp. 494502.
[18] S. Williamson and A. C. Smith, Pulsating torque and losses in multiphase induction machines, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 4,
pp. 986993, Jul./Aug. 2003.
[19] J. M. Apsley, S. Williamson, A. C. Smith, and M. Barnes, Induction motor performance as a function of phase number, Proc.
Inst. Electr. Eng.Electr. Power Appl., vol. 153, no. 6, pp. 898904,
Nov. 2006.
[20] A. Boglietti, R. Bojoi, A. Cavagnino, and A. Tenconi, Efficiency analysis of PWM inverter fed three-phase and dual three-phase induction
machines, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Tampa, FL, 2006,
pp. 434440.
[21] A. N. Golubev and S. V. Ignatenko, Influence of number of statorwinding phases on the noise characteristics of an asynchronous motor,
Russ. Electr. Eng., vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 4146, 2000.
[22] D. C. White and H. H. Woodson, Electromechanical Energy Conversion.
New York: Wiley, 1959.
[23] A. N. Golubev and V. V. Zykov, Asynchronous motor with multiphase
stator and rotor windings, Russ. Electr. Eng., vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 4351,
2003.
[24] L. A. Pereira, C. C. Scharlau, L. F. A. Pereira, and J. F. Haffner, Model
of a five-phase induction machine allowing for harmonics in the air-gap
field, Part I: Parameter determination and general equations, in Proc.
IEEE IECON, Busan, Korea, 2004, pp. 98103.
[25] L. A. Pereira, C. C. Scharlau, L. F. A. Pereira, and J. F. Haffner, Model
of a five-phase induction machine allowing for harmonics in the air-gap
field, Part II: Transformation of co-ordinates and d-q models, in Proc.
IEEE IECON, Busan, Korea, 2004, pp. 16821687.

LEVI: MULTIPHASE ELECTRIC MACHINES FOR VARIABLE-SPEED APPLICATIONS

[26] L. A. Pereira, C. C. Scharlau, L. F. A. Pereira, and J. F. Haffner, General


model of a five-phase induction machine allowing for harmonics in the
air gap field, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 891899,
Dec. 2006.
[27] X. Kestelyn, E. Semail, and J. P. Hautier, Vectorial multi-machine modeling for a five-phase machine, in Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical Machines
(ICEM), Bruges, Belgium, 2002, CD-ROM, Paper 394.
[28] N. Mokhtari, M. F. Benkhoris, M. Merabtene, and R. LeDoeuff, Vectorial modeling approach of multi-star machine supplied by voltage source
inverters, in Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical Machines (ICEM), Krakow,
Poland, 2004, CD-ROM, Paper 449.
[29] E. Semail, A. Bouscayrol, and J. P. Hautier, Vectorial formalism for
analysis and design of polyphase synchronous machines, Eur. Phys.
J.Appl. Phys., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 207220, 2003.
[30] D. Hadiouche, H. Razik, and A. Rezzoug, Modelling of a doublestar induction motor with an arbitrary shift angle between its three
phase windings, in Proc. Int. Conf. PEMC, Kosice, Slovakia, 2000,
pp. 5.1255.130.
[31] R. H. Nelson and P. C. Krause, Induction machine analysis for arbitrary
displacement between multiple winding sets, IEEE Trans. Power App.
Syst., vol. PAS-93, no. 3, pp. 841848, May 1974.
[32] T. A. Lipo, A d-q model for six phase induction machines, in Proc. Int.
Conf. Electrical Machines (ICEM), Athens, Greece, 1980, pp. 860867.
[33] A. Contin, A. Grava, A. Tessarolo, and G. Zocco, A novel modelling
approach to a multi-phase, high power synchronous machine, in Proc.
Int. SPEEDAM, Taormina, Italy, 2006, pp. 428433.
[34] H. Razik, A. Rezzoug, and D. Hadiouche, Modelling and analysis of
dual-stator induction motors, IEEJ Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 125, no. 12,
pp. 10931104, Dec. 2005.
[35] Y. Wang, W. Xuhui, and S. Xue, Modeling and vector control of
multi-phase permanent magnet motor drives based on orthogonal spaces
concept, in Proc Int. Conf. Electrical Machines Systems (ICEMS),
Nagasaki, Japan, 2006, CD-ROM, Paper 35.
[36] J. Figueroa, J. Cros, and P. Viarouge, Generalized transformations for
polyphase phase-modulation motors, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers.,
vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 332341, Jun. 2006.
[37] L. De Camillis, M. Matuonto, A. Monti, and A. Vignati, Optimizing
current control performance in double winding asynchronous motors in
large power inverter drives, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 16, no. 5,
pp. 676685, Sep. 2001.
[38] R. Bojoi, M. Lazzari, F. Profumo, and A. Tenconi, Digital field oriented
control for dual three-phase induction motor drives, in Conf. Rec. IEEE
IAS Annu. Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA, 2002, pp. 818825.
[39] R. Bojoi, F. Profumo, and A. Tenconi, Digital synchronous frame current regulation for dual three-phase induction motor drives, in Proc.
IEEE PESC, Acapulco, Mexico, 2003, pp. 14751480.
[40] G. K. Singh, K. Nam, and S. K. Lim, A simple indirect field-oriented
control scheme for multiphase induction machine, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Electron., vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 11771184, Aug. 2005.
[41] R. Bojoi, F. Farina, M. Lazzari, F. Profumo, and A. Tenconi, Analysis
of the asymmetrical operation of dual three-phase induction machines,
in Proc. IEEE IEMDC, Madison, WI, 2003, pp. 429435.
[42] R. Bojoi, E. Levi, F. Farina, A. Tenconi, and F. Profumo, Dual threephase induction motor drive with digital current control in the stationary
reference frame, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.Electr. Power Appl., vol. 153,
no. 1, pp. 129139, Jan. 2006.
[43] L. Hou, Y. Su, and L. Chen, DSP-based indirect rotor flux oriented
control for multiphase induction machines, in Proc. IEEE IEMDC,
Madison, WI, 2003, pp. 976980.
[44] S. D. Sudhoff, J. T. Alt, N. J. Hegner, and H. N. Robey, Jr., Control of
a 15-phase induction motor drive system, in Proc. Naval Symp. Electr.
Mach., Newport, RI, 1997, pp. 6975.
[45] S. N. Vukosavic, M. Jones, E. Levi, and J. Varga, Rotor flux oriented
control of a symmetrical six-phase induction machine, Electr. Power
Syst. Res., vol. 75, no. 2/3, pp. 142152, Aug. 2005.
[46] R. Bojoi, A. Tenconi, G. Griva, and F. Profumo, Vector control of dual
three-phase induction motor drives using two current sensors, in Conf.
Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Hong Kong, 2005, pp. 18051812.
[47] L. Hua, Z. Yunping, and H. Bi, The vector control strategies for multiphase synchronous motor drive systems, in Proc. IEEE ISIE, Montreal,
QC, Canada, 2006, pp. 22052210.
[48] R. Bojoi, G. Griva, and F. Profumo, Field oriented control of dual threephase induction motor drives using a Luenberger flux observer, in Conf.
Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Tampa, FL, 2006, pp. 12531260.
[49] R. Kianinezhad, B. Nahid-Mobarakeh, F. Betin, and G. A. Capolino,
Sensorless field-oriented control for six-phase induction machines, in
Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Hong Kong, 2005, pp. 9991006.

1905

[50] R. Kianinezhad, B. Nahid, L. Baghli, F. Betin, and G. A. Capolino,


Aspects of current regulation in indirect field oriented control of dual
three phase induction machines, in Proc. IEEE ICIT, Mumbai, India,
2006, pp. 933938.
[51] R. Kianinezhad, B. Nahid, F. Betin, and G. A. Capolino, A new field
orientation control of dual three phase induction machines, in Proc.
IEEE ICIT, Hammamet, Tunisia, 2004, pp. 187192.
[52] E. A. Klingshirn, High phase order induction motorsPart I
Description and theoretical considerations, IEEE Trans. Power App.
Syst., vol. PAS-102, no. 1, pp. 4753, Jan. 1983.
[53] E. A. Klingshirn, High phase order induction motorsPart II
Experimental results, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-102,
no. 1, pp. 5459, Jan. 1983.
[54] H. Weh and U. Schroder, Static inverter concepts for multiphase
machines with square-wave current-field distribution, in Proc. EPE,
Brussels, Belgium, 1985, pp. 1.1471.152.
[55] H. A. Toliyat, S. P. Waikar, and T. A. Lipo, Analysis and simulation
of five-phase synchronous reluctance machines including third harmonic
of airgap MMF, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 332339,
Mar./Apr. 1998.
[56] C. E. Coates, D. Platt, and V. J. Gosbell, Performance evaluation of a
nine-phase synchronous reluctance drive, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu.
Meeting, Chicago, IL, 2001, pp. 20412047.
[57] L. Parsa and H. A. Toliyat, Five-phase permanent-magnet motor
drives, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 3037, Jan./Feb. 2005.
[58] R. O. C. Lyra and T. A. Lipo, Six-phase induction machine with
third harmonic current injection, in Proc. ElectrIMACS, Montreal, QC,
Canada, 2002, CD-ROM, Paper 304.
[59] R. O. C. Lyra and T. A. Lipo, Torque density improvement in a sixphase induction motor with third harmonic current injection, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 13511360, Sep./Oct. 2002.
[60] F. B. Bendixen, F. Blaabjerg, P. O. Rasmussen, P. Vadstrup, and
K. Krabbe, Controlling the dc-link midpoint potential in a sixphase motor-drive, in Proc. IEEE PESC, Aachen, Germany, 2004,
pp. 21282132.
[61] B. Stumberger, G. Stumberger, A. Hamler, M. Trlep, M. Jesenik, and
V. Gorican, Increasing of output power capability in a six-phase fluxweakened permanent magnet synchronous motor with a third harmonic
current injection, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 33433345,
Sep. 2003.
[62] H. Xu, H. A. Toliyat, and L. J. Petersen, Rotor field oriented control of five-phase induction motor with the combined fundamental and
third harmonic currents, in Proc. IEEE APEC, Anaheim, CA, 2001,
pp. 392398.
[63] H. Xu, H. A. Toliyat, and L. J. Petersen, Five-phase induction motor
drives with DSP-based control system, IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,
vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 524533, Jul. 2002.
[64] F. Locment, E. Semail, and X. Kestelyn, Optimum use of DC bus
by fitting the back-electromotive force of a 7-phase permanent magnet
synchronous machine, in Proc. Eur. Power Electronics Applications
Conf. (EPE), Dresden, Germany, 2005, CD-ROM, Paper 484.
[65] R. Shi, H. A. Toliyat, and A. El-Antalby, Field oriented control of fivephase synchronous reluctance motor drive with flexible 3rd harmonic
current injection for high specific torque, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu.
Meeting, Chicago, IL, 2001, pp. 20972103.
[66] H. A. Toliyat, L. Y. Xu, and T. A. Lipo, A five-phase reluctance motor with high specific torque, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 28, no. 3,
pp. 659667, May/Jun. 1992.
[67] H. A. Toliyat, T. A. Lipo, and J. C. White, Analysis of a concentrated
winding induction machine for adjustable speed drive applications.
Part 1. Motor Analysis, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 6, no. 4,
pp. 679683, Dec. 1991.
[68] H. M. Ryu, J. W. Kim, and S. K. Sul, Synchronous frame current control
of multi-phase synchronous motor, Part I: Modeling and current control
based on multiple d-q spaces concept under balanced condition, in Conf.
Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Seattle, WA, 2004, pp. 5663.
[69] F. Scuiller, E. Semail, J. F. Charpentier, and S. Clenet, Comparison of conventional and unconventional 5-phase PM motor structures
for naval applications, IASME Trans., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 365371,
Apr. 2004.
[70] R. Bojoi, F. Farina, G. Griva, F. Profumo, and A. Tenconi, Direct torque
control for dual three-phase induction motor drives, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Appl., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 16271636, Nov./Dec. 2005.
[71] X. Kestelyn, E. Semail, and D. Loriol, Direct torque control of a multiphase permanent magnet synchronous motor drive: Application to a
five-phase one, in Proc. IEEE IEMDC, San Antonio, TX, 2005,
pp. 137143.

1906

[72] H. A. Toliyat and H. Xu, DSP-based direct torque control (DTC) for
five-phase induction machines, in Proc. IPEC, Tokyo, Japan, 2000,
pp. 11951200.
[73] H. A. Toliyat and H. Xu, A novel direct torque control (DTC) method
for five-phase induction machines, in Proc. IEEE APEC, New Orleans,
LA, 2000, pp. 162168.
[74] K. Hatua and V. T. Ranganathan, Direct torque control schemes for
split-phase induction machine, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 5,
pp. 12431254, Sep./Oct. 2005.
[75] F. Farina, R. Bojoi, A. Tenconi, and F. Profumo, Direct torque control
with full order stator flux observer for dual-three phase induction motor
drives, IEEJ Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 412419, 2006.
[76] K. Marouani, F. Khoucha, A. Kheloui, L. Baghli, and D. Hadiouche,
Study and simulation of direct torque control of double-star induction motor drive, in Proc. EPE-PEMC, Portoroz, Slovenia, 2006,
pp. 12331238.
[77] R. Kianinezhad, B. Nahid, F. Betin, and G. A. Capolino, A novel direct
torque control (DTC) method for dual three phase induction motors, in
Proc. IEEE ICIT, Mumbai, India, 2006, pp. 939943.
[78] J. W. Kelly, E. G. Strangas, and J. M. Miller, Multi-phase inverter
analysis, in Proc. IEEE IEMDC, Cambridge, MA, 2001, pp. 147155.
[79] O. Ojo and G. Dong, Generalized discontinuous carrier-based PWM
modulation scheme for multi-phase converter-machine systems, in
Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Hong Kong, 2005, pp. 13741381.
[80] A. Iqbal, E. Levi, M. Jones, and S. N. Vukosavic, Generalised sinusoidal
PWM with harmonic injection for multi-phase VSIs, in Proc. IEEE
PESC, Jeju, Korea, 2006, pp. 28712877.
[81] S. Siala, E. Guette, and J. L. Pouliquen, Multi-inverter control: A
new generation drives for cruise ship electric propulsion, in Proc. Eur.
Power Electronics Applications Conf. (EPE), Toulouse, France, 2003,
CD-ROM, Paper 919.
[82] R. Bojoi, A. Tenconi, F. Profumo, G. Griva, and D. Martinello, Complete analysis and comparative study of digital modulation techniques
for dual three-phase AC motor drives, in Proc. IEEE PESC, Cairns,
Australia, 2002, pp. 851857.
[83] H. Takami and H. Matsumoto, Optimal pulse patterns of a nine-phase
voltage source PWM inverter for use with a triple three-phase wound AC
motor, Electr. Eng. Jpn., vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 102113, 1993.
[84] A. Iqbal, E. Levi, M. Jones, and S. N. Vukosavic, A PWM scheme for a
five-phase VSI supplying a five-phase two-motor drive, in Proc. IEEE
IECON, Paris, France, 2006, pp. 25752580.
[85] H. A. Toliyat, M. M. Rahimian, and T. A. Lipo, Analysis and modeling
of five phase converters for adjustable speed drive applications, in Proc.
EPE, Brighton, U.K., 1993, pp. 194199.
[86] H. A. Toliyat, R. Shi, and H. Xu, A DSP-based vector control of fivephase synchronous reluctance motor, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu.
Meeting, Rome, Italy, 2000, pp. 17591765.
[87] Y. Zhao and T. A. Lipo, Space vector PWM control of dual three-phase
induction machine using vector space decomposition, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Appl., vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 11001109, Sep./Oct. 1995.
[88] M. J. Duran and E. Levi, Multi-dimensional approach to multi-phase
space vector pulse width modulation, in Proc. IEEE IECON, Paris,
France, 2006, pp. 21032108.
[89] A. Iqbal and E. Levi, Space vector PWM for a five-phase VSI supplying two five-phase series-connected machines, in Proc. EPE-PEMC,
Portoroz, Slovenia, 2006, pp. 222227.
[90] D. Dujic, A. Iqbal, and E. Levi, A space vector PWM technique for
symmetrical six-phase voltage source inverters, EPE J., vol. 17, no. 1,
pp. 2432, 2007.
[91] A. Iqbal and E. Levi, Space vector PWM techniques for sinusoidal output voltage generation with a five-phase voltage source inverter, Electr. Power Compon. Syst., vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 119140,
Feb. 2006.
[92] K. Gopakumar, V. T. Ranganthan, and S. R. Bhat, Split-phase induction
motor operation from PWM voltage source inverter, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Appl., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 927932, Sep./Oct. 1993.
[93] A. Monti, A. P. Morando, L. Resta, and M. Riva, Comparing two-level
GTO-inverter feeding a double star asynchronous motor with a three
level GTO-inverter feeding a single star asynchronous motor, in Proc.
EPE, Seville, Spain, 1995, pp. 2.4192.425.
[94] J. W. Kelly, E. G. Strangas, and J. M. Miller, Multiphase space vector
pulse width modulation, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 18, no. 2,
pp. 259264, Jun. 2003.
[95] D. Hadiouche, L. Baghli, and A. Rezzoug, Space vector PWM techniques for dual three-phase AC machine: Analysis, performance evaluation and DSP implementation, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting,
Salt Lake City, UT, 2003, pp. 649655.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 5, MAY 2008

[96] H. M. Ryu, J. H. Kim, and S. K. Sul, Analysis of multiphase space


vector pulse-width modulation based on multiple d-q spaces concept, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 13641371,
Nov. 2005.
[97] D. Casadei, G. Serra, A. Tani, and L. Zarri, Multi-phase inverter modulation strategies based on duty-cycle space vector approach, in Proc.
SPRTS Conf., Bologna, Italy, 2005, pp. 222229.
[98] K. Gopakumar, V. T. Ranganathan, and S. R. Bhat, An efficient PWM
technique for split phase induction motor operation using dual voltage
source inverter, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Toronto, ON,
Canada, 1993, pp. 582587.
[99] M. B. R. Correa, C. B. Jacobina, C. R. da Silva, A. M. N. Lima, and
E. R. C. da Silva, Vector and scalar modulation for six-phase voltage source inverters, in Proc. IEEE PESC, Acapulco, Mexico, 2003,
pp. 562567.
[100] A. T. Bakhshai, G. Joos, and H. Jin, Space vector PWM control of a
split-phase induction machine using the vector classification technique,
in Proc. IEEE APEC, Atlanta, GA, 1997, pp. 802808.
[101] P. S. N. De Silva, J. E. Fletcher, and B. W. Williams, Development of
space vector modulation strategies for five-phase voltage source inverters, in Proc. IEE PEMD Conf., Edinburgh, U.K., 2004, pp. 650655.
[102] A. Iqbal and E. Levi, Space vector modulation schemes for a five-phase
voltage source inverter, in Proc. Eur. Power Electronics Applications
Conf. (EPE), Dresden, Germany, 2005, CD-ROM, Paper 0006.
[103] X. Kestelyn, E. Semail, and J. P. Hautier, Multi-phase system supplied
by SVM VSI: A new fast algorithm to compute duty cycles, EPE J.,
vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 2531, 2004.
[104] P. Delarue, A. Bouscayrol, and E. Semail, Generic control method of
multileg voltage-source converters for fast practical implementation,
IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 517526, Mar. 2003.
[105] G. Oriti, A. L. Julian, and T. A. Lipo, An inverter/motor drive with
common mode voltage elimination, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu.
Meeting, New Orleans, LA, 1997, pp. 587592.
[106] M. B. R. Correa, C. B. Jacobina, C. R. da Silva, A. M. N. Lima, and
E. R. C. da Silva, Six-phase AC drive system with reduced
common-mode voltage, in Proc. IEEE IEMDC, Madison, WI, 2003,
pp. 18521858.
[107] A. von Jouanne and H. Zhang, A dual-bridge inverter approach to
eliminating common-mode voltages and bearing and leakage currents,
IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 4348, Jan. 1999.
[108] R. Kianinezhad, B. Nahid, F. Betin, and G. A. Capolino, Multivector SVM: A new approach to space vector modulation for six-phase
induction machines, in Proc. IEEE IECON, Raleigh, NC, 2005,
pp. 13591364.
[109] E. Semail and C. Rombaut, New method to calculate the conduction
durations of the switches in a n-leg 2-level voltage source inverter, in
Proc. Eur. Power Electronics Applications Conf. (EPE), Graz, Austria,
2003, CD-ROM, Paper PP0621.
[110] S. Xue, X. Wen, and Z. Feng, A novel multi-dimensional SVPWM
strategy of multiphase motor drives, in Proc. EPE-PEMC, Portoroz,
Slovenia, 2006, pp. 931935.
[111] P. A. Dahono, Analysis and minimization of output current ripple of
five-phase PWM inverters, in Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical Machines
(ICEM), Chania, Greece, 2006, CD-ROM, Paper OMA3-5.
[112] P. A. Dahono, Analysis and minimization of output current ripple of
multiphase PWM inverters, in Proc. IEEE PESC, Jeju Island, Korea,
2006, pp. 30243029.
[113] O. Ojo, G. Dong, and Z. Wu, Pulse-width modulation for five-phase
converters based on device turn-on times, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu.
Meeting, Tampa, FL, 2006, pp. 627634.
[114] K. Marouani, L. Baghli, D. Hadiouche, A. Kheloui, and A. Rezzoug,
Discontinuous SVPWM techniques for double star induction motor
drive control, in Proc. IEEE IECON, Paris, France, 2006, pp. 902907.
[115] V. Oleschuk, R. Bojoi, F. Profumo, A. Tenconi, and A. M.
Stankovic, Multifunctional six-phase motor drives with algorithms of
synchronized PWM, in Proc. IEEE IECON, Paris, France, 2006,
pp. 18521859.
[116] S. Lu and K. Corzine, Direct torque control of five-phase induction
motor using space vector modulation with harmonics elimination and
optimal switching sequence, in Proc. IEEE APEC, Dallas, TX, 2006,
pp. 195201.
[117] S. Xue and X. Wen, Simulation analysis of two novel multiphase SVPWM strategies, in Proc. IEEE ICIT, Hong Kong, 2005,
pp. 14011406.
[118] D. Gritter, S. S. Kalsi, and N. Henderson, Variable speed electric drive
options for electric ships, in Proc. IEEE ESTS, Philadelphia, PA, 2005,
pp. 347354.

LEVI: MULTIPHASE ELECTRIC MACHINES FOR VARIABLE-SPEED APPLICATIONS

[119] S. Lu and K. Corzine, Multilevel multi-phase propulsion drives, in


Proc. IEEE ESTS, Philadelphia, PA, 2005, pp. 363370.
[120] K. A. Corzine, S. D. Sudhoff, E. A. Lewis, D. H. Schmucker,
R. A. Youngs, and H. J. Hegner, Use of multi-level converters in ship
propulsion drives, in Proc. All Electr. Ship Conf., London, U.K., 1998,
pp. 155163.
[121] M. Steiner, R. Deplazes, and H. Stemmler, A new transformerless topology for AC-fed traction vehicles using multi-star induction motors, EPE
J., vol. 10, no. 3/4, pp. 4553, 2000.
[122] T. C. Neugebauer, D. J. Perreault, J. F. Lang, and C. Livermore, A sixphase multilevel inverter for MEMS electrostatic induction micromotors, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 4956,
Feb. 2004.
[123] Z. Oudjebour, E. M. Berkouk, N. Sami, S. Belgasmi, S. Arezki, and
I. Messaif, Indirect space vector control of a double star induction
machine fed by two five-levels NPC VSI, in Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical
Machines (ICEM), Krakow, Poland, 2004, CD-ROM, Paper 155.
[124] N. Madani, M. F. Benkhoris, C. Millet, and R. Le Doeuff, Investigation
of double stator asynchronous machineThree level PWM inverter set,
in Proc. Eur. Power Electronics Applications Conf. (EPE), Toulouse,
France, 2003, CD-ROM, Paper 646.
[125] Q. Song, X. Zhang, F. Yu, and C. Zhang, Research on PWM techniques
of five-phase three-level inverter, in Proc. Int. SPEEDAM, Taormina,
Italy, 2006, pp. 561565.
[126] K. K. Mohapatra, K. Gopakumar, V. T. Somasekhar, and L. Umanand,
A novel modulation scheme for a six-phase induction motor with
open-end windings, in Proc. IEEE IECON, Seville, Spain, 2002,
pp. 810815.
[127] K. K. Mohapatra and K. Gopakumar, A novel split phase induction
motor drive without harmonic filters and with linear voltage control for
the full modulation range, EPE J., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 2028, 2006.
[128] A. C. Smith, S. Williamson, and C. G. Hodge, High torque dense
naval propulsion motors, in Proc. IEEE IEMDC, Madison, WI, 2003,
pp. 14211427.
[129] S. Mantero, E. De Paola, and G. Marina, An optimised control strategy
for double star motors configuration in redundancy operation mode,
in Proc. Eur. Power Electronics Applications Conf. (EPE), Lausanne,
Switzerland, 1999, CD-ROM, Paper 013.
[130] S. Mantero, A. Monti, and S. Spreafico, DC-bus voltage control for
double star asynchronous fed drive under fault conditions, in Proc.
IEEE PESC, Galway, Ireland, 2000, pp. 533538.
[131] C. B. Jacobina, R. S. Miranda, and A. M. N. Lima, Reconfigurable fault
tolerant dual-winding AC motor drive system, in Proc. IEEE PESC,
Recife, Brazil, 2005, pp. 15741579.
[132] J. R. Fu and T. A. Lipo, Disturbance-free operation of a multiphase
current-regulated motor drive with an opened phase, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Appl., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 12671274, Sep./Oct. 1994.
[133] T. M. Jahns, Improved reliability in solid-state AC drives by means
of multiple independent phase-drive units, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.,
vol. IA-16, no. 3, pp. 321331, May/Jun. 1980.
[134] M. Merabtene, M. F. Benkhoris, and R. LeDoeuff, A unified model to
control the DSSM PWM inverter set under balanced and unbalanced
functioning, in Proc. Eur. Power Electronics Applications Conf. (EPE),
Toulouse, France, 2003, CD-ROM, Paper 417.
[135] G. K. Singh and V. Pant, Analysis of multiphase induction machine
under fault condition in a phase-redundant AC drive system, Electr.
Mach. Power Syst., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 577590, 2000.
[136] A. N. Golubev and V. Ignatenko, Anomalous operation of multiphase asynchronous electric drive, Russ. Electr. Eng., vol. 72, no. 10,
pp. 2228, 2001.
[137] C. Gerada, K. J. Bradley, M. Sumner, P. Wheeler, S. Pickering, J. Clare,
C. Whitley, and G. Towers, The implications of winding faults in induction motor drives, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Seattle, WA,
2004, pp. 25062513.
[138] J. M. Apsley and S. Williamson, Analysis of multi-phase induction
machines with winding faults, in Proc. IEEE IEMDC, San Antonio,
TX, 2005, pp. 249255.
[139] S. Williamson and S. Smith, Fault tolerance in multiphase propulsion
motors, J. Marine Eng. Technol., no. A4, pp. 37, 2004.
[140] Y. Zhao and T. A. Lipo, Modeling and control of a multi-phase induction machine with structural unbalance. Part I: Machine modeling and
multi-dimensional current regulation, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers.,
vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 570577, Sep. 1996.
[141] Y. Zhao and T. A. Lipo, Modeling and control of a multi-phase induction machine with structural unbalance. Part II: Field-oriented control
and experimental verification, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 11,
no. 3, pp. 578584, Sep. 1996.

1907

[142] C. B. Jacobina, R. S. Miranda, M. B. D. R. Correa, and A. M. N. Lima,


Disturbance-free operation of a six-phase AC motor drive system, in
Proc. IEEE PESC, Aachen, Germany, 2004, pp. 925931.
[143] H. Xu, H. A. Toliyat, and L. J. Petersen, Resilient current control of fivephase induction motor under asymmetrical fault conditions, in Proc.
IEEE APEC, Dallas, TX, 2002, pp. 6471.
[144] H. A. Toliyat, Analysis and simulation of five-phase variable-speed
induction motor drives under asymmetrical connections, IEEE Trans.
Power Electron., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 748756, Jul. 1998.
[145] L. Zheng, J. E. Fletcher, and B. W. Williams, Current optimisation for
a multi-phase machine under an open-circuit phase fault condition, in
Proc. IEE Int. Conf. PEMD, Dublin, Ireland, 2006, pp. 414419.
[146] P. S. N. De Silva, J. E. Fletcher, and B. W. Williams, Analysis of
concentrated winding multi-phase machines under phase failure using
decoupled vector space theory, in Proc. IEE Int. Conf. PEMD, Dublin,
Ireland, 2006, pp. 420424.
[147] C. B. Jacobina, I. S. Freitas, T. M. Oliveira, E. R. C. da Silva, and
A. M. N. Lima, Fault tolerant control of five-phase AC motor drive,
in Proc. IEEE PESC, Aachen, Germany, 2004, pp. 34863492.
[148] H. M. Ryu, J. W. Kim, and S. K. Sul, Synchronous frame current control
of multi-phase synchronous motor, Part II: Asymmetrical fault condition
due to open phases, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Seattle,
WA, 2004, pp. 268275.
[149] L. Parsa and H. A. Toliyat, Fault-tolerant five-phase permanent magnet
motor drives, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Seattle, WA, 2004,
pp. 10481054.
[150] F. Locment, E. Semail, and X. Kestelyn, A vector controlled axial-flux
seven-phase machine in fault operation, in Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical
Machines (ICEM), Chania, Greece, 2006, CD-ROM, Paper PMA2-10.
[151] H. M. Ryu, J. W. Kim, and S. K. Sul, Synchronous-frame current
control of multiphase synchronous motor under asymmetrical fault condition due to open phases, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 42, no. 4,
pp. 10621070, Jul./Aug. 2006.
[152] F. Locment, E. Semail, X. Kestelyn, and A. Bouscayrol, Control of a
seven-phase axial flux machine designed for fault operation, in Proc.
IEEE IECON, Paris, France, 2006, pp. 11011106.
[153] R. Kianinezhad, B. N. Mobarakeh, L. Baghli, F. Betin, and
G. A. Capolino, Torque ripple suppression for six-phase induction motors under open phase faults, in Proc. IEEE IECON, Paris, France, 2006,
pp. 13631368.
[154] J. P. Martin, F. Meibody-Tabar, and B. Davat, Multiple-phase permanent magnet synchronous machine supplied by VSIs, working under
fault conditions, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Rome, Italy,
2000, pp. 17101717.
[155] R. N. Andriamalala, H. Razik, G. Didier, F. M. Sargos, C. R. da Silva,
and E. R. C. da Silva, A model of dual stator winding induction machine
in case of stator and rotor faults for diagnosis purpose, in Conf. Rec.
IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Tampa, FL, 2006, pp. 23402345.
[156] R. Alcharea, B. Nahidmobarakeh, L. Baghli, F. Betin, and
G. A. Capolino, Decoupling modelling and control of six-phase
induction machines under open phase fault conditions, in Proc. IEEE
IECON, Paris, France, 2006, pp. 51015106.
[157] H. Razik, G. Didier, T. Lubin, C. R. da Silva, A. W. Macharenhas,
C. B. Jacobina, A. M. N. Lima, and E. R. C. da Silva, Model of double
star induction motors under rotor bar defect for diagnosis purposes, in
Proc. IEEE ICIT, Hong Kong, 2005, pp. 261266.
[158] G. Aroquiadassou, H. Henao, S. H. Kia, and G. A. Capolino, A spectral
method of speed ripple analysis for a fault-tolerant six-phase squirrelcage induction machine, in Proc. Int. SDEMPED, Vienna, Austria,
2005, pp. 217222.
[159] L. Parsa, H. A. Toliyat, and A. Goodarzi, Five-phase interior
permanent-magnet motors with low torque pulsation, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Appl., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 4046, Jan./Feb. 2007.
[160] F. Locment, E. Semail, and F. Piriou, Soft magnetic composite axial flux
seven-phase machine, in Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical Machines (ICEM),
Chania, Greece, 2006, CD-ROM, Paper OSA4-4.
[161] F. Scuiller, J. F. Charpentier, E. Semail, and S. Clenet, A global
design strategy for multiphase machine applied to the design of a
7-phase fractional slot concentrated winding PM machine, in Proc. Int.
Conf. Electrical Machines (ICEM), Chania, Greece, 2006, CD-ROM,
Paper OMM1-3.
[162] L. Parsa and T. Kim, Reducing torque pulsation of multi-phase interior
permanent magnet machines, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting,
Tampa, FL, 2006, pp. 19781983.
[163] F. Locment, E. Semail, and F. Piriou, Design and study of a multiphase
axial-flux machine, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 14271430,
Apr. 2006.

1908

[164] J. Figureoa, J. Cros, and P. Viarouge, Polyphase PM brushless DC


motor for high reliability application, in Proc. Eur. Power Electronics Applications Conf. (EPE), Toulouse, France, 2003, CD-ROM,
Paper 1079.
[165] M. G. Simoes and P. Vieira, A high-torque low-speed multiphase brushless machineA perspective application for electric vehicles, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 11541164,
Oct. 2002.
[166] S. Waikar, T. Gopalaranthnam, H. A. Toliyat, and J. C. Moreira, Evaluation of multiphase brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motors using
finite element method (FEM) and experiments, in Proc. IEEE APEC,
Dallas, TX, 1999, pp. 396402.
[167] M. G. Simoes and P. Vieira, Jr., Model development and design of
a wheel-motor drive system, in Proc. EPE-PEMC, Kosice, Slovakia,
2000, pp. 5.745.79.
[168] M. G. Simoes, N. N. Franceschetti, and P. Vieira, Jr., Design and
evaluation of a polyphase brushless DC-machine direct drive system,
in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Chicago, IL, 2001, pp. 835842.
[169] T. Gopalarathnam, S. Waikar, H. A. Toliyat, M. S. Arefeen, and
J. C. Moreira, Development of low cost multi-phase brushless DC
(BLDC) motors with unipolar current excitations, in Conf. Rec. IEEE
IAS Annu. Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, 1999, pp. 173179.
[170] B. C. Mecrow, A. G. Jack, D. J. Atkinson, S. R. Green, G. J. Atkinson,
A. King, and B. Green, Design and testing of a four-phase fault-tolerant
permanent-magnet machine for an engine fuel pump, IEEE Trans.
Energy Convers., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 671678, Dec. 2004.
[171] J. Wang, K. Atallah, and D. Howe, Optimal torque control of faulttolerant permanent magnet brushless machines, IEEE Trans. Magn.,
vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 29622964, Sep. 2003.
[172] K. Atallah, J. B. Wang, and D. Howe, Torque-ripple minimization
in modular permanent-magnet brushless machines, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Appl., vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 16891695, Nov./Dec. 2003.
[173] J. A. Ede, K. Attalah, J. B. Wang, and D. Howe, Effect of optimal
torque control on rotor loss of fault-tolerant permanent-magnet brushless machines, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 32913293,
Sep. 2002.
[174] B. C. Mecrow, A. G. Jack, J. A. Haylock, and J. Coles, Fault-tolerant
permanent magnet machine drives, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.Electr.
Power Appl., vol. 143, no. 6, pp. 437442, Nov. 1996.
[175] G. J. Atkinson, B. C. Mecrow, A. G. Jack, D. J. Atkinson, P. Sangha,
and M. Benarous, The design of fault tolerant machines for aerospace applications, in Proc. IEEE IEMDC, San Antonio, TX, 2005,
pp. 18631869.
[176] M. T. Abolhassani, A novel multiphase fault tolerant high torque density
permanent magnet motor drive for traction applications, in Proc. IEEE
IEMDC, San Antonio, TX, 2005, pp. 728734.
[177] A. J. Mitcham, G. Antonopoulos, and J. J. A. Cullen, Favourable slot
and pole number combinations for fault-tolerant PM machines, Proc.
Inst. Electr. Eng.Electr. Power Appl., vol. 151, no. 5, pp. 520525,
Sep. 2004.
[178] J. W. Bennett, B. C. Mecrow, A. G. Jack, D. J. Atkinson, C. Sewell,
G. Mason, S. Sheldon, and B. Cooper, Choice of drive topologies for
electrical actuation of aircraft flaps and slats, in Proc. IEE PEMD,
Edinburgh, U.K., 2004, pp. 332337.
[179] G. J. Atkinson, B. C. Mecrow, A. G. Jack, D. J. Atkinson, P. Sangha,
and M. Benarous, The analysis of losses in high-power fault-tolerant
machines for aerospace applications, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 42,
no. 5, pp. 11621170, Sep./Oct. 2006.
[180] S. Gataric, A polyphase Cartesian vector approach to control of
polyphase AC machines, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Rome,
Italy, 2000, pp. 16481654.
[181] M. Osama and T. A. Lipo, A magnetic relief scheme for four pole
induction motors, in Proc. ElectrIMACS, Lisbon, Portugal, 1999,
pp. 115121.
[182] K. K. Mohapatra, R. S. Kanchan, M. R. Baiju, P. N. Tekwani, and
K. Gopakumar, Independent field-oriented control of two split-phase
induction motors from a single six-phase inverter, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Electron., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 13721382, Oct. 2005.
[183] E. Levi, M. Jones, and S. N. Vukosavic, Even-phase multi-motor vector
controlled drive with single inverter supply and series connection of
stator windings, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.Electr. Power Appl., vol. 150,
no. 5, pp. 580590, Sep. 2003.
[184] E. Levi, M. Jones, S. N. Vukosavic, and H. A. Toliyat, A novel concept
of a multiphase, multimotor vector controlled drive system supplied from
a single voltage source inverter, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19,
no. 2, pp. 320335, Mar. 2004.
[185] E. Levi, M. Jones, S. N. Vukosavic, and H. A. Toliyat, Operating principles of a novel multiphase multimotor vector-controlled

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 5, MAY 2008

[186]
[187]
[188]
[189]

[190]
[191]
[192]

[193]

[194]
[195]
[196]
[197]
[198]

[199]
[200]
[201]
[202]

[203]

[204]

[205]

[206]
[207]

drive, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 508517,
Sep. 2004.
K. K. Mohapatra, M. R. Baiju, and K. Gopakumar, Independent speed
control of two six-phase induction motors using a single six-phase
inverter, EPE J., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 4961, Aug. 2004.
M. Jones and E. Levi, Series connected quasi-six-phase two-motor
drives with independent control, Math. Comput. Simul. (Trans. IMACS),
vol. 71, no. 46, pp. 415424, Jun. 2006.
M. J. Duran, E. Levi, and M. Jones, Independent vector control of
asymmetrical nine-phase machines by means of series connection, in
Proc. IEEE IEMDC, San Antonio, TX, 2005, pp. 167173.
E. Levi, S. N. Vukosavic, and M. Jones, Vector control schemes
for series-connected six-phase two-motor drive systems, Proc. Inst.
Electr. Eng.Electr. Power Appl., vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 226238,
Mar. 2005.
M. Jones, S. N. Vukosavic, E. Levi, and A. Iqbal, A six-phase seriesconnected two-motor drive with decoupled dynamic control, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 10561066, Jul./Aug. 2005.
E. Levi, M. Jones, and S. N. Vukosavic, A series-connected two-motor
six-phase drive with induction and permanent magnet machines, IEEE
Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 121129, Mar. 2006.
E. Levi, M. Jones, S. N. Vukosavic, A. Iqbal, and H. A. Toliyat, Modeling, control, and experimental investigation of a five-phase seriesconnected two-motor drive with single inverter supply, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Electron., vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 15041516, Jun. 2007.
A. Iqbal, S. Vukosavic, E. Levi, M. Jones, and H. A. Toliyat, Dynamics
of a series-connected two-motor five-phase drive system with a singleinverter supply, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Hong Kong,
2005, pp. 10811088.
E. Levi, M. Jones, A. Iqbal, S. N. Vukosavic, and H. A. Toliyat, Induction machine/Syn-Rel two-motor five-phase series-connected drive,
IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 281289, Jun. 2007.
M. Jones, E. Levi, and A. Iqbal, Vector control of a five-phase seriesconnected two-motor drive using synchronous current controllers,
Electr. Power Compon. Syst., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 411430, 2005.
E. Levi, M. Jones, S. N. Vukosavic, and H. A. Toliyat, A five-phase twomachine vector controlled induction motor drive supplied from a single
inverter, EPE J., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 3848, Aug. 2004.
E. Levi, M. Jones, S. N. Vukosavic, and H. A. Toliyat, Steady state modeling of series-connected five-phase and six-phase two-motor drives, in
Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Tampa, FL, 2006, pp. 415422.
E. Levi, M. Jones, S. N. Vukosavic, and H. A. Toliyat, Stator winding
design for multi-phase two-motor drives with single VSI supply, in
Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical Machines (ICEM), Chania, Greece, 2006,
CD-ROM, Paper OMM2-1.
M. Jones, E. Levi, and S. N. Vukosavic, A parallel-connected vectorcontrolled five-phase two-motor drive, in Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical
Machines (ICEM), Chania, Greece, 2006, CD-ROM, Paper PMA2-19.
M. Jones, E. Levi, and S. N. Vukosavic, Independent control of two
five-phase induction machines connected in parallel to a single inverter
supply, in Proc. IEEE IECON, Paris, France, 2006, pp. 12571262.
E. F. Fuchs and L. T. Rosenberg, Analysis of an alternator with two
displaced stator windings, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-93,
no. 6, pp. 17761786, Nov. 1974.
P. W. Franklin, A theoretical study of the three phase salient pole
type generator with simultaneous AC and bridge rectified DC output
Part 1, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-92, no. 2, pp. 543551,
Mar. 1973.
P. W. Franklin, A theoretical study of the three phase salient pole
type generator with simultaneous AC and bridge rectified DC output
Part 2, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-92, no. 2, pp. 552557,
Mar. 1973.
T. Kataoka and E. H. Watanabe, Steady-state characteristics
of a current-source inverter/double-wound synchronous machine
system for AC power supply, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-16, no. 2,
pp. 262270, 1980.
T. Kataoka, E. H. Watanabe, and J. Kitano, Dynamic control of a
current-source inverter/double-wound synchronous machine system for
AC power supply, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-17, no. 3, pp. 314
320, 1981.
R. A. Hanna and D. C. Macdonald, The six-phase generator and transformer into a three-phase power system, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst.,
vol. PAS-102, no. 8, pp. 26002607, Aug. 1983.
R. F. Schiferl and C. M. Ong, Six phase synchronous machine with
AC and DC stator connections, Part I: Equivalent circuit representation
and steady-state analysis, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-102,
no. 8, pp. 26852693, Aug. 1983.

LEVI: MULTIPHASE ELECTRIC MACHINES FOR VARIABLE-SPEED APPLICATIONS

[208] R. F. Schiferl and C. M. Ong, Six phase synchronous machine with AC


and DC stator connections, Part II: Harmonic studies and a proposed
uninterruptible power supply scheme, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst.,
vol. PAS-102, no. 8, pp. 26942701, Aug. 1983.
[209] J. L. F. van der Veen, L. J. J. Offringa, and A. J. A. Vandenput, Minimising rotor losses in high-speed high-power permanent magnet synchronous generators with rectifier loads, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.Electr.
Power Appl., vol. 144, no. 5, pp. 12581266, Sep. 1997.
[210] D. Vizireanu, X. Kestelyn, S. Brisset, P. Brochet, and E. Semail, Experimental tests on a 9-phase direct-drive PM axial-flux synchronous
generator, in Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical Machines (ICEM), Chania,
Greece, 2006, CD-ROM, Paper PMM1-15.
[211] D. Vizireanu, S. Brisset, X. Kestelyn, P. Borchet, Y. Milet, and D. Laloy,
Investigation on multi-star structures for large power direct-drive wind
generator, Electr. Power Compon. Syst., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 135152,
2007.
[212] D. Vizireanu, S. Brisset, and P. Brochet, Design and optimization of a
9-phase axial-flux PM synchronous generator with concentrated winding
for direct-drive wind turbine, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting,
Tampa, FL, 2006, pp. 19121918.
[213] G. K. Singh, K. B. Yadav, and R. P. Saini, Analysis of a saturated multiphase (six-phase) self-excited induction generator, Int. J. Emerging
Electr. Power Syst., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 121, Sep. 2006.
[214] S. Kato, N. Hoshi, and K. Oguchi, A low-cost system of variable-speed
cascaded induction generators for small-scale hydroelectricity, in Conf.
Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Chicago, IL, 2001, pp. 14191424.
[215] S. Kato, M. Michihira, and A. Tsuyoshi, Modeling and simulation of a
permanent magnet synchronous machine with six-phase stator winding
for renewable energy applications, in Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical Machines Systems (ICEMS), Nagasaki, Japan, 2006, CD-ROM, Paper 204.
[216] A. J. Gray, Multiple winding multiple voltage alternator electrical supply system, U.S. Patent 4 045 718, Aug. 30, 1977.
[217] I. Jabaji, Alternator with regulation of multiple voltage outputs, U.S.
Patent 6 275 012, Aug. 14, 2001.
[218] D. Zdenek, 25 MW high-speed electric drive with thyristor speed control, Czechoslov. Heavy Ind., no. 4, pp. 59, 1986.
[219] J. P. McSharry, P. S. Hamer, D. Morrison, J. Nessa, and
J. G. Rigsby, Design, fabrication, back-to-back test of 14200-HP
two-pole cylindrical-rotor synchronous motor for ASD application,
IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 526533, May/Jun. 1998.
[220] J. J. Simond, A. Sapin, T. Xuan, R. Wetter, and P. Burmeister, 12-pulse
LCI synchronous drive for a 20 MW compressor: Modelling, simulation
and measurements, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Hong Kong,
2005, pp. 23022308.
[221] R. S. Miranda, C. B. Jacobina, M. B. De R. Correa, and A. M. N. Lima,
Reduced switch count dual-winding AC drive systems, in Proc. IEEE
PESC, Recife, Brazil, 2005, pp. 726732.

1909

[222] X. Huang, K. Bradley, A. Goodman, C. Gerada, P. Wheeler, J. Clare,


and C. Whitley, Fault-tolerant brushless DC motor drive for electrohydrostatic actuation system in aerospace application, in Conf. Rec.
IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Tampa, FL, 2006, pp. 473480.
[223] R. Bojoi, A. Tenconi, F. Profumo, and F. Farina, Dual-source fed multiphase induction motor drive for fuel cell vehicles: Topology and control, in Proc. IEEE PESC, Recife, Brazil, 2005, pp. 26762683.
[224] S. Z. Jiang, K. T. Chau, and C. C. Chan, Spectral analysis of a new sixphase pole-changing induction motor drive for electric vehicles, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 123131, Feb. 2003.
[225] C. C. Chan, J. Z. Jiang, G. H. Chen, X. Y. Wang, and K. T. Chau, A
novel polyphase multipole square-wave permanent magnet motor drive
for electric vehicles, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1258
1266, Sep./Oct. 1994.
[226] J. M. Miller, V. Stefanovic, V. Ostovic, and J. Kelly, Design considerations for an automotive integrated starter-generator with pole-phase
modulation, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Chicago, IL, 2001,
pp. 23662373.
[227] J. S. Edelson, I. W. Cox, and J. S. Magdych, The Chorus Meshcon
solution for starter-generator, in Proc. IEEE IEMDC, San Antonio, TX,
2005, pp. 17201724.
[228] G. Aroquiadassou, H. Henao, V. Lanfranchi, F. Betin,
B. Nahidmobarakeh, G. A. Capolino, J. M. Biedinger, and
G. Friedrich, Design comparison of two rotating electrical machines
for 42 V electric power steering, in Proc. IEEE IEMDC, San Antonio,
TX, 2005, pp. 431436.
[229] Y. Ai, M. J. Kamper, and A. D. Le Roux, Novel direct field and direct
torque control of six-phase induction machine with special phase current
waveform, in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Tampa, FL, 2006,
pp. 805812.

Emil Levi (S89M92SM99) received the


M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of
Belgrade, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1986 and 1990,
respectively.
From 1982 to 1992, he was with the Department of
Electrical Engineering, University of Novi Sad, Novi
Sad, Yugoslavia. In May 1992, he joined Liverpool
John Moores University, Liverpool, U.K., where he
has been a Professor of electric machines and drives
since September 2000.
Dr. Levi is an Associate Editor of the IEEE
TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS and an Editor of the IEEE
TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. He is a member of the Editorial
Board of the IET Electric Power Applications.