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5.2 Pressure-velocity coupling

5.3 Pressure-correction methods

Summary

Examples

Each momentum component satisfies its own scalar-transport equation. For one cell:

d ∂φ

( Vφ) + ∑( Cφ − A ) = SV

dt faces ∂n (1)

rate of change advection diffusion source

where C is the mass flux through a cell face.

For momentum:

concentration, φ velocity component (φ = u, v or w)

diffusivity, viscosity,

source non-viscous forces

However, the scalar-transport equations for momentum differ in three important ways from

those for passive scalars because they are:

• non-linear;

• coupled;

• also required to satisfy a second condition: mass conservation.

Cu = ( uA)u v mass flux

Mass flux C is not constant but changes with u. The momentum u ρuA

equation is therefore non-linear and must be solved iteratively.

Cv = ( uA)v

The v equation depends on the solution of the u equation (and vice versa). Hence, the

momentum equations are coupled and must be solved together.

Pressure also appears in each momentum equation. This further couples the equations and

demands some means of determining pressure. Mathematically, this is linked to the

requirement of continuity (mass conservation)

Pressure is obtained by solving an energy equation for temperature (T) and then using

an equation of state (e.g., p = RT).

• In incompressible flow, density variations (if there are any) are, by definition, not

determined by pressure. A pressure equation arises from the requirement that the

solutions of the momentum equations are also mass-consistent. In other words,

mass conservation actually leads to a pressure equation!

In many incompressible-flow codes mass and momentum equations are solved sequentially

and iteratively according to the following pseudocode. We call this a segregated approach.

DO WHILE (not_converged)

CALL SCALAR_TRANSPORT( u )

CALL SCALAR_TRANSPORT( v )

CALL SCALAR_TRANSPORT( w )

CALL MASS_CONSERVATION( p )

END DO

In compressible-flow codes the main fluid variables are assembled together and solved as a

vector; e.g. ( , u, v, w, e). This is called a coupled approach, but won’t be followed here.

Question 2. How does a pressure equation arise?

Question 3. Should velocity and pressure be co-located (stored at the same positions)?

area A

5.2.1 Pressure-Velocity Linkage

source of momentum; e.g. in the x-momentum equation: e

net pressure force = ( p w − p e ) A

a P u P − ∑ a F u F = A( p w − pe ) + other forces (2)

14243

1442F443 pressure forces

net flux

Hence,

A

u P = d P ( pw − pe ) + L where dP = (3)

aP

Answer 1

(b) Velocity depends on the pressure gradient or, when discretised, on the difference

between pressure values ½ cell either side.

momentum equation → u P = d P ( p w − pe ) + L

or

u = −d p + L

where ∆ indicates a centred difference (“right minus left”).

N

Substituting for velocity in the continuity equation,

0 = ( uA) e − ( uA) w + L n

P

= ( Ad ) e ( p P − p E ) − ( Ad ) w ( pW − p P ) + L W w e E

= − aW pW + a p p p − a E p E + L s

Answer 2

The momentum equation gives a link between velocity and pressure which, when

substituted into the continuity equation, gives an equation for pressure.

A pressure equation arises from the requirement that solutions of the momentum

equation be mass-consistent.

∂u i ∂ (u i u j ) 1 ∂p

+ =− + ∇ 2ui

∂t ∂x j ∂xi

Velocity depends on the pressure gradient.

Taking the divergence (i.e. / xi) and using continuity ( ui/ xi = 0) gives

∂ 2 (u i u j ) 1

= − ∇2 p

∂xi ∂x j

or

∂ 2 (u i u j )

∇ p=−

2

∂xi ∂x j

Poisson equation for pressure.

5.2.2 Co-located Storage of Variables

i-1 i e

i+1

(stored at the same positions) and that advective velocities w

(the cell-face velocities used to calculate mass fluxes) are

calculated by linear interpolation.

p w − pe = 12 ( pi −1 + pi ) − 12 ( pi + pi +1 )

= 12 ( pi −1 − pi +1 )

Hence, the discretised momentum equation has the form:

u i = 12 d i ( pi −1 − pi +1 ) + L

u e − u w = 12 (u i + u i +1 ) − 12 (u i −1 + u i )

= 12 (u i +1 − u i −1 )

= 14 [d i +1 ( pi − pi + 2 ) − d i −1 ( pi −2 − pi )] + L

Thus, both mass and momentum equations only produce links between pressures at alternate

nodes, leading to odd-even decoupling.

• co-located u, p;

• linear interpolation for advective velocities;

leads to decoupling of odd nodal values p1, p3, p5, … from even nodal values p2, p4, p6, … .

This odd-even decoupling or checkerboard effect leads to indeterminate oscillations in the

pressure field.

p

x

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

(1) use a staggered grid (velocity and pressure stored at different locations); or

(2) use a co-located grid but Rhie-Chow interpolation for the advective velocities

Both provide a link between adjacent pressure nodes, preventing odd-even decoupling.

5.2.3 Staggered Grid (Harlow and Welch, 1965)

components are stored half-way between the pressure

nodes that drive them.

u p

pressure/scalar volumes.

up pp control volume

u control volume node has the same index (P or ijk) as the

pressure node to which it points.

vp v control volume

Other scalars are stored at the same

position as pressure.

On a Cartesian mesh …

required to compute the pressure force. pi-1 ui pi

u i = d i ( pi −1 − pi ) + L

required to compute mass fluxes. The net mass flux involves:

pi-1 ui pi ui+1 pi+1

u i +1 − u i + L = d i +1 ( pi − pi +1 ) − d i ( pi −1 − pi ) + L

= − d i pi −1 + (d i + d i +1 ) pi − d i +1 pi +1

In both cases no interpolation is required for cell-face values and there is a strong linkage

between successive, rather than alternate pressure nodes, avoiding odd-even decoupling.

Advantages

• No interpolation required; variables are stored where they are needed.

• No problem of odd-even pressure decoupling

Disadvantages

• Added geometrical complexity from multiple sets of nodes and

control volumes.

• If the mesh is not Cartesian then the velocity nodes may cease

to lie between the pressure nodes that drive them (see right).

5.2.4 Rhie-Chow Velocity Interpolation (Rhie and Chow, 1983)

The alternative approach is to use co-located pressure and velocity but employ a different

interpolation for advective velocities (the cell-face velocities used to calculate mass fluxes).

The momentum equation provides a connection between the nodal velocity and pressure:

uP =

∑ aF u F − d ( p − p ) + K W w P e

E

P e w

aP

In the Rhie-Chow algorithm the pressure and non-pressure parts of the velocity

)

u =u−d p

are separately interpolated to the cell face.

)

u =u+d p with centred difference p from interpolated face values

)

(ii) Then linearly interpolate u and d to the cell face:

)

u face = u face − d face p with centred difference p taken from adjacent nodes

This amounts to adding and subtracting centred pressure differences worked out at different

places; for example, on the east face, with an overbar denoting linear interpolation:

u e = (u + d p) e − d e ( p E − p P ) (4)

0 = ( Au ) e − ( Au ) w + L

= ( Auˆ ) e − ( Auˆ ) w − ( Ad ) e ( p E − p P ) + ( Ad ) w ( p P − pW ) + L (5)

= ( Auˆ ) e − ( Auˆ ) w − aW pW + a P p P − a E p E + L

where

aW = ( Ad ) w , a E = ( Ad ) e , a P = aW + a E + L

(“…” signifies omitted terms from other directions).

Notes.

• The central pressure value pP does not cancel so there is no odd-even decoupling.

form as that arising from the scalar-transport equation:

a P p P = ∑ a F p F + bP , where a F ≥ 0 , a P = ∑ a F

F

• Actually, in practice one does not solve directly for pressure but iteratively for

pressure corrections (see Section 5.3). Equation (5) then becomes

0 = ( Au*) e − ( Au*) w − aW pW′ + a P p ′P − a E p ′E + L

where the asterisk * here denotes “current value of”. This can be rearranged as:

− aW pW′ + a P p ′P − a E p ′E + L = − current mass outflow

Example

For the uniform Cartesian mesh shown below the momentum equation gives a

velocity/pressure relationship

u = −4 p + L

for each cell, where denotes a centred difference.

u= 1 2 3 3

p= pA 0.8 0.7 0.6

For the u and p values given, calculate the advective velocity on the cell face marked f:

(a) by linear interpolation;

(b) by Rhie-Chow interpolation, if pA = 0.6 (local pressure maximum to the left of face);

(c) by Rhie-Chow interpolation, if pA = 0.9 (constant pressure gradient).

Answer

(a) By linear interpolation,

u f = 12 (2 + 3) = 2.5

• • • •

u 1 2 3 3

p 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.6

)

û 2.2 2.6 u = u + 4( p e − p w )

ûface 2.4 (by interpolation)

)

uface 2.8 u face = u face − 4( p E − pW )

Answer: uf = 2.8

This is higher than that obtained from linear interpolation, showing the velocity field trying

to alleviate the local pressure maximum just to the left of the face.

(c) If pA = 0.9 then a similar Rhie-Chow analysis produces uf = 2.5: the same as is obtained

by linear interpolation. This is to be expected since the pressure gradient, and hence p, is

constant.

Analysis of Rhie-Chow Interpolation

Parts (a) and (c) of the example above show that in a constant pressure gradient Rhie-Chow

interpolation gives the same result as linear interpolation, whereas if there is a local pressure

peak to one side of the face (part (b)) then the advective velocity rises to compensate.

By retaining general values of ui and pi and following the same analysis with a general

(constant) coefficient d the above example gives

1 d

u face = (u 2 + u 3 ) + (− p1 + 3 p 2 − 3 p3 + p 4 )

2 4

Thus, Rhie-Chow interpolation is equivalent to the addition of a “pressure-smoothing” term

Expanding pressures about the cell face shows that the bracketed pressure term is, to leading

order, proportional to x 3 (∂ 3 p / ∂x 3 ) on the cell face. Subtracting a similar term on the

opposite cell face to give the net mass flux yields an additional term proportional to

x 4 (∂ 4 p / ∂x 4 ) , corresponding to 4th-order diffusion.

grids are an effective way of handling it on Cartesian meshes. However, for non-Cartesian

(or curvilinear) meshes, co-located grids are the norm and are employed in almost all

general-purpose CFD codes.

5.3 Pressure-Correction Methods

⇒ increase cell pressure to drive mass out ⇒ decrease cell pressure to suck mass in

• Used to derive velocity and pressure fields which satisfy both mass and momentum

equations.

• Consist of alternating updates of velocity and pressure:

– solve the momentum equation for velocity with the current pressure;

– observing the relationship between velocity and pressure changes imposed

by the momentum equation, rephrase the continuity equation as a pressure-

correction equation and solve for the pressure correction p necessary to

“nudge” the velocity field towards mass conservation.

• There are two common schemes: SIMPLE and PISO.

u = d ( p −1 / 2 − p +1 / 2 ) + L

u → u * +u ′

but simultaneously correct pressure so as to retain a solution of the momentum equation:

u ′ = d ( p ′−1 / 2 − p +′ 1 / 2 ) + L

u → u * + d ( p −′ 1 / 2 − p ′+1 / 2 ) + L

Classroom Example (Patankar, 1980)

A 1 B 2 C 3

In the steady, one-dimensional, constant-density situation shown, the velocity u is calculated

for locations A, B and C, whilst the pressure p is calculated for locations 1, 2 and 3. The

velocity-correction formula is

u = u * + u ′ , where u ′ = d ( pi′−1 − p i′ )

where the locations i –1 and i lie on either side of the location for u. The value of d is 2

everywhere. The boundary condition is uA = 10. If, at a given stage in the iteration process,

the momentum equations give u *B = 8 and u C* = 11 , calculate the values of p1′ , p ′2 , p3′ and

the resulting velocity corrections.

and Spalding, 1972).

START

a P u p − ∑ a F u F = A( p*w − p*e ) + bP

14243 123

pressure force other sources solve momentum

Resulting velocity generally won’t be mass-consistent. equations

correction equation

(i) Relate changes in u to changes in p:

u ′P =

∑ a F u ′F + d ( p ′ − p′ ) , dP =

A

.

P w e correct velocity

aP aP

and pressure

u ′P ≈ d P ( p w′ − p e′ ) no

(Legitimate since all corrections will be zero in the final converged?

converged solution.)

yes

(iii) Apply mass conservation to a control volume centred on

the pressure node. The net mass flux results from END

current (u*) plus correction (u′) velocity fields:

net mass flow out = ∑ u *n A + ∑ u n′ A = 0

faces faces

i.e.

( u ′A) e − ( u ′A) w + L = − m& * (minus the current net mass flux)

or, writing in terms of the pressure correction (staggered or non-staggered mesh):

( Ad ) ( p ′ − p ′ ) − ( Ad ) ( p ′ − p ′ ) + L = −m& *

e P E w W P

This results in a pressure-correction equation of the form:

a p ′ − a p ′ = − m& *

P P ∑ F F (6)

F

The discretised pressure-correction equation (6) is of precisely the same form as the

discretised scalar equations, and hence the same algebraic solvers may be used.

p P → p* + p ′

P P

(7)

u P → u *P + d P ( p ′w − p e′ )

(and similarly for the other velocity components).

Notes

• Staggered and unstaggered grids. The distinction between staggered and

unstaggered grids is subtle. In both cases, the expression for ue′ etc. at cell faces

depends on the pressure corrections at adjacent nodes. However, for a (Cartesian)

staggered grid the relevant normal velocities are actually stored on the faces of the

pressure control volumes where they are required to establish mass conservation.

• Source term for the pressure-correction equation. That the “source” for the

pressure-correction equation should be minus the current net mass flux ( − m& * ) is

reasonable. If there is a net mass flow into a control volume then the pressure in that

control volume must rise in order to “push” mass back out of the cell.

needed to prevent divergence. In the correction step the pressure (but not the velocity)

update is relaxed:

p → p * + p p′

Typical values of p are in the range 0.1 – 0.3. Velocity is under-relaxed in the

momentum equations, but the under-relaxation is generally less severe: u ≈ 0.6 – 0.8.

• Iterative process. Since the equations are non-linear and coupled, the matrix

equations may change at each iteration. There is little to be gained by solving the

matrix equations exactly at each stage, but only doing enough iterations of the matrix

solver to reduce the residuals by a sufficient amount.

m iterations of each u, v, w equation, followed by n iterations of the p′

equation (typically m = 1, n ≈ 4);

or

do enough iterations of each equation to reduce the residual error to a small

fraction of the original (typically 10%).

5.3.2 Variants of SIMPLE

The SIMPLE scheme can be inefficient and requires considerable pressure under-relaxation.

This is because the corrected fields are good for updating velocity (since a mass-consistent

flow field is produced) but not pressure (because of the inaccuracy of the approximation

connecting velocity and pressure corrections).

SIMPLER (SIMPLE Revised – Patankar, 1980),

SIMPLEC (Van Doormaal and Raithby, 1984),

SIMPLEX (Raithby and Schneider, 1988)

SIMPLER

This variant acknowledges that the correction equation is good for updating velocity but not

pressure and precedes the momentum and pressure-correction equations with the equation for

the pressure itself (equation (5)).

SIMPLEC

This scheme seeks a more accurate relationship between velocity and pressure changes.

From the momentum equations, the velocity and pressure equations are related by

1

u ′P = ∑ a F u ′F + d P ( p ′w − pe′ ) (8)

aP

14243

(*)

The SIMPLE approximation is to neglect the term (*). However, this is actually of

comparable size to the LHS. In the SIMPLEC scheme, (8) is rewritten by subtracting

(1 / a P )∑ a F u ′P from both sides:

1 1

(1 − ∑a F )u ′P = ∑ a F (u ′F − u ′P ) + d P ( p ′w − pe′ )

aP aP

14442444 3

(∗∗)

Assuming that u ′F − u ′P « u ′P , it is more accurate to neglect the term (**), thus producing an

alternative formula connecting velocity and pressure changes:

dP

u ′P ≈ ( p w′ − pe′ ) (9)

1 − ∑ a F /a P

Compare:

u ′P ≈ d P ( p ′w − p e′ ) (SIMPLE)

dP (10)

u ′P ≈ ( p w′ − p e′ ) (SIMPLEC)

1 − ∑ a F /a P

coefficients” constraint on aP means that, in steady-state calculations, ∑ a F /a P = 1 , and

hence the denominator of (9) vanishes. This problem doesn’t arise in time-varying

calculations, where a time-dependent part is added to aP, removing the singularity.

SIMPLEX

This scheme assumes that velocity and pressure corrections are linked by some general

relationship

u ′P ≈ P ( p ′w − pe′ ) (11)

This includes both SIMPLE and SIMPLEX as special cases (see equation (10)). However, the

SIMPLEX scheme attempts to improve on this by actually solving equations for the δP.

These equations are derived from (8) but we shall not go into the details here.

The author’s experience is that SIMPLER and SIMPLEX offer substantial performance

improvements over SIMPLE on staggered grids, but that the “advanced” schemes are

difficult to formulate and offer little advantage on co-located grids.

5.3.3 PISO

method. Each timestep (told → tnew) consists of a sequence of three stages:

(1) Solution of the time-dependent momentum equation with the told pressure in the

source term.

(2) A pressure-correction equation and pressure/velocity update à la SIMPLE to produce

a mass-consistent flow field.

(3) A second corrector step required to produce a second mass-consistent flow field but

with time-advanced pressure.

Apart from time-dependence, steps (1) and (2) are essentially the same as SIMPLE. However,

step (3) is designed to eliminate the need for iteration at each time step as would be the case

with SIMPLE.

Evidence suggests that PISO is more efficient in time-dependent calculations, but SIMPLE

and its variants are better in direct iteration to steady state.

Summary

the following correspondence:

concentration, φ velocity component (u, v or w)

diffusivity, viscosity,

source, S forces

non-linear;

coupled;

required also to satisfy continuity.

and, as a consequence, have to be solved:

together;

iteratively;

in conjunction with a continuity equation.

• For incompressible flow the requirement that solutions of the momentum equation be

mass-consistent generates a pressure equation.

effect when all variables are co-located (stored at the same nodes). This may be

remedied by using either:

– a staggered velocity grid;

– a non-staggered grid, but Rhie-Chow interpolation for advective velocities.

order to “nudge” the velocity field towards mass conservation whilst still preserving a

solution of the momentum equation.

PISO. The first is an iterative scheme; the second is a non-iterative, time-dependent

scheme.

Examples

Q1.

For the rectangular control volume with surface

pressures shown, what is: pe

pw A

(a) the net force in the x direction?

(b) the net force in the x direction, per unit volume?

(c) the average pressure gradient in the x direction?

∆ x

(2,4)

Q2.

p=9 The figure shows a triangular cell in a 2-d unstructured

p=7 mesh, together with the coordinates of its vertices and the

(0,2) average pressures on the cell faces. Calculate the x and y

components of the net pressure force on the cell (per unit

depth).

p=5

(4,0)

(a) Explain (briefly) how an equation for pressure is derived in finite-volume calculations

of incompressible fluid flow.

(b) Explain how the problem of “odd-even decoupling” in the discretised pressure field

arises with co-located storage and linear interpolation for advective velocities, and

detail the Rhie-Chow interpolation which can be used to overcome this.

(c) The figure below shows part of a Cartesian mesh with the velocity u and pressure p at

the centre of 4 control volumes. If the momentum equation leads to a pressure-

velocity linkage of the form

u = −3 p + L ,

(where represents a centred difference) use the Rhie-Chow procedure to find the

advective velocity on the cell face marked f.

u= 5 4 3 2

p= 0.6 0.7 1.1 1.6

(d) Describe the SIMPLE pressure-correction method for the solution of coupled mass

and momentum equations.

Q4. (Computational Hydraulics Examination, June 2009)

(a) Explain, briefly, the origin of the “odd-even decoupling” problem in the discrete

pressure field that may occur with co-located storage of velocity and pressure in a

finite-volume mesh.

(b) Describe, with the help of diagrams, the “staggered-grid” arrangement of velocity and

pressure to overcome this problem and state its advantages and disadvantages.

co-located mesh.

mesh shown in the figure right the f

momentum equation gives a velocity vs

pressure relationship of the form

u= 2 2 3 5

u = −2 p + L

for each cell, where denotes a p = 1.2 pW 0.8 0.6

centred difference, u is velocity, p is

pressure and all quantities are expressed in consistent units.

If the values of u and p are as given in the figure, calculate the advective velocity on

the cell face marked f by Rhie-Chow interpolation if:

(i) pw = 1.2;

(ii) pw = 1.0.

(e) The figure below shows a quadrilateral 2-d cell (of unit depth) with given cell-vertex

coordinates and cell-face pressures. Find the x and y components of the net pressure

force on the cell.

(4,4)

w 5

e e 3

w s 4

s n 9

(1,1) (3,1)

Q5. (Computational Hydraulics Examination, January 2006)

(a) Describe the main principles of pressure-correction methods for the numerical

solution of the incompressible fluid-flow equations.

(b) Explain the problems that can arise with co-located storage of velocity and pressure

on a finite-volume mesh and demonstrate how a staggered-grid arrangement can

alleviate them.

In the conventional 2-d staggered-grid arrangement shown below, u and v (the x and y

components of velocity), are stored at nodes indicated by arrows, whilst pressure p is stored

at the intermediate nodes A, B, C, D. The grid spacing is uniform and the same in both

directions. The velocity is fixed on the boundaries as shown in the Figure. The velocity

components at the interior nodes (uB, uD, vC and vD) are to be found.

uB = 11, uD = 14, vC = 8, vD = 5

whilst correction formulae derived from the momentum equation are

u ′ = 2( p ′w − p e′ ) , v ′ = 3( p ′s − p n′ )

with geographical (w,e,s,n) notation indicating the relative location of pressure nodes.

(c) Show that applying mass conservation to control volumes centred on pressure nodes

leads to simultaneous equations for the pressure corrections. Solve for the pressure

corrections and use them to generate a mass-consistent flow field.

5 10

10 C uD D 20

vC vD

5 A uB B 5

y

15 10

x

(d) Explain why, in practice, it is necessary to solve for the pressure correction and not

just the velocity corrections in order to satisfy mass conservation.

Q6. (MSc Examination, May 2008 – part)

The figure defines the relative position of velocity ( ) and pressure (••) nodes in a 1-d,

staggered-grid arrangement. By convention the velocity node has the same numerical index

as the pressure node to which it points.

u1 u2 u3 u4

p1 p2 p3 p4

Velocity u1 = 4 is fixed as a boundary condition. After solving the momentum equation the

velocities at the other nodes are found to be

u2 = 3, u3 = 5, u4 = 6.

The relationship between velocity and pressure is found (from the discretised momentum

equation) to be of the form

u = −4 p + L

at each node, where denotes a centred difference in space. All velocities and pressures are

given in consistent units.

By applying mass conservation to cells centred on the scalar nodes, calculate the pressure

corrections necessary to enforce continuity, and confirm that a mass-consistent velocity field

is obtained.

Selected Answers

Q1. (a) ( p w − pe ) A

p − pe

(b) w

x

p − pw

(c) e (= minus the answer to part (b))

x

(e) (Fx, Fy) = (10, –20)

u1 = u 2 = u 3 = u 4 = 4

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