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Generic

Classification

name (Brand
name)
Levodopa

Antiparkinsoni

(Madopar)

an drug
(Dopaminergic
s)

-

Indications,

Mechanism of

dosage and

action

frequency
Parkinson’s

-

disease
½ tablet
BID
alternate
with ¼
tablet BID

-

Block central

Side effects

-

CNS: confusion,

cholinergic

headache,

receptors or

dizziness,

inhibit prolactin

fatigue, light-

secretion; also

headedness,

may act as

drowsiness,

dopamine

nervousness,

receptor

insomnia,

agonists

nightmares,

activating

mania,

postsynaptic

delusions,

dopamine

seizures, CVA
CV: hypotension,

receptors.
Drug is a

-

palpitations,

metabolic

extrasystole,

precursor of

bradycardia.

dopamine, a

arrhythmias,

catecholamine
neurotransmitter
. Unlike

-

Acute MI
EENT: diplopia,
blurred vision,

Nursing interventions

-

-

-

-

Give with food to reduce
nausea. Absorption is
decreased with highprotein meals.
Crush tablets or empty
capsule content into fruit
juice as needed.
Store in tight, lightresistant containers.
Monitor vital signs,
particularly during period
of dosage adjustment.
Report alterations in BP,
pulse, and respiratory
rate and rhythm.
Supervise ambulation as
indicated. Orthostatic
hypotension is usually
asymptomatic, but some
patients experience
dizziness and syncope.
Tolerance to this effect

vomiting. nasal blood–brain barrier. Levodopa constipation. erectile - dysfunction Hepatic: - hepatic failure Musculoskeleta l: leg cramps. (believed to be - - frequency or depleted in retentions. action unknown. CBC. restores abdominal dopamine levels cramps. burning levodopa readily sensation of crosses the eyes. anorexia. dry in mouth. mechanism of - diarrhea. Monitor diabetics for loss of glycemic control. - numb fingers Skin: urticaria.dopamine. Lab tests: Monitor blood glucose & HbA1C. Hgb and Hct. Precise - congestion GI: nausea. Make accurate observations and report adverse reactions and therapeutic effects promptly. and liver & kidney function . Monitor all patients closely for behavior changes. Rate of dosage increase is determined primarily by patient’s tolerance and response to drug. extrapyramidal centers - - GI hemorrhage GU: urinary incontinence. Monitor patients with chronic wide-angle glaucoma for changes in intraocular pressure. parkinsonism) dieresis. serum potassium. - usually develops within a few months of therapy.

facial - and arm rash. these are early signs of overdosage. Patients on full therapeutic doses for >1 y may develop such abnormal involuntary movements as well as jerky arm and leg movements. heat stroke - periodically. Report to physician any S&S of the on–off phenomenon sometimes associated with chronic management: Rapid unpredictable swings in intensity of motor symptoms of parkinsonism evidenced by increase in . cool fingers and toes. - alopecia Other: hyperthermia. Report promptly muscle twitching and spasmodic winking (blepharospasm).pale. Symptoms tend to increase if dosage is not reduced.

within 2 wk of use of MAO INHIBITORS. narrow-angle glaucoma patients with suspicious pigmented lesion or history of melanoma. Safe use during pregnancy (category C). lactation. acute psychoses. . Monitor mental status for S&S of drug-induced neuropsychiatric adverse reactions.- bradykinesia (attacks of “leg freezing” or slow body movement). Contraindications: Known hypersensitivity to levodopa. or in children <2 y is not established. severe psychoneurosis.

Side effects - CNS: confusion. Dosage must be tapered. neuralgia.Generic Classification name (Brand name) Ropinirole HCl (Requip) Antiparkinsoni - an drug (Dopamine agonist) - Indications. Monitor nutritional and hydration status Do not stop medication abruptly. Assess neurologic status. hyperkinesias. especially orthostatic hypotension. abnormal thinking. poor concentration. dopamine fatigue. Assess for peripheral edema. stimulate dizziness. Assess for swelling of hands or feet. . hallucinations. light- receptors in the headedness. Nursing interventions - - hyperesthesia. dystonia. brain. Mechanism of dosage and action frequency Parkinson’s disease OD - Unknown. increased dyskinesia. yawning. vertigo. Thought to headache. amnesia. akathisia. drowsiness. - Monitor vital signs. syncope.

peripheral ischemia. palpitations. atrial - fibrillations EENT: abnormal vision. tachycardia. - pharyngitis GI: nausea. . vomiting. chest pain.myoclonus. malaise. asthenia. hypertension. extrasystole. sleep - attacks CV: orthostatic hypotension. sinusitis. peripheral edema. rhinitis.

pain edema . - dyspnea Skin: diaphoresis. abdominal pain. dry - mouth. anorexia GU: UTI. - flushing Other: viral infection. dyspepsia. erectile - dysfunction Respiratory: bronchitis.flatulence. decreased.

Mechanism of dosage and action Side effects Nursing interventions frequency - - - - - .Generic Classification name (Brand name) Citicoline (Zynapse) Indications.

levels in brain hallucinations. cure either inhibition of its insomnia. Side effects - CNS: ase moderate Thought to depression. Report significant decline or improvement. Assess vital signs and CV status. . alzheimer’s cholinergic headache. Rivastigmin through syncope. disease. Apply to clean. tremors CV: alzheimer drug but it may improve memory. disease function by dizziness. and the ability to perform - - restoring the hypertension. Watch for fever and other S&S of infection. Works by anxiety. Nursing interventions - - - - - Monitor patient’s nutritional and hydration status. Rotate application site. dry. - pain EENT: rhinitis. e does not reversible asthenia. of these hydrolysis by psychosis. balance of peripheral natural edema. awareness. cholinesterase. hairless intact skin. Mechanism of dosage and action frequency Mild to - Unknown. particularly memory. Closely monitor cognitive status. - pharyngitis GI: nausea. parkinson’s acetylcholine drowsiness. especially at start of therapy. and elevating fatigue. diseases.Generic Classification name (Brand name) Rivastigmine tatrate (Exelon patch) - Cholinester - Indications. Stay alert for chest pain and peripheral edema. inhibitor Anti- dementia of enhance confusion. chest substances (neurotransmitte rs) in the brain. Assess temperature.

constipation. bone - fractures Respiratory: URTI. place in flatulence. - cough Skin: rash. joint pain. alternate abdominal pain. - diaphoresis Other: weight loss.- daily vomiting. flulike symaptoms . bronchitis. dyspepsia. pain. patch diarrhea. - anorexia GU: UTI. chest eructation. functions OD. urinary - incontinence Musculoskeleta l: back pain. decreased.

.

Mechanism of dosage and action frequency Complete ritional and products balanced nutrition formulated for people with - diabetes.Generic Classification name (Brand name) Glucerna - Enteral/nut - Indications. 190 cc H2o + 6 scoops of powder. 6 feedings - Side effects - Nursing interventions - .