You are on page 1of 28

CULVERT LOAD RATING & LOAD

TESTING
Ping Lu*, Scott Neubauer*, Brent Phares**, Ahmad AbuHawash*
* The Office of Structures and Bridges
Iowa Department of Transportation
** Bridge Engineering Center
Iowa State University
Ping.lu@dot.iowa.gov
515-239-1290

Acknowledgement
n

Appreciate all the coauthors for their contribu2ons to this


work
Iowa DOT for funding the load tes2ng program through
Federal SPR funding

What is Load Rating


n

Determina2on of the live load carrying capacity based on


current condi2on
q
q

Using as-built plans


Using latest eld inspec2on data

Results are expressed as Ra2ng Factor (RF) or tonnage for a


par2cular vehicle
General equa2on for load ra2ng
=/
In which, C = Capacity of bridge element
DL = Dead load eect
LL = Live load eect

Why Do We Need Load Rating


n

Ensure public safety and serviceability of structures over 2me

Evaluate pos2ng needs

Processing overload permits

Maintenance priori2za2on

Comply with federal regula2ons :


q

required by NBIS (Na2onal Bridge Inspec2on Standards)

need to be reported every year

Guidelines for Culvert Load Rating


n

AASHTO Manual for Bridge Evalua2on (MBE)


q

n
n

Sec2on 6A.5.12, AASHTO MBE, 2nd Edi2on, with 2013


Interim Revisions

AASHTO LRFD/Standard Bridge Design


Specica2ons
Iowa DOT Bridge Ra2ng Manual
Iowa DOT Bridge Design Manual

Problems in Rating Older Culverts


n

Rated with LRFR, many exis2ng culverts that were designed to


LFD or ASD specica2ons are seen as decient; they cannot
even support the dead load
Most of these in-service culverts have performed
sa2sfactorily for decades
This is a common problem for older culverts
q

A na2onwide survey was conducted by Iowa DOT in 2013 through


AASHTO SCOBS (Sub-Commi_ee of Bridges & Structures)
Replies from more than 21 agencies were received; and 10 indicated
they have the same problem

Reasons Changes in Design Guidelines


n

AASHTO Standard Specica2ons evolved


q
q

Compare to Standard Specica2ons, LRFD recommends, in


general, higher
q
q
q

Ver2cal earth pressure (EV)


Horizontal earth pressure (EH)

Live load distribu2on through the earth ll


Live load surcharge
Dynamic load impact factor

Factors contribute the most to the ra2ng problems in Iowa


q
q

Live load distribu2on and impact


EH

Dynamic Impact
0.35
LRFD

0.3

Standard

Impact

0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0

Fill Depth - H (ft)

Live Load Distribution


n

Fill depth < 2c

Perpendicular to the span


Parallel to the span

Standard

LRFD

concentrate load

+()

=96+1.44
E in inch and S in ft

Live Load Distribution (Cont)


n

Fill depth >= 2c


Standard

LRFD

Spread w (Perpendicular)

1.75()

W+()

Spread l (Parallel)

1.75()

L+()

10

Live Load Distribution (Cont)


n

Fill depth >= 2c (P=16k)


1800
1600

Wheel Pressure (psf)

1400

LRFD Design Truck

1200

Standard Design Truck

1000
800
600
400

305.4psi

200
145.1psi

0
0

5 6ft

10

15

20

25

Fill Depth - H (ft)

11

Lateral Earth Pressure (EH)

Standard Specifications
Before 1983

After 1983

LRFD & MBE

=(30)
EH

=1/1+

60/30pcf

60/30pcf

12

Earth Pressure used in Iowa Culvert


Standards
Office loading:

EV = 140pcf

EH = 36pcf

AASHTO loading:

EV = 120pcf

EH = 60pcf

1987 standards (single and twin boxes): oce earth pressure

1994/1995 standards (metric units)


q
q

Early 2000s (US units)


q
q

Triple boxes were added


AASHTO loading was adopted
Single/twin boxes Oce loading (87 standards were used)
Triple boxes AASHTO loading (Metric standards were converted to US unit)

2012 LRFD

13

Culvert Load Testing


n

Live load distribu2on through earth ll

Lateral Earth Pressure (EH)

14

Live Load Testing


n

Six culverts tested



1
2
3
4
5
6

FHWA
No.

County

Earth
Fill

Sizes

Year
Built

605880

Boone

<1ft

2X12X6X70

1989

15351

Boone

11

2X12X10X124

1979

15190

Boone

2X10X8X160

1962

15371

Boone

15

2X12X12X142

1979

26600

Hamilton

2X12X14X135

1968

27111

Hardin

2X10X10X86

1976

15

Live Load Testing (Cont)


n

Sensor deployment

1-9 are 9 Strain Rosettes

16

Live Load Testing - Results


FHWA #15190
(ll depth = 2c)
n

10 by 8 Twin box
built in 1962
carries US 30 over Noah
Creek in Boone County
ADT = 7900, 9% truck

17

Live Load Testing - Results


n

FHWA #15190 (ll depth = 2c)


Max Strain = 13.9
Max Stress = 43.53psi

16.0

R4: Max
R4: X-axis
R4: Y-axis

14.0

Strain ()

12.0

Max Moment = 6.1k-in

10.0
50.0

8.0
6.0

40.0

0.0

0.0

R4: Max
R4: X-axis
R4: Y-axis

30.0

2.0

-2.0

Stress (psi)

4.0

20.0

40.0

60.0

80.0

Loca/on (0)

20.0 100.0

120.0

10.0

0.0

0.0
-10.0

20.0

40.0

60.0

80.0

100.0

120.0

Loca/on (0)
18

Results Discussion
Max M+ of Slab

Standard

Load Testing
(k-in)

Standard
(k-in)

LRFD
(k-in)

6.1

47.5

49.9

LRFD
19

20

21

22

23

24

25

Conclusions
n

LRFD/LRFR for concrete box culvert might be overly


conserva2ve in es2ma2ng LL and EH eects
Current AASTO guideline for concrete box culvert ra2ng is not
adequate
More research is required

26

Questions?

27

Thank You!

28