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POLITEKNIK UNGKU OMAR

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


EXPERIMENT H4 : Pipe Friction
OBJECTIVE : To calculate a pipe friction coefficient ()
DAY:

DATE:

LAB. TIME: START:


COMPLETE:

SECTION:

GROUP NO.:

GROUP MEMBERS PRESENT:


NAME

REG. NO.:

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GUIDING LECTURERS:
1

Item
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Laboratory Grading - Cognitive skills (CLO1)
1
2
3
4
5
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7

Collection of experimental data (C1)


Computation of collected data (C2)
Tabulation of computed data (C1)
Presentation of tabulated / computed data (C3)
Analysis of computation and data presentation (C4)
Response to questions (C4)
Conclusion and derivation from experiment (C6)

Mark
5
10
10
10
10
10
10

Grade
/5
/ 10
Err:504 / 10
/ 10
/ 10
/ 10
/ 10

Err:504 / 65

HYDRAULIC LABORATORY

Grading: Collection of experimental data (C1)


Computation of collected data (C2)

EXPERIMENT H4 : Fluid Flow in Pipe System

OBJECTIVE : To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parall
A) EXPERIMENTAL DATA GATHERING
1. General Readings:
Pre Test Piezometer Reading

h1 =

mm

h2 =

mm

d1 =

mm

d2 =

mm

Dynamic Viscosity of fluid,

Ns/m2

2. Experimental Data
Piezometer Reading
(mm)

Time (s)

Water Volume
Test
(liter)
Run 1

Run 2

h1

h2

Velocity,
v
(m/s)

Head loss,
hf
(m)

1
2
3
4
5

3. Standardization of Experimental Data

Test

Volume , V
(m3)

Average time,
t
(s)

Flow,
Q
(m3/s)

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

h1 marked reading =

4. Calculation and tabulation (LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO SUDDEN EXPANSION FROM PVC 20 X 1.5 TO PVC
(a)

(b)

MeasurementVolume measured
Time observed
No

(liters)

(s)

5. Sample of calculations (wherever required)

(a)/(b)
Q
(liters/s)

(m3/s)

v1=Q/A1

v2=Q/A2

(m/s)

(m/s)

n, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

d reading =

PVC 20 X 1.5 TO PVC 32 X 1.8 PIPES)


(e)

(f)

(e) - (f)

equation 4

h1

h2

h1 - h2

hl = (v1-v2)2/2g

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(m)

(m)

HYDRAULIC LABORATORY

Grading: Collection of experimental data (C1)


Computation of collected data (C2)

EXPERIMENT H4 : Fluid Flow in Pipe System

OBJECTIVE : To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parall
A) EXPERIMENTAL DATA GATHERING
1. General Readings:
Pre Test Piezometer Reading

h1 =

947

mm

h2 =

910

mm

d1 =

mm

d2 =

mm

Dynamic Viscosity of fluid,

Ns/m2

2. Experimental Data
Piezometer Reading
(m)

Time (s)

Water Volume
Test
(liter)
Run 1

Run 2

h1

h2

113.95

114.06

0.935

0.885

45.49

45.63

0.835

0.825

23.71

23.49

0.825

0.855

15.42

15.72

0.855

0.845

13.39

13.31

0.84

0.89

Velocity,
v
(m/s)

Head loss,
hf
(m)

3. Standardization of Experimental Data

Test

Volume , V
(m3)

Average time, t
(s)

Flow,
Q
(m3/s)

0.005

1140005

4.385946E-009

0.05

0.005

45056

0.000000111

0.01

0.005

23.6

0.0002118644

-0.03

0.005

15.57

0.0003211304

0.01

0.005

13.35

0.0003745318

-0.05

h1 marked reading =

4. Calculation and tabulation (LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO SUDDEN CONTRACTION FROM PVC 32 X 1.8 TO P
(a)
Measurement Volume measured
No

(liters)

(b)

(a)/(b)

Time observed

(s)

(liters/s)

4. Sample of calculations (wherever required)

(m3/s)

v1=Q/A1

v2=Q/A2

(m/s)

(m/s)

on, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

m
m

h1 marked reading =

ROM PVC 32 X 1.8 TO PVC 20 X 1.5 PIPES)


(e)

(f)

(e) - (f)

equation 4

v2=Q/A2

h1

h2

h1 - h2

hl = (A2/A1-1)v22/2g

(m/s)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(m)

(m)

HYDRAULIC LABORATORY
EXPERIMENT H4 :
OBJECTIVE :

Grading: Collection of experimental data (C1)


Computation of collected data (C2)
Fluid Flow in Pipe System

To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in pa

A) EXPERIMENTAL DATA GATHERING


1. General Readings:
Pre Test Piezometer Reading

h1 =

940

mm

0.94

h2 =

890

mm

0.89

0.017

Test pipe internal material :

0.8

Test pipe expected value :

Test pipe internal diameter, d :


Test pipe length, L :
2. Experimental Data

Test
1

Run 1

h1 marked reading =

Piezometer Reading
(mm)

Time (s)

Water Volume
(liter)

Run 2

h1

h2

Flow,
Q
(m3/s)

Velocity,
v
(m/s)

Head loss,
hf
(m)

3. Standardization of Experimental Data

Test

Volume , V
(m3)

Average time,
t
(s)

1
2
3
4
5
4. Calculation and tabulation (LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO FRICTION IN PVC 20 X 1.5 PIPE)
Pipe length

Pipe inside
diameter

Area

m2

(a)

(b)

Measurement Volume measured


Time observed
No

(liters)

(s)

(a)/(b)

equation 5

Re

Type of Flow

Re = vD/

h2

(liters/s)

(m3/s)

(m/s)

(m)

62.47

0.08

0.00008

0.352

5295.575221

367

38.38

0.1303

0.00013

0.573

8620.353982

366

25.53

0.1958

0.0002

0.881

13253.9823

366

17.62

0.2838

0.00028

1.233

18549.55752

365

14.31

0.3494

0.00035

1.542

23198.23009

365

12.69

0.394

0.00039

1.718

25846.0177

360

10.56

0.4735

0.00047

2.07

31141.59292

360

5. Sample of calculations (wherever required)

/5
/ 10

w and pipe in parallel or series

94

89

m
PVC
0.0933597

mm

Blasius

(c)

(d)

(e)

equation 1

=0.356/Re0.25

h1

h2

h1-h2

hf = Lv2/2gD

(m)

(m)

(m)

(mm)

0.0417322416

377

367

0.01

0.012

0.0369461103

386

366

0.02

0.029

0.0331790083

406

366

0.04

0.062

0.0305046895

445

365

0.08

0.111

0.0288460456

485

365

0.12

0.165

0.0280770573

520

360

0.16

0.199

0.0267987657

590

360

0.23

0.275

HYDRAULIC LABORATORY

Grading: Collection of experimental data (C1)


Computation of collected data (C2)
EXPERIMENT H4 : Fluid Flow in Pipe System

/5
/ 10

OBJECTIVE : To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parall
A) EXPERIMENTAL DATA GATHERING
1. General Readings:
Pre Test Piezometer Reading

h1 =

mm

h2 =

mm

2. Experimental Data

Water Volume
Test
(liter)

Piezometer Reading
(mm)

Time (s)
Run 1

Run 2

h1

h2

Velocity,
v
(m/s)

Head loss,
hf
(m)

1
2
3
4
5
3. Standardization of Experimental Data

Test

Volume , V
(m3)

Average time,
t
(s)

Flow,
Q
(m3/s)

1
2
3
4
5
4. Sample of calculations (wherever required)
a) S.I. Conversion

h1 marked reading =

on, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

mm

HYDRAULIC LABORATORY

Grading: Collection of experimental data (C1)


Computation of collected data (C2)
EXPERIMENT H4 : Fluid Flow in Pipe System

/5
/ 10

OBJECTIVE : To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parall
A) EXPERIMENTAL DATA GATHERING
1. General Readings:
Pre Test Piezometer Reading

h1 =

920

mm

0.92

h2 =

870

mm

0.87

m
m

Test pipe internal material :


Test pipe expected value :

Test pipe internal diameter, d :


Test pipe length, L :

0.017
0.8

PVC
0.406638749

2. Experimental Data

1
2
3
4
5

Piezometer Reading
(m)

Time (s)

Water Volume
Test
(liter)
5
5
5
5
5

Run 1

Run 2

h1

h2

100.21
21.27
11.2
10.12
9.73

100.46
21.17
11.08
10.12
9.78

0.897
0.835
0.92
0.875
1

0.85
0.805
0.875
0.898
0.908

Velocity,
v
(m/s)
2.20E-01
1.04E+00
1.98E+00
2.18E+00
2.26E+00

Head loss,
hf
(m)
0.047
0.03
0.045
-0.023
0.092

3. Standardization of Experimental Data

Test

Volume , V
(m3)

1
2
3
4
5

0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005

Average time,
t
(s)
100.335
21.22
11.14
10.12
9.755

Flow,
Q
(m3/s)
4.98E-05
2.36E-04
4.49E-04
4.94E-04
5.13E-04

4. Sample of calculations (wherever required)


a) S.I. Conversion
h1

=
=

897mm/1000
0.897m

h2

=
=

850mm/1000
0.85mm

h1 marked reading =

b) Volumetric computation

c) Time computation

d) Flow computation

e) Velocity Computation

on, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

mm

HYDRAULIC LABORATORY

Grading: Analysis of computation and data presentation (C4)


Response to questions (C4)
EXPERIMENTFluid Flow in Pipe System

/ 10
/ 10

OBJECTIV
To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parallel or
D) DATA EVALUATION
1. Additional or Final Computation

2. Experimental Findings and Verifications of Objectives

3. Response to the Experimental Findings

4. Concluding the Experiment.

5. References.
1.

2.
3.

n parallel or series

ii) State the limitations in use of Darcy - Weisbach equation.


ii) State the factors affecting the value of the pipe friction coefficient .
ii) How friction factor value, , varies with the different diameter of pipes?
ii) How does the flow rate in a pipe affected by the pipe friction?

DISCUSSION
Through the experiment, the objective had been achieved and as follows:
o To determine the loss of head due to friction in incompressible flow in a horizontal pipe where from the experime
o To determine the friction factor of a pipe where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical c
o To determine the loss of head in sudden expansion and sudden contraction of pipe where from the experiment, t
o To determine the loss coefficient in sudden expansion and sudden contraction of pipe where from the experimen
o To determine the losses of energy (head losses) in different configuration of pipes where from the experiment, th
CONCLUSION
As a conclusion the experiment were successfully carried out, even though the data collected are varies with theoretic

The different between experiment data theoretically equation are mainly due to human and servicing factors such as:
a. Parallax error occur during captured the value of water level, h 1 and h2.

b. Bubble inside the pipe line was not properly flushed during bleeding.
The are no relative motion between the fluid particles. The only stress will be normal stress which is equal to the pres

RECOMMENDATION
There are a lot of possibilities for an experiment will having an error and as per discuss above. Therefore it is recommendat
a. Change to the new equipment and apparatus.
b. Built the platform when taking the parallax error.

CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, the experiment that have been carried out were successful, even though the
data collected are a little bit difference compared to the theoretical value. The difference
between the theoretical value and the actual value may mainly due to human and servicing
factors such as parallax error. This error occur during observer captured the value of the water
level, and . Besides that, it also may because there is bubble inside the pipe line. This is because
the bubble was not properly flushed during bleeding. There is no other relative motion between
the fluid particles. There is only stress that will be a normal stress which is equal to the pressure.
There are a lot of possibilities for the experiment will having an error. Therefore, the
recommendation to overcome the error is ensure that the position of the observers eye must be
90 perpendicular to the reading. Other than that, ensure that the bubble was fully removed
from the pipe line.

ipe where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical calculation is______.
____ while from theoretical calculation is______.
where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical calculation is______.
e where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical calculation is______.
where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical calculation is______.

cted are varies with theoretically equation because the different are minute and can be negligible.

and servicing factors such as:

ess which is equal to the pressure.

Therefore it is recommendation are as follows:

en though the
difference
nd servicing
ue of the water
e. This is because
motion between
al to the pressure.
e, the
ers eye must be
ully removed