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Solar Photovoltaics:

Conversion of Light Energy to Electricity


is termed as Photovoltaics

About the Technology:


The Photovoltaic technology has been
operational for the past 60 years.
Initially, only the space industry made
use of it. However, with reduction in price
of photovoltaic panels and realisation of
its importance of mankind several
hundreds of MWs of solar panels have
already been installed over the period of
last 30 years. The technology is highly
mature and is extremely reliable. The life
of photovoltaic panels is to the tune of
many decades and most of the panels
come with a performance warranty of 25
years.

About SUNPOSSIBLE:
SUNPOSSIBLE is a brand dedicated to
making it possible for people to use solar
energy in their day to day activities. We
do it through various products like
SOLAR POWER PACKS and SOLAR
WATER PUMPING. We also provide
technology consultancy, engineering and
design for Solar Photovoltaic Power
Plants and Building Integrated
Photovoltaic Projects

Contact Us:
Varun Sarwate
Email: varun.sarwate@sunpossible.in
Mobile: +91 9951971777

Bore Well Solar Pumps


as well as Surface
Mounted Solar Pumps
are available

Without Battery!
Without Hassle!!
Directly coupled to
solar panels
Works throughout the
day
Dry Run Protection
Positive Displacement
Helical Rotor Pumps
Most suitable for solar
operation
Pumping Head up to
150 meter
Flow Rate up to 100 m3
per day

Contact Us:
Contact Person: Varun Sarwate
Head Office:
Flow Technics, 47-9-31, 3rd Lane
Dwarkanagar, Visakhapatnam 530016
Fax: +91 891 2704131
Off: +91-891-2543704/2531535
Branch office:
1/3, 1st Floor, Plot No. 57,
Laxmi Nagar Colony, Wellington Road,
Picket, Hyderabad 500026
Mobile: +91 9951971777

A solar water pumping system is essentially an electrically driven


pumping system. Electricity, in this instance, is produced by the
sunlight energising photovoltaic (solar) modules. These systems
are without batteries and very long lasting
A solar water pumping system is an ideal replacement to diesel
operated agriculture pumps, hand pumps and electrical pumps for
drinking water/agriculture. Because solar energy varies from one
location to another, and over the course of a day, system design is
important. Adequate water storage ensures that water is available
whenever needed, and balances daily variations in water supply
and demand. Thus a small pump only running when the sun shines,
plus water storage, can provide the average requirement for water
supply.

Typical Performance of the water Pumps for Indian Conditions

Typical Performance
Solar Insolation 5.5 Kwh/m 2 (Average Indian Condition) | Stationary Array
100

Total Water Pumped ('000 liters)/day)

90
80
70

150 Wp
300 Wp

60

600 Wp
900 Wp

50

1200 Wp
40

1800 Wp
2400 Wp

30
20
10
0
10

30

50

60

80

100

Total Pumping Head (in meters)

120

150

Water pumped (in 000 litres per day)


150Wp

300Wp

600Wp

900Wp

1200Wp

1800Wp

2400Wp

10 m

7.5

18.7

37.1

54.5

70.9

87.5

94.6

30 m

3.6

7.8

15.1

26.5

35.6

50.9

57.8

50 m

2.3

5.0

9.6

14.2

21.1

34.1

45.6

60 m

4.3

8.0

12.3

16.6

27.0

38.1

80 m

3.1

5.9

8.7

12.3

18.5

21.2

100 m

4.4

5.4

8.6

14.7

18.3

120 m

3.0

4.8

5.2

10.5

15.1

2.9

3.9

5.0

9.2

150 m

Solar Water Pumping System


Pumping water is a sensible and effective use of solar electric power.
Generally water requirements are highest during the summer. It is during the
summer when the days are longer and there is a better solar radiation which
makes a solar pump a reliable water source for the farm or any other consumption.
Wind power, by comparison, can be inconsistent, and may not be available during
the maximum demand period. Wind may be too unreliable for water pumping when
a relatively constant supply is required, as for stock watering.

A solar water pumping system is basically an electrically driven pumping


system. Electricity, in this case, is produced by the sunlight energising photovoltaic
(solar) modules. The typical solar cell is a thin wafer of silicon that transforms light
energy into electrical energy. The cells are encapsulated in flat modules to protect
them from the weather. Any number of modules can be connected together to form
an array. The array is sized to meet a pumping systems power requirements.

A solar pumping system is available for almost all applications where an


electric pump can be used. Because solar energy varies from one location to
another, and over the course of a day, system design is important. Adequate water
storage ensures that water is available whenever needed, and balances daily
variations in water supply and demand. Thus a small pump only running when the
sun shines, plus water storage, can provide the average requirement for water
supply.

For the best electrical and mechanical performance, all components of the
solar pumping system must be carefully matched. Correct sizing of the pump, motor
and controlling devices, will allow the system to operate at the highest efficiency to
ensure economical water pumping.

Advantages of Solar Water Pumping


1. Solar pumping uses a free, easily accessible and renewable source of energy.
Power / Fuel bills are eliminated.

2. With solar pumping maintenance costs are minimised. Solar modules are
strong, robust and encapsulated into toughened glass in a sturdy, aluminium
frame that will last even in harsh environmental conditions.

3. Using solar allows opportunities for livestock, vegetables, trees and other
crop production to be developed in areas where other forms of pumping are
impractical.
4. Solar water pumping systems are reliable. Solar systems are immune to
failure on hot and windless days where wind powered pumps will not operate
5. Solar water pumps perform at their best and provide water throughout
summer months when demand is greatest.
6. Solar water pumping systems needed very less supervision. They can work
unattended for the complete day as they start and stop automatically in
synchronous with the sun.
7. Solar pumps, specifically positive displacement helical rotor solar pumps,
operate even during cloudy times or times with no direct sunlight.
8. Solar water pumping systems can be designed to be transported for use at
a number of sites. This can eliminate the need for multiple pumping units.
9. Solar modules have no moving parts and carry a performance warranty of
more than 20 years in most of the cases.

Economics of Solar Water Pumping


The choice of solar water pumping for remote locations is an excellent and
a natural choice due to the economic and technical feasibility as well as its
reliability. Solar pump users include the cattle ranchers in the Western U.S., Canada,
Mexico and Australia. They have water sources spread over many miles of
rangeland where power lines are few and re-fuelling and maintenance costs are
substantial in case of diesel pump sets. A number of Rural Electric Co-Operatives
across the U.S have confirmed to the fact that solar pumps are economically
feasible if the water source is anything more than about 600 meters from the
conventional power grid line. Such Co-Ops are strong supporters of solar pumps.
For a large and diverse country like India, where there is a sever power crisis in
many pockets, solar water pumping is a highly effective and feasible solution. A
solar pump minimizes future costs and uncertainties. The fuel is free. Moving parts
are reduced to as few as one. A few spare parts can assure you many years of
reliable water supply at near-zero operating costs.

Disadvantages of Battery Powered Solar Water Pumping Systems


The use of batteries in solar pumping has a number of disadvantages like:
1. Reduction in overall system efficiency
2. Batteries require additional maintenance as well as charging circuitry
which adds to the cost and complexity of a given system
3. Solar water pumps are often installed in places which are not very
accessible ; Hence, the system should be of a fit and forget configuration
Battery Banks make the system vulnerable to performance and less
reliable in such locations
4. The output of the solar panels is governed by the battery voltage and
hence, the panel does not work at its maximum possible power point
which is not the correct way to use solar panels
For these reasons, only about five percent of solar pumping systems employ
a battery bank.

Advantages of Positive Displacement Pump over Centrifugal Pump for solar powered
operation
Positive Displacement Pumps

Multistage Centrifugal Pumps

Pump will slow down when it is cloudy, It starts at low torque (has a minimum
but because it has no minimum speed speed requirement) and stops delivering
(unlike a centrifugal pump) it will keep water below a certain level of solar
pumping; Hence, it will keep delivering radiation
water for a longer duration in the day
Has the best efficiency and the smallest Not

as

PV panel for the same specs of water displacement


delivery volume pressure and head

efficient
pumps

as
using

positive
cheap

electronic load controllers and hence,


requires a larger PV panel

The pump is made up a metal helical Suitable for smaller heads


rotor which rotates in a rubber casing.
Suitable for larger heads
Low rotational speeds and hence have a Higher
longer life

rotational

speeds

more prone to maintenance

and

hence

Comparison of Solar Pumping with other Pumping Technologies


Pump Type
Hand Pumps

Advantages

Disadvantages

Local manufacture is

Loss of human productivity

possible

Often an inefficient use of

Easy to maintain

boreholes

Low capital cost

Low flow rates and hence

No fuel costs

Not possible to connect to


piping systems

Wind Pumps

Unattended operation

Suited to local
manufacture

Not suitable for agriculture

Water storage is required for


low wind periods

No fuel requirements

High system design and project


planning needs

Not easy to install

Prone to wear and tear as


wind generators involve rotating
part

Solar PV

Unattended operation

High capital costs

Zero running costs

Water storage is required for

No fuel costs

Low maintenance

Very easy installation

Easy to operate

Most reliable among

cloudy periods

renewable energy
powered pumping
systems

No Noise; No Pollution

Portable systems can be


designed

long life (20 year)

Diesel and

Quick and easy to install

Gasoline

Low capital costs

Pumps

Can be portable

Fuel supplies erratic and


expensive

Very high maintenance costs

Short life expectancy

Noise and fume pollution