You are on page 1of 11

2600-00FEWHGAA

Ver. 1.0
ANNEX A. GPS Antenna Installation

ANNEX A. GPS Antenna Installation

A.1 GPS Antenna System Configuration


The GPS antenna system is commonly configured with a GPS antenna, a line amplifier,
and a lightening arrestor etc. as shown below.

GPS Antenna
LMR-400
SMA Male Connector
RG-316D Cable

N-Male Connector
(for LMR-400)
Line Amplifier (N-F to N-F)
N-Male Connector
(for LMR-400)

RG-316D Cable (< 3 m)

N-Male Connector (for RG-316D)


GPS Arrestor (N-Femal to N-Female)
N-Male Connector (for LMR-400)

GPS Cable (LMR-400, Arrestor~Amplifier)

Figure A.1 Example of Common GPS Antenna System Configuration

To meet the GPS specifications and operate the GPS antenna in a stable manner, the
following GPS antenna configuration and installation requirements must be met.

2600-00FEWHGAA

Ver. 1.0
ANNEX A. GPS Antenna Installation

A.1.1 GPS Antenna


Installation Requirements for GPS Antenna
GPS antenna should be installed where can maximize the view of the open sky.
Location with no obstacles above the 10 (Elevation Angle) from the horizon is the best
installation condition, and this allows best performance of GPS receiver by interworking
with GPS satellite in the best arrangement.

Figure A.2 Elevation Mask and Satellites

From the viewpoint of the signal strength, there is no need to install GPS antenna on the
high mast or other tower as is required in RF or microwave. It can be installed in any place
with no obstacles for GPS antenna to receive the signal or where can be protected from
external interference, even though on the ground. However, as GPS antenna malfunction is
minimized with no reflected satellite signal (multi-path interference), it is recommended to
minimize entering of reflected satellite signal into the top of the GPS antenna.
Therefore, the ideal position of GPS antenna can be said where is higher than the other
neighboring RF sending/receiving antenna (including steel structures for this) and the
structures which can trigger multi-path.

Actions against External Interference and Multi-path Influences


If the GPS antenna is installed at a location where external interferences or multipath influences exist, it is best to relocate the antenna. If it is impossible to
relocate the antenna, it is recommended to install the anti-jamming GPS antenna.

2600-00FEWHGAA

Ver. 1.0
ANNEX A. GPS Antenna Installation

Considerations for Elevation Mask


Considering the elevation mask, make the GPS antenna take the signals received
at a valid elevation angle only.

Table A.1

GPS Antenna Requirements (Interface Specifications) for Correct Operation of the


GPS Receiver
Parameters

Specifications

Frequency Band

L1 (1575.42 MHz) 10 MHz (Typ.)

Impedance

50 ohm

Out-of Band Signal Attenuation

60 dB (Typ.) at L1 50 MHz

Internal LNA

35~45 dB (Typ. 38 dB)

Noise Figure

< 2.2 dB (1.8 dB Typ.)

VSWR

< 2.5 (1.5 Typ.)

DC Power

5 0.5 VDC, 20~30 mA

GPS Antenna Sharing


For proper operation of GPS antenna, it is recommended to use one GPS antenna per GPS
receiver. But, GPS private splitter can be used just in case it is impossible.
Installing the GPS Antenna
The signal from GPS satellite has the very low signal level (-130 dBm). Thus, GPS antenna
to receive this signal should be placed where can receive the signal directly from as many
satellites as possible.
GPS antenna should be installed at the fullest possible view of the open sky (360 degrees at
an angle of view against the horizon, 160 degrees or more above the horizon), the high
place as possible, such as a roof. The place with structures that interfere with satellite
signals at an angle of view might worse the function and the performance of GPS receiver.
GPS satellites, always at least 8 of them are positioned in any place around the world with
no obstacles, so that it can be always tracked by GPS system. At least 4 GPS satellites must
be tracked in a good condition (with no obstacles on the horizon between satellite and GPS
antenna) for the performance of GPS receiver.
If it is after position hold, at least 1 or more GPS satellite must be tracked in a stable
condition.

2600-00FEWHGAA

Ver. 1.0
ANNEX A. GPS Antenna Installation

GPS Satellite Tracking and Position Hold


- The survey of an objects position using GPS satellites is based on triangulation.
Three satellites are enough to survey the position of an object by triangulation.
However, to calculate the correct time deviation, a total of four satellites are
required.
- When four or more GPS satellites can be tracked continually, the GPS receiver
can finish the position survey for an object and hold its position after about forty
minutes.

Usually, the GPS antenna is installed in a high place, such as on a roof. It must be installed
away from protruding objects, such as trees or buildings.
In addition, it must be positioned away from any object which covers part of the sky
around the horizon of the building where it is installed. If it is impossible to ensure a
completely open sky, install the GPS antenna toward the equator where can maximize the
view of the Southern sky (Northern sky in the Southern hemisphere).
Furthermore, in case of installing the GPS antenna into the steel cylinder structure sharing
with other RF antenna, it should be more than 1m away from the steel structure.

Preferred
Position

Obstructed
Position

Improved
Visibility

Towards
Equator

Figure A.3 GPS Antenna Installation

A.1.2 Lightening Arrestor


Lightening arrestor is needed when there is a threat of strike of antenna, cable, or related
components. To protect equipments and people in the building and the station, it is essential
to install Lightening arrestor inside the building or to the entrance of the building or the
station where antenna cable or the associated cables are entering.
In the event of direct strike on the lightening arrestor, replacing antenna and cable is
required. Lightening arrestor requires periodic inspection, and especially in areas with
frequent strike, it is important to replace antenna and cable to ensure safety.
The lightning arrestor must be well grounded for quick transmission of large current.

2600-00FEWHGAA

Ver. 1.0
ANNEX A. GPS Antenna Installation

A.2 Interference Signal


GPS system is designed noise tolerant and resistant to interference.
SAMSUNG GPS receiver provides timing of good quality in most circumstances, but to
ensure uninterrupted timing performance and successful locking of GPS receiver, the
environment with no interference on the GPS L1 frequency (1575.42 1 MHz) is required.
Interference Types
There are two types of interference signals that gives affect on the GPS L1 frequency.

Narrow band (inband) interference


The case that interference signal (frequency deviation 3.5 kHz) such as FM waves
around GPS L1 frequency (1575.42 MHz) enter is called narrow band (in-band)
interference. Narrow band interference is monitored through spectrum analyzer, but
due to timing variables, alarm such as locking fail might occur in case narrow band
interference enters.

Wideband interference
The interference waves that exceed 7 kHz in frequency occupancy bandwidth around
GPS L1 frequency (1575.42 MHz) are called wide band interference.
Wideband interference includes the interference induced by the harmonics from a
communication service with a different frequency bandwidth, increased thermal noise
from communication services around the L1 band, inflow of interference due to
unauthorized communication, saturation due to oscillation of an accessory device etc.
In above cases, as it cannot be monitored through spectrum analyzer, individual
experts suggestion is required.

For other bandwidths except GPS L1 frequency (1575.42 1 MHz), a GPS Band Pass
Filter (BPF) must be included within the GPS antenna to remove the interference from the
GPS bandwidth. No outband interference must affect the GPS signals.
Interference Signal Avoidance
If multiple set of antenna for other communication services, such as BTS antenna, satellite
communication antenna, are installed in the surroundings, it is essential to choose the
location with no entering of interference signals to install GPS antenna.
If interference wave exists within the bandwidth out of GPS L1 frequency (1575.42 1 MHz),
use BPF to block entering of interference wave.
Particularly, installing GPS antenna besides the transmitter that operates in the bandwidth
similar to GPS L1 frequency (Be careful because similar bandwidth is triggered due to
harmonic) increases potential interference. At this time, GPS antenna should be installed
toward the other directions (or places) where can minimize the strength of interference
signals or avoid the interference signals.

2600-00FEWHGAA

Ver. 1.0
ANNEX A. GPS Antenna Installation

Inband Noise
Inband noise includes narrow band noise and wide band noise that occur in an
inband width. (L1, 1575.42 1 MHz)
- Narrow band noise in an inband width: If it is higher than 108 dBm it can affect
the operation of the GPS receiver.
- Wideband noise in an inband width: It may not be detected by a measuring
instrument and impair the sensitivity of the GPS receiver, and thus affect its
operation.

In case out-band interference is the problems, the interference on the GPS receiver can be
reduced by applying one or more L1 GPS BPF available.
Filter should be installed at the following locations:

Input connector of Samsung GPS receiver

Behind the antenna or front end of the line amplifier

Filters above is for jamming tone rejection of out-band, and it is very serious in actual
situation of entering in-band interference to in-band.

2600-00FEWHGAA

Ver. 1.0
ANNEX A. GPS Antenna Installation

A.3 GPS Antenna Installation


The GPS antenna can be fixed to a wall, floor, tower, pole, etc.
Ensure you are safe when fixing an anchor bolt to a wall and treat the anchor bolt fixing
area with a silicon or waterproof finishing material.
Wall
GPS Antenna
GPS Antenna Clamp
Bakelite

GPS Antenna Wall Fixing Pipe ( 25.4 mm)

Min. 500 mm

GPS Antenna
Wall Fixing Clamp Assembly

Figure A.4 GPS Antenna Installation (Wall)

2600-00FEWHGAA

Ver. 1.0
ANNEX A. GPS Antenna Installation

Floor
GPS Antenna
GPS Antenna Clamp
Bakelite

GPS Antenna Floor Fixing Pipe ( 25.4 mm)

M10 Anchor Bolt Assembly

Min. 500 mm

Min. 250 mm

Concrete Block

Min. 400 mm

Figure A.5 GPS Antenna Installation (Floor)

Installing the Concrete Block


A concrete block should be installed that satisfies the specification regarding size and
strength. When installing the concrete block, and before forming the concrete, steel
reinforcement bars should be arranged in a mesh layout at 100 mm intervals before
forming the concrete. (Either an anchor bolt assembly or a basis anchor can be used.)

2600-00FEWHGAA

Ver. 1.0
ANNEX A. GPS Antenna Installation

Tower Platform (A-type)


GPS Antenna
GPS Antenna Clamp
Bakelite

GPS Antenna Tower Fixing Pipe ( 25.4 mm)

GPS Antenna Tower Clamp Assembly

Figure A.6 GPS Antenna Installation (Tower Platform-A type)

Check possibility of tower platform fixation


Various forms (angle, pipe, rectangular pipe, etc) are used for tower platform, so
understanding structure of platform and searching for the way to fix are required
before installing antenna fixing pipe, and then discussion with construction
supervisor is recommended.

2600-00FEWHGAA

Ver. 1.0
ANNEX A. GPS Antenna Installation

Tower Platform Fixation (B-type)


If making a hole at the top/bottom of the tower platform angle is possible, it can be
installed in the following way.

GPS Antenna

GPS Antenna Clamp

Bakelite

GPS Antenna Tower Fixing Pipe ( 25.4 mm)

M12 U-Bolt Set.

Figure A.7 GPS Antenna Installation (Tower Platform-B type)

Check possibility of tower platform fixation


Various forms (angle, pipe, rectangular pipe, etc) are used for tower platform, so
understanding structure of platform and searching for the way to fix are required
before installing antenna fixing pipe, and then discussion with construction
supervisor is recommended.

2600-00FEWHGAA

Ver. 1.0
ANNEX A. GPS Antenna Installation

Pole

RF Antenna Fixing Pipe ( 76.3~90 mm)


GPS Antenna

Bakelite

GPS Antenna
Fixing Pipe
( 25.4 mm)

GPS Antenna Pole Fixing Assembly

Figure A.8 GPS Antenna Installation (Pole)

Check GPS antenna fixing pole specification


To fix the GPS antenna pole fixing set, the diameter of fixing part pole must be within
70~90 mm, and individual materials should be prepared in case of the pole out of
the specification.